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«Angela DiDomenico Astin Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Finger force capability: measurement and prediction using

anthropometric and myoelectric measures

Angela DiDomenico Astin

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Science

in

Industrial and Systems Engineering

Dr. Maury A. Nussbaum, Chair

Dr. Karl H.E. Kroemer

Dr. Laura Wojcik

December 16, 1999

Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: finger strength, pinches, electromyography, prediction Finger force capability: measurement and prediction using anthropometric and myoelectric measures Angela DiDomenico Astin (ABSTRACT) Hand and finger force data are used in many settings, including industrial design and indicating progress during rehabilitation. The application of appropriate work design principles, during the design of tools and workstations that involve the use of the hand and fingers, may minimize upper extremity injuries within the workplace. Determination and integration of force capabilities and requirements is an essential component of this process. Available data in the literature has focused primarily on whole-hand or multidigit pinch exertions. The present study compiled and examined maximal forces exerted by the fingers in a variety of couplings to both enhance and supplement available data.

This data was used to determine whether finger strength could be predicted from other strength measures and anthropometry. In addition, this study examined whether exerted finger forces could be estimated using surface electromyography obtained from standardized forearm locations. Such processes are of utility when designing and evaluating hand tools and human-machine interfaces involving finger intensive tasks, since the integration of finger force capabilities and task requirements are necessary to reduce the risk of injury to the upper limbs.

Forces were measured using strain gauge transducers, and a modification of standard protocols was followed to obtain consistent and applicable data. Correlations within and among maximum finger forces, whole-hand grip force, and anthropometric measures were examined. Multiple regression models were developed to determine the feasibility of predicting finger strength in various finger couplings from more accessible measures. After examining a wide variety of such mathematical models, the results suggest that finger strength can be predicted from easily obtained measures with only moderate accuracy (R2-adj: 0.45 – 0.64; standard error: 11.95N – 18.88N). Such models, however, begin to overcome the limitations of direct finger strength measurements of individuals.

Surface electrodes were used to record electromyographic signals collected from three standardized electrode sites on the forearm. Multiple linear regression models were generated to predict finger force levels with the three normalized electromographic measures as predictor variables. The results suggest that standardized procedures for obtaining EMG data and simple linear models can be used to accurately predict finger forces (R2-adj: 0.77 – 0.88; standard error: 9.21N – 12.42N) during controlled maximal exertions. However, further work is needed to determine if the models can be generalized to more complex tasks.

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Heartfelt thanks for the academic and collegial support provided by Drs. Maury A. Nussbaum, Karl H. E. Kroemer, and Laura Wojcik throughout the development, planning, and execution of this research. Only with their assistance and guidance was this project possible. Special thanks to Dr. Nussbaum for his support as committee chair and his constant accessibility and patience throughout the course of this project.

My sincere gratitude goes to Ron Spencer for helping make a difficult task a little easier. Also thanks to Gary Olacsi for his support, encouragement, and friendship especially during the stressful times. Heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to Suzanne Stevens who knows what it means to be a good friend. I could not have made it this far without her support, understanding, and encouragement.

Finally, my love and deepest thanks go to my husband, Michael, who may not have always understood what I was doing but has always stood by me to give me a smile and a hug, during good times and bad. He has always believed in me and been willing to sacrifice for me. The completion of this thesis was second only to Michael and our love.

