«INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 3, No 3, 2012 © Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0 ...»
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 3, No 3, 2012
© Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0
ISSN 0976 – 4402
Change to amount of chlorophyll on leaves depend on insolation in some
Hakan Sevik1, Deniz Guney2, Hilal Karakas3, Gülnur Aktar4
1- Kastamonu University Faculty of Forestry, Landscape Architecture Department
2- Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Forestry, Forest Engineering Department 3- Kastamonu University Faculty of Forestry, Landscape Architecture Department 4- Kastamonu University Faculty of Forestry, Forest Engineering Department email@example.com doi:10.6088/ijes.2012030133013
According to the research results, it was seen that the amount of chlorophyll in leaves getting sun light is higher and except for Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula, Ailanthus altissima and Lonicera tatarica, there was no a marked difference between measurement values.
Introduction All living organisms in nature depend on photosynthesis in terms of energy. Source of nutrients and oxygen in atmosphere for living creatures is photosynthesis. Plants photosynthesizing are on base of food pyramid. All nutrients is either phytogenetic or substances derived from phytogenetic (Öncel et al, 2004;) Photosynthesis is the production of organic compounds by using luminous energy in living creatures having chlorophyll. Green pigment called chlorophyll and sun are required for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll absorbs sun light and converts it to chemical energy (Yakar and Bilge, 1987). Therefore, the main factor is chlorophyll in photosynthesis having vital importance for living creatures.
The chlorophyll content is an important experimental parameter in agronomy and plant biology research (Lamb et al., 2012).Amount of chlorophyll shows alteration depending on many edaphic and climatic factors such as salt stress (Yıldırım et al., 2008; Acar et al., 2011;
Avcıoğlu et al., 2003), light (Johnston and Onwueme, 1998; Dai et al., 2009; Khan et al., 2000; Demircioğlu and Yılmaz, 2005; Güneş and İnal, 1995), water stress (Mena-Violante et al., 2006; Shubha and Tyagi, 2007; Aguero, 2008; Karipçin, 2009; Demirel et al., 2010;
Kalefetoğlu and Ekmekçi, 2005), air pollution (Elkoca, 2003), fertilizing (Tunalı et al., 2012) and also it shows alteration depending on time in vegetation period (Zavoruev and Zavorueva, Received on October 2012 Published on November 2012 Change to amount of chlorophyll on leaves depend on insolation in some landscape plants 2002). In addition, plant species and position of leave affect the amount of chlorophyll (Gond et al., 2012).
In this research, effects of insolation on amount of chlorophyll on leaves has been tried to determine in some plant species. For this reason, the change of amount of chlorophyll between leaves being exposed to sun light in outer side of plant and leaves growing in dark shadow condition some plants being grown in same region has been tried to determine.
Material and method
The research was made on plants being grown in Kuzeykent Region, Kastamonu. The region where measurements were made is 725-800 m above the sea level. The research was made on 20 species; Mahonia aquifolium, Juglans nigra, Aesculus hippocastanus, Cornus mas, Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula, Tilia tomentosa, Morus nigra, Berberis thunbergii, Buxus sempervirens, Corylus colurna, Acer pseudoplatanus, Ailanthus altissima, Laburnum anagyroides, Celtis australis, Lonicera tatarica, Salix matsudana, Ulmus campestris, Cercis siliquastrum ve Robinia pseudoacacia being grown in this region for purpose of landscape.
The measurements were made at least 5 individuals from every species. Chlorophyll measurements were made in middle of leave and in points not passing vessels on totally 10 leaves including 5 leaves getting sun light in a day long directly and 5 leaves not getting sun light (shadow) in internal part of leave. The measurements were made in first week of September between 08,30-10,00 am. Measurement of chlorophyll was made by chlorophyll meter branded Apogee CCM-200 and the results were achieved in Chlorophyll Concentration Index (ccl).
Findings According to measurement performed, the highest, lowest, average values and standard deviation values are given in Table 1.
According to variance analysis, significant level in 99, 9% confidence level was determined in terms of the amount of chlorophyll in sun leaves and dark leaves and then groupings as a result of Duncan test are given in Table. It was determined that Cydonia oblonga has the highest average chlorophyll value with 49,8 ccl in leaves getting sun light and Celtis australis has the lowest average chlorophyll value with 5,4 ccl. In leaves not getting sun light (shadow), Berberis thunbergii has the highest chlorophyll value with 30, 9 and Celtis australis has the lowest chlorophyll value with5,7. The research results show that there is significant level in terms of amount of chlorophyll between some species.
