FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 11 |

«The Spread of Anti-trafficking Policies – Evidence from a New Index Seo-Young Cho Axel Dreher Eric Neumayer ISSN: 1439-2305 The Spread of ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Number 119– March 2011

The Spread of Anti-trafficking Policies –

Evidence from a New Index

Seo-Young Cho

Axel Dreher

Eric Neumayer

ISSN: 1439-2305

The Spread of Anti-trafficking Policies – Evidence from a New Index

Seo-Young Choa

Axel Dreherb

Eric Neumayerc

March 2011

Abstract: We analyze the spread of policies dealing with international trafficking in human

beings. Arguing that countries are unlikely to make independent choices, we identify pressure,

externalities and learning or emulation as plausible diffusion mechanisms for spatial dependence in anti-trafficking policies. We develop a new index measuring governments’ overall anti-trafficking policies for 177 countries over the 2000-2009 period. We also assess a country’s level of compliance in the three main constituent dimensions of anti-trafficking policies – prosecution, protection and prevention. Employing a spatial autoregressive model, we find that, with the exception of victim protection measures, anti-trafficking policies diffuse across contiguous countries and main trading partners due to externality effects. We find evidence for learning or emulation effects in all policy domains, with countries looking toward peers with similar political views or cultural values. Surprisingly, major destination countries do not seem to exert pressure on relevant main countries of origin or transit to ratchet up their policies.

Keywords: human trafficking, human rights, spatial dependence of policies JEL codes: O15, F22, P41 Acknowledgements: We thank Nina Breitenstein, Laura Felfeli, Ulrike Heyken, Veronika Kling, Marleen Knipping, Tabea Lakeman and Lukas Semmler for excellent research assistance, Scott Jobson for excellent proof-reading and Krishna Vadlamannati and seminar participants at the University of Goettingen for excellent comments. The authors cordially acknowledge the generous funding provided by the European Commission (JLS/2009/ISEC/AG/005).

a University of Goettingen, Department of Economics, Platz der Goettinger Sieben 3, D-37073 Goettingen, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)551 39-7368, Email: scho@uni-goettingen.de b University of Heidelberg, Alfred-Weber Institute for Economics, Bergheimer Strasse 58, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany, University of Goettingen, Germany, CESifo, Germany, IZA, Germany, and KOF Swiss Economic Institute, Switzerland, Telephone: +49 (0)6221 54 2921, E-mail: mail@axel-dreher.de c London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Geography and Environment, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK, Telephone: +44 (0)207 955 7598, Email: e.neumayer@lse.ac.uk 

1. Introduction In the last few decades, human trafficking has become a growing phenomenon worldwide.

The illicit trade in human beings across borders violates the human rights of victims, threatens national security and deteriorates the health of the affected economies and societies by increasing the size of the shadow economy and organized criminal activities (Belser 2005).

Although the exact magnitudes and dimensions of the problem are unknown, available statistics suggest that human trafficking is one of the most serious transnational crimes in the 21st century. According to the U.S. Department of State (2010), there are more than 12 million victims of human trafficking worldwide. Interpol (2009) estimates that human trafficking is a multi-billion-dollar business, amounting to the third largest transnational crime following drug and arms trafficking.

Human trafficking can be seen as one of the dark sides of globalization. As advancements in technology and transportation connect countries more closely regardless of geographical distances, illicit flows of human beings have also become a global phenomenon.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that traffickers recruit victims worldwide and transfer them from one country to another, often across continents (U.S. Department of State 2010). For instance, according to the UNODC (2006), trafficking victims found in the United States came from 66 countries in different regions (China, Mexico and Nigeria for example). Germany, another major destination, receives trafficking victims from at least 51 countries, including many from outside Europe (Afghanistan, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, etc.).

Given the growing significance of international human trafficking, it is no surprise that the international community has adopted several measures in the past ten years, including the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (2000, hereinafter the “Convention” or “Protocol”). Accordingly, social scientists have started to turn their attention towards policies enacted to combat human trafficking (Akee et al. 2010; Auriol and Mesnard 2010; Avdeyeva 2010; Bartilow 2010; Cho and Vadlamannati 2011; Di Tommaso et al. 2009; Friebel and Guriev 2006; Mahmouda and Trebesch 2009; Simmons and Lloyd 2010). One of the problems scholars face is the lack of reliable data on countries’ antitrafficking policies which can be compared over time and between countries. The U.S.

