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«Bachelor’s Thesis Information Technology May 2010 DESCRIPTION Date of the bachelor's thesis May 24, 2010 Author(s) Degree programme and option ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Vadym Samosuyev

BLUETOOTH LOW ENERGY

COMPARED TO ZIGBEE AND

BLUETOOTH CLASSIC

Bachelor’s Thesis

Information Technology

May 2010

DESCRIPTION

Date of the bachelor's thesis

May 24, 2010

Author(s) Degree programme and option

Vadym Samosuyev Information Technology Name of the bachelor's thesis Bluetooth Low Energy compared to ZigBee and Bluetooth Classic.

Abstract The thesis work is based on theoretical research and comparative analysis of the most remarkable short range wireless technologies as Bluetooth and ZigBee standards.

Nowadays two competitive technical standards approached a strategic aim. They both integrated customer’s technical needs to have reliable, secure, low consumption and low cost technologies for controlling and monitoring applications with low data rate communication. Both technologies can be applied to serve a big variety of customer’s needs and can be used in industrial sphere activity as well as individual.

Implementing the effective low energy consumption approach, devices demonstrate their operation on a single battery without charging for more then a year. They are almost similar to each other in the way of providing low power consumption. What technology provides the best lowest power consumption, Bluetooth or ZigBee? There is no certain answer. Consumers have to be more specific in technical aspects when they choose an appropriate technology. And understanding of the technical design would help to figure out which one of the technologies fits better for a wireless network area.

In the near future, the current Bluetooth Low Energy standard will be the most needed as a standard is allowing both single and dual modes. This is an intermediate technology placed to support classic and new standard wireless devices in short-range wireless network.

Subject headings, (keywords) Short-range, wireless technology, IEEE 802, Bluetooth Classic, Bluetooth Low Energy, ZigBee Pages Language URN NBN:fi:amk-2010060111115 50 English Remarks, notes on appendices Tutor Employer of the bachelor's thesis Osmo Ojamies

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction to short-range wireless technology

1.1.1 Infrared

1.1.2 ZigBee

1.1.3 Ultra Wide Band

1.1.4 Wireless USB

1.2 Standard IEEE 802.15

1.2.1 Standard groups

1.3 Summary of technologies

2 INTRODUCTION TO BLUETOOTH

2.1 About the Bluetooth SIG

2.2 Bluetooth wireless technology

2.3 Radio Frequency hopping

2.4 Transmission protocols

2.4.1 Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

2.4.2 Direct spread spectrum

2.5 Time Division Duplex

2.6 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

2.7 GFSK modulation

2.7.1 Modulation characteristics

2.8 Bluetooth network topology

2.9 IEEE 802.15.1 protocols

2.9.1 Bluetooth protocol architecture

3 ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY

3.1 Inroduction to ZigBee

3.2 Technology overview

3.3 Network topology

3.4 The IEEE 802.15 standard

3.5 ZigBee Layerd Model

3.5.1 PHY layer

3.5.2 MAC layer

3.5.3 MAC frame structure

3.5.4 Beacon frame format

3.6 Superframe structure

3.7 ZigBee main modes

3.8 Device Association and Disassociation

3.9 CDMA-CA

3.10 BPSK versus O-QPSK

3.10.1 Binary Phase Shift Keying

3.10.2 Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

3.11 Typical Applications

4 BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGIES VERSUS ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY............... 40

4.1 Introduction to Bluetooth Low Energy

4.2 Enhanced Bluetooth standard

4.3 Bluetooth LE consumption

4.4 Overview of LL states

4.5 Network topology

4.6 Compared technical details

5 CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 INTRODUCTION

At the dawn of the computer era people gave a birth to a new phenomenon of method of data exchanging in computer network. This is just a miracle of technology allowing two computers to exchange their data without wires. As we know, all wires and cables make a tangled mess. Since cables are no longer required we can transfer digital data more often. The modern market has a big variety of short length wireless technologies.

In the world where communication networks become more complicated, there are more needs to use wireless connectivity between electronic devices instead of wires.

Bluetooth is a short-range wireless standard that allows connecting big variety of electronic devices together wirelessly. Especially the last Bluetooth Low Energy technology has remarkable an improvement so that theoretically it can connect endless number of devices. Nowadays the standard is very handy for users and can be found almost everywhere in a small environment like in your office, at home or even in your car. As many of us already have found useful the Bluetooth standard is very essential and convenient wireless technology to connect headsets, mobile phones, keyboards, computers etc.





It’s already more than over ten years since first Bluetooth specification was officially realised. In nowadays the most of consumers and manufactures prefer the Bluetooth technologies more than others. There are many reasons, benefits for users to use the Bluetooth Technologies. Bluetooth is really quite simple and easy to use. It wouldn’t be so popular if it wasn’t easy to use. Many people believe that there is remarkable future for Bluetooth technology.

The wireless network technology is used in many purposes, has a variety of implementations in communication with mobile phone or computers.

In my diploma work I introduce classic Bluetooth technology compared to the last Bluetooth Low Energy technology and ZigBee lower consumption based solution.

The structure of study is as follows. The thesis is focusing on the unique characteristics of wireless networks. In Chapter 1 is an introduction, representing the basic understanding related to short-range wireless networks, and briefly describes their basic types.

In the Chapter 2, some background for the thesis is provided. In addition, some of the main characteristics of Bluetooth and wireless networks are given in the thesis.

In Chapter 3 describes the most interesting features of ZigBee standard. As well network protocols and interconnections between devices in a personal area network. In Chapter 4, the comparison between Bluetooth Classic and new standard Bluetooth low Energy is introduced.