When the results are examined, it is seen that the amount of chlorophyll is generally higher in leaves getting sun light. However, according to variance analysis, statistically significant level in 95% confidence level was determined in only Robinia pseudoacacia, Lonicera tatarica, Ailanthus altissima, Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula and Tilia tomentosa and statistically significant level was not determined between leaves getting sun light and leaves not getting sun light (shadow) in other species. In aforesaid species, the difference between sun leaves and dark leaves is statistically significant with 99.9% confidence level in Cydonia oblonga and Betula pendula, with 99% confidence level in Lonicera tatarica and with 95% confidence level in other species. When graphically change of average ccl values of sun and dark leaves is examined, it is understood that chlorophyll values in leaves getting sun light is more than doubled than leaves not getting sun light (shadow) in Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula, Lonicera tatarica and Ailanthus altissima. Although, leaves growing in shadow
conditions has more chlorophyll than leaves growing by getting sun light in Berberis thunbergii, Celtis australis and Cercis siliquastrum, there is no statistically significant difference at least 95% confidence level between measurement values. Therefore, this difference is not important statistically.
Figure 1: The average ccl values of sun leaves and shadow leaves
Moreover, there is no big difference between leaves growing in shadow and leaves getting sun light in Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula, Ailanthus altissima and Lonicera tatarica.
However, when the values are examined, it is seen that minimum value of leaves getting sun light is 16,8 and maximum value of leaves growing in shadow is 18,4 in Ailanthus altissima.
Therefore, it is difficult to state that the amount of chlorophyll in leaves getting sun light differs greatly from leaves not getting sun light (shadow).
Conclusion and suggestions
The amount of chlorophyll in leaves shows an alteration by being affected by many factors.
In addition to this, it is known that plant species and position of leave affect the amount of chlorophyll in leave (Gond et al., 2012). Kurtar (2012) states that leaves getting sun light and leaves not getting sun light (shadow) have different internal and external structures, tissues providing strength of plants growing in extensive light conditions thrives and number of chloroplasts is low but they are big and the amounts of chlorophyll are too much.
In research result, it was seen that the amount of chlorophyll is higher in leaves getting sun light and except for Cydonia oblonga, Betula pendula, Ailanthus altissima ve Lonicera tatarica, significant difference was not determined between measurement values in plants.
Öncel et al., (2004) states that plants photosynthesize maximum 10% of sun light in a sunny day and photosynthesis under this value is limited by light. Therefore, it is wrong that sunshine duration and photosynthesis and the amount of chlorophyll depending on it increase
in direct proportion. There is linear correlation between light intensity and photosynthesis. In both sun plants and shadow plants, rate of photosynthesis depending on light intensity increases. However, this increase is not infinite and this has a certain limit and this limit in upper limit shadow plants is lower than sun plants (Aksay et al., 2009). Moreover, effects of diffuse light in photosynthesis should be considered.
There are differences between direct light and diffuse light in terms of physiological, therefore, in terms of effects in photosynthesis. It was determined that amount of active ray is 35% in terms of physiological in sun lights coming directly and this rate is 50-60% in diffuse light. In addition to type of light, quantity of light or light intensity, sunshine duration, soil characteristics play a role on photosynthesis (Kurtar, 2012).
Effects of different shadow conditions on chlorophyll in leaves have been presented in many researches. Johnston and Onwueme (1998) plants of yam, taro, tannia, cassava and sweet potato, Dai et al., (2009) Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, Khan et al. (2000) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.)Sarg.]). Güneş and İnal (1995) asserted effects of shadowing or quantity of light on plants in researches related to Triticum aestium L.
Limit value of light intensity varies bay plant species, especially light and shadow plants.
Increasing of the amount of photosynthesis in parallel with increasing of light intensity varies by plant species. For example, although Pinus taeda seedlings photosynthesize in parallel with light increase until 100% light, most of leafed plants increases their photosynthesis to the highest level in 30% light (Kurtar, 2012).
In this research, big differences were determined between plant species in terms of the amount of chlorophyll. For example, while the amount of chlorophyll was measured as 49,8 ccl in Cydonia oblonga, this was measured as 5,4 ccl in Celtis australis. This condition shows that big differences between species in terms of the amount chlorophyll may be possible.
Determination of the amount of chlorophyll can be used in many fields. Foliage chlorophyll content determines the leaf absorptance, and thus the fraction of light absorbed for any given incident light availability (Niinemets 2010). The amount of chlorophyll is an indicator in determination of tolerance of plants for cold (Perks et al., 2004). Demirel et al., (2010) stated that chlorophyll readings can be used in order to determine water stress in especially beginning of flowering period and ripening period. Moreover, Knudson et al. (1977) stated that ozone membranes in bean leave can be measured with determination of chlorophyll certainly and practically.
Rose and Haase (2002) reported that chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are useful for determining cold hardiness and resistance to stress, because they provide a rapid assessment of seedling vigor following exposure to freezing.
However, there are many factors affecting the amount of chlorophyll. Researches related to this subject should be increased and continued by varying for efficient use of the amount of chlorophyll.
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