Department of State reports a ranking of countries with respect to their actions in fighting human trafficking. They use a scale of 1-3, 1 which is based on the level of compliance with


The tier-ranking consists of tier 1, 2, 2-watchlist and 3. “Tier 2” and “tier 2-watchlist” reflect the same level of compliance (with ‘watchlist’ providing information about a country’s development relative to the previous year).

the United States 2000 Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA). However, the tier ranking has several drawbacks, which limit its reliability and relevance. 2 In particular, while the tier ranking provides an aggregate score of compliance with anti-trafficking policies, it fails to recognize the different levels of compliance in the three main policy dimensions – prosecution, protection and prevention. Separating the three dimensions is important. Theory and evidence indicate that better protection policy may encourage potential victims to risk illegal migration, which could lead them to fall prey to traffickers. Human trafficking inflows might therefore increase as a consequence, contradicting the objectives of prosecution and prevention policies (Akee et al. 2010). Countries can thus have the same overall ranking on the index, but for very different reasons. 3 We make two important contributions to the growing literature on human trafficking.

First, we develop novel and original indices of anti-trafficking policies around the world, providing better, more detailed and disaggregated measures of the three prime policy dimensions enacted by countries. Specifically, we use raw data from two reports on human trafficking – the Annual Reports of Trafficking in Persons (United States State Department, 2001-2010) and the Reports on Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006 and 2009) – to construct separate indices on the three policy dimensions (prosecution, protection and prevention), as well as one overall aggregate antitrafficking policy index for up to 177 countries over the 2000-2009 period. The index provides a score from 1 to 5 for the level of compliance, with each dimension of antitrafficking policies for each country and year. Second, we argue that policy choices across countries are very unlikely to be independent from each other. Major destination countries will wish to push for policy changes in relevant transit and origin countries. More generally, international human trafficking creates significant cross-country externalities and countries will also want to learn from or emulate the policies enacted by other countries. Because of these cross-country spillover effects, we argue that countries spatially depend on each other in


The decision rule of the tier-ranking is not transparent to the public. It is not clear how the three levels of the ranking – full compliance, significant efforts and no significant efforts – are assessed and determined, making the ranking vulnerable to subjectivity (GAO 2006). It has been argued the tier-ranking is largely a tool of the U.S.

government to influence other country’s policies through ‘naming’ and ‘shaming’ (Simmons and Lloyd 2010). It is determined based on evaluation of compliance with the United States’ domestic anti-trafficking law – the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA 2000) – rather than international law. Its relevance for evaluating international standards is therefore limited.

A number of countries in full compliance with the tier-ranking fail to ensure the basic legal rights of victims, punishing and deporting them, while demonstrating sound policy interventions in the other dimensions (prosecution and prevention). For instance, in the tier 1 group, victims in France and the United Kingdom were reportedly imprisoned and deported due to their actions related to the situations in which they were trafficked in 2008 and 2009 (U.S. Department of State, 2009 and 2010).

their respective policy choices. We empirically investigate this hypothesis with a spatial autoregressive estimation model.

To foreshadow our results, we find evidence for spatial dependence in anti-trafficking policies. In particular, policies diffuse via externality effects across contiguous countries and main trading partners – with the exception of protection policies, for which one would not expect any externality effect. Policies also diffuse via learning or emulation effects as countries look for cues (or information) from other countries sharing political and cultural similarities. However, we do not find any significant effect of pressure from the United States via aid. Nor do we find evidence that major destination countries pressurize relevant major transit and origin countries to enact stricter anti-trafficking policies.

We proceed as follows. In section 2, we develop theoretical arguments as to why antitrafficking policies are not independently chosen by countries. In section 3, we introduce our indices on anti-trafficking policies. The method of estimation and data are described in section 4, while we discuss our results in section 5. Section 6 tests for the robustness of our results. The final section concludes the paper.

2. Spatial Dependence in Anti-trafficking Policies Spatial dependence in policy choices has become a key concept in the recent literature analyzing policy diffusion across countries (Neumayer and Plümper 2010; Gassebner et al.