1.1 Introduction to short-range wireless technology 1.1.1 Infrared Infrared technology is the one of the most mature technologies. It has become extremely popular as an infrared data transmission technique for home computers, input devices like wireless keyboards and mice. Nowadays many computers come with IrDA ports which allow data to be transferred from another computer or mobile phones. They can exchange information with any computer or use a printer without any cable connection. Embedded LED is a light electronic component, emitting infrared wavelengths with very high brightness which have very narrow transmit beam.

The element plays the most important role in transmitting process. In the simplest link of point-to-point data transmitting, most of the infrared light is directed from a source LED or semiconductor laser diode LD to photodiode which is called a detector. A transmitter converts an electrical signal to an optical signal. After captured optical light, detector converts optical power into electrical current. [URL2] Some certain technical features precisely describe infrared technology. The best advantage is capability to carry a high bandwidth 4Mbit/s. Moreover a last infrared version supports data transmission between devices up to 16 Mbit/s. The high speed of the transmission is achieved using a protocol Very Fast Infrared (VFIR). From another point of view the main disadvantage is a nature of infrared energy. It is form of light which can be easily blocked and light can not pass through solid objects. [URL3] Figure1 shows an electromagnetic spectrum for infrared signal. Infrared wavelength spectrum of the signal starts at the end of the microwave band and ends at the beginning of visible light. The work interval of infrared wavelength is defined from 750nm to 1 mm. [URL1]

–  –  –

1.1.2 ZigBee An interactive standard ZigBee was developed for applications that required a low data rate wireless networking, low battery power consumed and low running costs.

However, the standard provides great flexibility compared to the other network types, with reliable and secure communication.

Most of modern wireless communications were developed as specially to meet the highest technical characteristics in order to achieve higher data transmission along with longer work distance. In fact such elements as sensors and controls of an active network don’t really need to have high bandwidth but they definitely need very low battery consumption in order to save a battery power. A ZigBee 802.15.4 network is designed to communicate at 1 mW of radio frequency power. It is the standard technology which is addressed to applications like remote monitoring, control and sensor network functions for short distance communication. [URL5]

1.1.3 Ultra Wide Band

UWB is a wireless radio technology for transmitting data between consumer electronics, PC peripherals, and mobile devices within short range at very high speeds, while consuming little power. It is ideally suited for wireless transfer of high-quality multimedia content, such as wirelessly streaming family videos from the digital video recorder to a high-definition television in the living room.

UWB technology uses a wide band of the radio frequency spectrum to transmit data within a short range (such as in the home or small office), allowing for greater amounts of data to be wirelessly transmitted in a given period of time than more traditional wireless technologies. [URL6] This is the next generation wireless connection. A difference between traditional radio transmission and UWB radio transmission is that traditional systems transmit by changing the power level, frequency and phase of sinusoidal wave. UWB transmission transmits data by generating radio energy at specific time instant moments and occupying large bandwidth by using a large part of radio band. Ultra Wide Band technology include systems are using signals with a bandwidth of 500 MHz. Wideband (UWB) signals are very short pulses and duration of such signals is less than a few units of nanoseconds. [URL7]

1.1.4 Wireless USB

Wireless USB is a high-speed wireless interconnect application that take advantage over UWB technology. The Wireless USB technology has many advantages compared to other wireless technologies. It also takes all benefits to provide the same usage and architecture as wired USB.

The Wireless USB Promoter Group, of which Intel is a leading member, is defining the wireless USB specification as a high-speed bidirectional connection. [URL8]

–  –  –

1.2 Standard IEEE 802.15 Working Group IEEE 802.15 is developing 802.15 standards for wireless personal networks (PAN) and coordinating them with other group of standards, such as the

802.11 standard for wireless local area network.

1.2.1 Standard groups

Working Group IEEE 802.15 has series of the following groups such as:

802.15.1. Working Group 1 specifies standards for wireless personal area network, is originally based on the use of the Bluetooth version 1.1. The basis of this technology is spread-spectrum frequency hopping (FHSS), speed does not exceed 1 Mbps.

802.15.2. The team responsible for the development of this standard, the Working Group 2, gives practical advice to facilitate the coexistence of networks standards

802.15 and 802.11. The problem is that both networks operate in the same range of 2.4 GHz, therefore coordination between their work is vital. The Group assesses the potential interference and suggests methods to counteract them.

802.15.3. Working Group 3 is working on new standards for high-speed wireless personal networks. Data rate may be varied from for data transmission is 11 up to 55 Mbps. Along with this elevated rate of transfer standard gives effect on the mechanisms to guarantee communication quality of service (QoS) which makes the standard a good basis for the work of multimedia applications such as television and digital cameras. This group is also concentrating to reduce lower cost and power consumption.

802.15.4. Working Group 4 is working on standards providing a low data rate, but at extremely low power consumption for small devices designed to work without replacing the battery for months and even during years. Objects for the application of this technology can be all sorts of sensors, "smart" identification badges and the system of home automation but it does not support voice communication operating at 2.4 GHz Data transfer rate is 20, 40 and 250 kbps. [URL63]

1.3 Summary of technologies

The following Table 1 gives a main comparison to the low power wireless technologies presented below. Bluetooth wireless takes a first place in the short comparison. Definitely, in future design development with its major price advantage there is no doubt that Bluetooth LE will keep the top position over the wireless technology of the others. Since there are not so many developments are done in the area of wireless communication, so Bluetooth can pretend to monopolize the wireless network on short range with the new low power technology is implemented into devices. And it is just only a matter of time when the technology becomes as a popular technology.

Table 1. Short-range Wireless Technologies

–  –  –



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