«The English Indices of Deprivation Statistical Release 30 September 2015 About this release Introduction 2 This release updates the English ...»
The English Indices of Deprivation
30 September 2015
About this release
This release updates the English Indices of Deprivation
The English Indices of Deprivation measure relative levels
of deprivation in 32,844 small areas or neighbourhoods,
and reports 24
called Lower-layer Super Output Areas, in England
Most of the indicators used for these statistics are from Definitions 25 2012/13 Technical notes 29 Key Results The majority (83 per cent) of neighbourhoods that are the Enquiries 37 most deprived according to the 2015 Index of Multiple Deprivation were also the most deprived according to the 2010 Index 61 per cent of local authority districts contain at least one of the most deprived neighbourhoods in England Middlesbrough, Knowsley, Kingston upon Hull, Liverpool and Manchester are the local authorities with the highest proportions of neighbourhoods among the most deprived in England The 20 most deprived local authorities are largely the same as found for the 2010 Index, but the London
Boroughs of Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Newham and Baljit Gill Haringey have become relatively less deprived and no
longer feature in this list office hours 0303 444 0033 indices.deprivation@communiti Seven of the 10 local authority districts with the highest es.gsi.gov.uk levels of income deprivation among older people are in
London. Tower Hamlets is the most deprived district with regard to income deprivation among both children and firstname.lastname@example.org older people.
ov.uk Introduction Since the 1970s the Department for Communities and Local Government and its predecessors have calculated local measures of deprivation in England. This Statistical Release contains the latest version of these statistics, the English Indices of Deprivation 2015 which update the 2010 Indices. It is important to note that these statistics are a measure of relative deprivation, not affluence, and to recognise that not every person in a highly deprived area will themselves be deprived. Likewise, there will be some deprived people living in the least deprived areas.
This statistical release provides an overview of the findings of the English Indices of Deprivation 2015 focussing on the national and sub-national patterns of multiple deprivation, with some analysis of patterns in income and employment deprivation. A full Research Report, Technical Report and guidance documents accompany the release of these statistics along with a series of supporting data tables. The Research Report contains more detailed analysis of the individual domains that contribute to multiple deprivation.
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are based on 37 separate indicators, organised across seven distinct domains1 of deprivation which are combined, using appropriate weights, to calculate the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 (IMD 2015).
This is an overall measure of multiple deprivation experienced by people living in an area and is calculated for every Lower layer Super Output Area (LSOA), or neighbourhood, in England. Every such neighbourhood in England is ranked according to its level of deprivation relative to that of other areas.
The analysis presented in this Statistical Release focuses mainly on the 10 per cent of neighbourhoods that are most deprived nationally according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation. For ease, these neighbourhoods are referred to interchangeably in the following commentary as the ‘most deprived’ or as being ‘highly deprived’. But there is no definitive threshold above which an area is described as ‘deprived’ or ‘highly deprived’; the Indices of Deprivation are a continuous scale of deprivation. Users often take the most deprived 10 per cent or 20 per cent of neighbourhoods (or local authority districts) as the group of highly deprived areas, but other thresholds can be used. Wider analysis, using different cutoff points or summary measures for describing deprivation, is presented in the accompanying Research Report.
These are Income Deprivation; Employment Deprivation; Health Deprivation and Disability; Education, Skills and Training Deprivation; Crime; Barriers to Housing and Services; and Living Environment Deprivation. Details of these domains and the indicators used to calculate them can be found in the Definitions section of this release.
2 The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Findings National Distribution of Deprivation The patterns of deprivation across England are complex. The most and least deprived neighbourhoods are spread throughout England. Map 1 illustrates the geographical spread of deprivation across England, showing local authority district boundaries for context. The 32,844 neighbourhoods have been divided according to their deprivation rank into 10 equal groups (deciles). Areas shaded dark blue are the most deprived 10 per cent (or decile) of neighbourhoods in England while areas shaded bright yellow are the least deprived 10 per cent.
As was the case in previous versions of the Indices, there are concentrations of deprivation in large urban conurbations, areas that have historically had large heavy industry, manufacturing and/or mining sectors, coastal towns, and large parts of east London. There are also pockets of deprivation surrounded by less deprived places in every region of England.
The most deprived neighbourhood in England is to the east of the Jaywick area of Clacton on Sea (Tendring 018a), and this was also the most deprived neighbourhood according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010. But the Index of Multiple Deprivation is not intended for the purpose of identifying the single most deprived area in England. The Index ranks all 32,844 neighbourhoods and allows users to identify the set of neighbourhoods that are most deprived, and differences between areas in their actual levels of deprivation may be very small.
Contains OS data © Crown copyright (2015) 4 The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release According to the overall Index of Multiple Deprivation many of the most deprived neighbourhoods in England face multiple issues. Almost all of them (99 per cent) are highly deprived (i.e. in the most deprived decile) on at least two of the seven domains of deprivation. Nearly two-thirds (64 per cent) of them are highly deprived on four or more domains, and over a quarter (27 per cent) are highly deprived on five or more of the seven domains.
Of the 3,284 most deprived neighbourhoods in England, 162 rank as highly deprived on six or all seven domains. These neighbourhoods are not evenly distributed across England: 114, or 70 per cent of them, are located within just 12 local authority districts. Birmingham contains 26 such neighbourhoods; Blackpool, 15; Leeds, 14;
Bradford, 13; and Liverpool, 11. Blackpool, Barrow in Furness, and Burnley have proportionately more neighbourhoods ranked as highly deprived on six or all seven domains: 16 per cent of all 94 neighbourhoods in Blackpool met this criterion, as did 10 per cent of neighbourhoods in Barrow in Furness and 8 per cent in Burnley.