2011; Gauri 2011; de Soysa and Vadlamannati 2010; Greenhill et al. 2009; Eichengreen and Leblang 2008; Pitlik 2007; Blonigen et al. 2007). Spatial dependence exists whenever the marginal utility of one unit of observation (here: a country) is affected by the decision-making of other units of observation (Neumayer and Plümper 2010). For example, if policies enacted in one country are influenced by policy choices in other countries, then they are said to spatially depend on each other. From a theoretical perspective, spatial dependence can result from pressure, externalities, learning and emulation (Elkins and Simmons 2005; Simmons and Elkins, 2004). 4 The major destination countries of internationally trafficked persons are likely to exert pressure onto countries which function as major sources of transit and/or origin for people trafficked into these major destinations. Major destination countries will be averse to illegal migration into their territories (as international trafficking always is) and will resent the increase in other transnational criminal activities (such as drug and arms trafficking) that typically accompany human trafficking (Bartilow 2010). Moreover, human trafficking creates


They list coercion, rather than pressure, and add competition. However, coercion is incompatible with policy choice and competition can be subsumed under externalities. On the other hand, emulation could be subsumed under learning unless countries blindly follow others in their policy choices.

a shadow economy of illegal labor markets and businesses with estimated annual profits of some one billion dollars in industrialized countries (Belser 2005) – money which is not taxed and is likely to be used for illegal activities. Yet, the effectiveness of policies undertaken in destination countries will be undermined if other countries, particularly relevant transit and origin countries, do not follow suit. The strictest anti-trafficking policies in destination countries may be ineffective if countries of origin and transit have lax policies in place. Hence, successful anti-trafficking policies in destination countries depend on a ratcheting up of policies in origin and transit countries, as well as major destination countries exerting pressure on laggards.

In addition to pressure, externalities are rampant in this policy area (Simmons and Llyod 2010). Anti-trafficking policies enacted by one country create significant externalities that other countries cannot simply ignore. Stricter policies in one destination country will deflect some of the flows of trafficked persons into other destination countries, while stricter policies in one origin or transit country will prompt transnational trafficking networks to increasingly resort to other origin or transit countries. Similar to international drug-trafficking, unless policies can address the underlying supply and demand factors driving international trafficking (which they typically cannot), stricter anti-trafficking policies in one country will merely deflect the problem onto other countries with weaker policies in place, such that there is an incentive to ratchet policies upwards over time. In other words, by predicting externality effects of such transnational crime, countries will be able to update their anti-trafficking measures, following relevant policy changes of other countries which share certain characteristics, such as geographic proximity and economic similarity.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 11 |

Similar works:

«Imminent Nash Implementation as a Solution to King Solomon's Dilemma Georgy Artemov Brown University Abstract This paper offers a solution to King Solomon's problem of allocating an indivisible prize to two agents. We add time dimension to the original space of outcomes and construct a static mechanism similar to the one used in virtual implementation. The implementation is imminent: the mechanism results in the original outcome, which is provided with an arbitrarily small delay. I thank...»

«∗ Shepherding Behaviors with Multiple Shepherds Jyh-Ming Lien† ıguez† Samuel Rodr´ neilien@cs.tamu.edu sor8786@cs.tamu.edu Jean-Phillipe Malric ‡ Nancy M. Amato† sowelrt0@sewanee.edu amato@cs.tamu.edu Technical Report TR04-003 Parasol Lab. Department of Computer Science Texas A&M University September 15, 2004 Abstract Shepherding behaviors are a type of group behaviors in which one group (the shepherds) try to control the motion of another group (the flock). Shepherding behaviors...»

«Application Report SNOA575B – April 1991 – Revised April 2013 AN-311 Theory and Applications of Logarithmic Amplifiers ABSTRACT A number of instrumentation applications can benefit from the use of logarithmic or exponential signal processing techniques. The design and use of logarithmic/exponential circuits are often associated with involved temperature compensation requirements and difficult to stabilize feedback loops. For these considerations and others, designers tend to avoid these...»

«This Accepted Author Manuscript (AAM) is copyrighted and published by Elsevier. It is posted here by agreement between Elsevier and the University of Turin. Changes resulting from the publishing process such as editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this version of the text. The definitive version of the text was subsequently published in A review of studies applying environmental impact assessment methods on fruit production...»

«Overlay Multicast/Broadcast Broadcast/Multicast Introduction Structured Overlays Application Layer Multicast Flooding: CAN & Prefix Flood.Unstructured Overlays Tree-based: Scribe/ SplitStream/ PeerCast Centralised Bayeux Distributed Additional Design Mechanisms 1 Prof. Dr. Thomas Schmidt http:/www.informatik.haw-hamburg.de/~schmidt We need Multicast/Broadcast Services for. Public Content Broadcasting Voice and Video Conferencing Collaborative Environments Gaming Rendezvous Processes /...»

«wissenschaftliche Reihe Vom Abbild zum Kunstbild Zehn Thesen zur Fotografie als Kunstobjekt von Win Labuda Abbild Kunstbild Wenn ein Fotograf in künstlerischer Absicht eine Aufnahme macht, so bestimmt er damit einen bildhaften Ausschnitt aus der sichtbaren Welt zu seinem Werk. Bisher erfolgte der Akt des Kunst Schaffens mit der Kamera im Wesentlichen durch eben jene Ausschnitts-Bestimmung. Dabei kann der Fotograf zwar das ihm geeignet erscheinende Licht wählen, als auch Helligkeit, Kontrast,...»

«„Einkäufer Staat“ als Innovationstreiber Entwicklungspotenziale und Handlungsnotwendigkeiten für eine innovativere Beschaffung im öffentlichen Auftragswesen Deutschlands Abschlussbericht Ein gemeinsames Forschungsprojekt von: Wegweiser GmbH Berlin Research & Strategy Technische Universität Berlin Fachgebiet Innovationsökonomie Institut für Technologie und Management Orrick Hölters & Elsing Unter anteiliger Förderung durch: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung...»

«Difference and Democracy Kolja Raube, Dr. phil., is lecturer and programme coordinator in the master programme “European Studies: Transnational and Global Perspectives” at the University of Leuven. He is also Senior Member at the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies. Annika Sattler, Dr. rer. pol., works for the German Federal Bank in Frankfurt/M. Kolja Raube, Annika Sattler with Saskia Mestern Difference and Democracy Exploring Potentials in Europe and Beyond Campus Verlag...»

«Scottish Independence Referendum Bill Stage 2 Amendments Briefing This briefing sets out our views on amendments that are due to be considered by the Committee at Stage 2 of the Scottish Independence Referendum Bill. In our written and oral evidence at Stage One we drew the Committee’s attention to some areas of the Bill where we had concerns about the workability of the legislation as drafted or where we believed the provisions could be strengthened in order to improve transparency or...»

«Stability and plasticity of IL-17 expression in TH17 cells vorgelegt von Diplom-Ingenieurin Maria Helen Lexberg aus Råholt, Norwegen Von der Fakultät III Prozesswissenschaften der Technischen Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktorin der Ingenieurwissenschaften Dr.-Ing. genehmigte Dissertation Promotionsausschuss: Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. Leif-Alexander Garbe Berichter: Prof. Dr. Roland Lauster Berichter: Prof. Dr. Andreas Radbruch Tag der wissenschaftlichen...»

«Prof. Deborah Mutnick English Composition 16C.001 Office: H459; Hours MW 1-2 p.m. MW 10-11:15; 11:15-12:50 Email: deborah.mutnick@liu.edu Fall 2013 Phone: 718.488.1110 Room H215 Pathways to Freedom Stories of Struggle and Protest in Brooklyn and Beyond Course Description Welcome to English 16C, a composition course that will introduce you to key aspects of academic writing (inquiry, analysis, synthesis, and argument); critical thinking (Abstract reasoning, evaluation, thesis development);...»

«Designing Mobile Applications for Official Statistics Antonino Virgillito1 Istat – Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, e-mail: virgilli@istat.it Abstract In this paper we discuss the problems in the design of applications targeted at running on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and their usage in the context of official statistics. First we briefly survey the experience in this field at international level and discuss general design guidelines and techniques. Then we specifically...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.