Change since the Indices of Deprivation 2010
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 are based on broadly the same methodology as the 2010 Indices. Although it is not possible to use the Indices to measure changes in the level of deprivation in places over time, it is possible to explore changes in relative deprivation, or changes in the pattern of deprivation, between this and previous updates of the Indices2.
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release 5 Chart 1 shows the proportion of neighbourhoods in each decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 that were in the same decile according to the 2010 Index.
Analysis is restricted to the 96 per cent of neighbourhoods which have not undergone boundary changes since the 2010 Index.
Overall, 58 per cent of neighbourhoods which had not undergone boundary changes have remained in the same decile of deprivation as they were in according to the 2010 Index. But there was relatively little movement of neighbourhoods between deciles at the extremes of the distribution. This indicates that, in relative terms at least, the most deprived areas and least deprived areas have tended to remain the same.
The majority, 83 per cent, of neighbourhoods that are the most deprived according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 (and which did not experience boundary changes) were also the most deprived based on the 2010 Index. The remaining 17 per cent of neighbourhoods in the most deprived decile of the 2015 Index have moved from the second, third and fourth deciles of the 2010 Index, as shown in Table 2.
Chart 1: Proportion of neighbourhoods in each decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2015 that were in the same decile of the 2010 Index
Analysis is based on the 31,672 Lower-layer Super Output Areas that have not undergone boundary changes since the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation.
Table 2 presents a more detailed analysis of changes in the relative deprivation of neighbourhoods across deciles between the 2010 Index and the 2015 Index. It shows the numbers of neighbourhoods in each decile of the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2010 and their corresponding deciles according to the 2015 Index.
6 The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Comparing the distributions in this way shows the extent of changes in relative rankings, and how large the changes are for those areas that have moved.
Although 2,618 neighbourhoods were in the most deprived decile according to both the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation and the 2015 Index, 471 of those in the most deprived decile of the 2010 Index have become relatively less deprived according to the 2015 Index; the majority of these (449) have shifted to the next decile but 22 have moved further, to the third most deprived decile.
Analysis is based on the 31,672 Lower-layer Super Output Areas that have not undergone boundary changes since the 2010 Index of Multiple Deprivation. The total number of LSOAs in each decile varies because of the differential impact of these boundary changes.
Deprivation at a Local Authority Level The Indices of Deprivation can be summarised in a range of ways to describe relative deprivation among local authorities as described in the Further Information section of the Technical Notes (p. 29). Each of these will lead to a different ranking of local authorities. For simplicity and continuity with analysis presented earlier, this Statistical Release mainly focuses on just one of the measures in describing deprivation at local authority level: the proportion of neighbourhoods that are in the most deprived decile nationally. Therefore, the most deprived local authority districts are defined as those that contain the largest proportions of highly deprived neighbourhoods.
Three in five (61 per cent) of the 326 local authorities in England contain at least one neighbourhood which is in the most deprived decile nationally according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation.
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release 7 More extreme neighbourhood deprivation is concentrated among fewer local authorities: about one in five local authorities (22 per cent) contain at least one neighbourhood which is in the one per cent most deprived nationally.
Deprived neighbourhoods have become more dispersed since 2004: the proportion of local authorities containing at least one neighbourhood in the most deprived decile has increased with successive updates of the Indices of Deprivation (see Chart 5).
Just under half (49 per cent) of local authorities, based on current boundaries3, contained at least one highly deprived neighbourhood according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004, compared to 61 per cent on the 2015 Index.
Chart 5: Proportion of local authorities with at least one neighbourhood in the most deprived decile nationally This analysis uses current local authority district boundaries Map 2 illustrates the geographical spread of deprivation for local authority districts across England. This higher level geography masks some pockets of deprivation that are visible in Map 1. Areas shaded dark blue are the 10 per cent of districts in England that contain the largest proportion of highly deprived neighbourhoods. Areas shaded bright green contain proportionately few highly deprived neighbourhoods, and are relatively less deprived. But 127 of the 326 districts (39 per cent) do not contain any highly deprived neighbourhoods and are therefore equally ranked on this measure. These 127 districts are banded together and shown in bright yellow, corresponding to the least deprived decile.
The number and structure of local authorities changed following reorganisation on 1 April 2009.
8 The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release Map 2: The Index of Multiple Deprivation 2015 among local authority districts based on the proportion of their neighbourhoods in the most deprived decile nationally Contains OS data © Crown copyright (2015) Note: there are 127 districts with no neighbourhoods in the most deprived decile nationally. These are shown in the least deprived decile.
The English Indices of Deprivation 2015 Statistical Release 9 It should be noted that geographically large districts shown on the map may have relatively small populations, and geographically small districts may contain larger populations.
Middlesbrough, Knowsley, Kingston upon Hull, Liverpool and Manchester are the five local authority districts with the largest proportions of highly deprived neighbourhoods in England, ranging from 49 per cent in Middlesbrough to 41 per cent in Manchester (see Table 3.) By definition, each district would contain just 10 per cent of such highly deprived neighbourhoods if deprivation was evenly distributed across local authorities.