–  –  –

Abstract

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

HAND AND FINGER FORCE DATA COLLECTION AND PREDICTION.................. 1

1. INTRODUCTION

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

3. METHODS AND MATERIALS

3.1 OVERVIEW

3.1.1 Experimental objectives

3.1.2 Experimental hypotheses

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

3.2.1 Anthropometric Measures.

3.2.2 Experimental Conditions

3.2.3 Maximum Voluntary Force Measures

3.3 PARTICIPANTS

3.4 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

3.5 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

3.6 DATA ANALYSIS PROTOCOL

4. RESULTS

4.1 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA

4.2 HAND AND FINGER STRENGTH





4.3 CORRELATIONS

4.4 MULTIVARIATE (MANOVA) AND UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(ANOVA)

4.5 MODELS FOR PREDICTION OF FINGER STRENGTH

4.5.1 Multiple Linear and Stepwise Regression

4.5.2 Model Averaging

4.6 RIDGE REGRESSION

5. DISCUSSION

5.1 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA

5.2 HAND AND FINGER STRENGTH

5.3 CORRELATIONS

5.4 AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FINGER STRENGTH

5.5 REGRESSION

v 5.5.1 Multiple Linear and Stepwise Regression

5.5.2 Model Averaging

5.6 RIDGE REGRESSION

5.7 DERIVED REGRESSION MODELS

5.8 APPLICATIONS

5.9 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

5.10 FUTURE AREAS OF RESEARCH

6. CONCLUSIONS

FORCE-EMG RELATIONSHIP DURING COMMON HAND COUPLINGS.............. 52

1. INTRODUCTION

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

3. METHODS AND MATERIALS

3.1 OVERVIEW

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

3.2.1 Experimental Conditions

3.3 PARTICIPANTS

3.4 APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

3.4.1 Maximum Voluntary Force Measures

3.4.2 Electromyographic (EMG) Activity Level.

3.5 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

3.6 DATA ANALYSIS PROTOCOL

4. RESULTS

4.1 GRAPHICAL DATA

4.2 MODELS FOR PREDICTION OF FINGER FORCES

4.3 MODEL PERFORMANCE

4.4 MODEL PARAMETERS

5. DISCUSSION

5.1 GENERAL COMMENTS

5.2 MODELS FOR PREDICTION OF FINGER FORCES

5.3 LIMITATIONS

5.4 COMPARISONS TO OTHER RESEARCH

5.5 APPLICATIONS

5.6 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS

6. CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

VITA

–  –  –

FIGURE 1. CLASSIFICATION OF FORCE EXERTIONS INVESTIGATED WITHIN THIS STUDY.

FIGURE 2. ILLUSTRATION OF THE SINGLE DIGIT POKE COUPLING USING THE INDEX FINGER

FIGURE 3. ILLUSTRATION OF THE SINGLE DIGIT 90-DEGREE DISTAL PAD PULL USING INDEX FINGER.

........... 12 FIGURE 4. ILLUSTRATION OF THE SINGLE DIGIT 180-DEGREE DISTAL PAD PRESS USING INDEX FINGER......... 13 FIGURE 5. ILLUSTRATION OF THE MULTI-DIGIT LATERAL PINCH COUPLING.

FIGURE 6. ILLUSTRATION OF THE MULTI-DIGIT PALMAR PINCH COUPLING

FIGURE 7. ILLUSTRATION OF THE MULTI-DIGIT THREE-JAW CHUCK PINCH COUPLING

FIGURE 8. ILLUSTRATION OF THE WHOLE HAND POWER GRASP COUPLING

FIGURE 9. RELATIONSHIP OBTAINED BETWEEN APPLIED LOAD AND VOLTAGE OUTPUT OF STRAIN GAUGE

TRANSDUCER (IN HALF-BRIDGE CONFIGURATION)

FIGURE 10. RELATIONSHIP OBTAINED BETWEEN APPLIED LOAD AND VOLTAGE OUTPUT OF STRAIN GAUGE

TRANSDUCER (IN FULL-BRIDGE CONFIGURATION).

FIGURE 11. EXAMPLE OF AN ACCEPTABLE FORCE EXERTION TRIAL

FIGURE 12. EXAMPLE OF AN UNACCEPTABLE FORCE EXERTION TRIAL, IN WHICH THE FORCE WAS RELEASED

TOO QUICKLY.

FIGURE 13. AVERAGE STRENGTHS FOR FEMALES AND MALES FOR EACH COUPLING. AVERAGE FEMALE

STRENGTHS ARE GIVEN AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE MALE VALUES.

FIGURE 14. AVERAGE STRENGTH FOR EACH COUPLING ACROSS FIVE AGE CLASSIFICATIONS

FIGURE 15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAND LENGTH AND PALMAR PINCH STRENGTH. A LINEAR

RELATIONSHIP, AS SEEN HERE, WAS TYPICAL FOR ALL DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

COMBINATIONS.

FIGURE 16. COMPARISON OF REGRESSION MODELS USING ALL PREDICTOR VARIABLES AND SIGNIFICANT

INTERACTIONS

FIGURE 17. COMPARISON OF STANDARD ERRORS FOR REGRESSION MODELS USING ALL PREDICTOR

VARIABLES AND SIGNIFICANT INTERACTIONS

FIGURE 18. R2-ADJ VALUES CORRESPONDING TO ESTIMATIONS OF SINGLE DIGIT STRENGTH FROM PINCH

STRENGTH.

FIGURE 19. STANDARD ERROR VALUES CORRESPONDING TO ESTIMATIONS OF SINGLE DIGIT STRENGTH FROM

PINCH STRENGTH

FIGURE 20. COMPARISON OF R2-ADJ ASSOCIATED WITH REGRESSION MODELS USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS

AS PREDICTOR VARIABLES

FIGURE 21. COMPARISON OF STANDARD ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH REGRESSION MODELS USING PRINCIPAL

COMPONENTS AS PREDICTOR VARIABLES.

FIGURE 22. R2-ADJ FOR REGRESSION MODELS CONSIDERING GENDER CATEGORIZATIONS.

FIGURE 23. STANDARD ERRORS FOR REGRESSION MODELS CONSIDERING GENDER CATEGORIZATIONS........ 38

vii FIGURE 24. ELECTRODE PLACEMENT FOR RECORDING FLEXOR I SIGNALS.

FIGURE 25. ELECTRODE PLACEMENT FOR RECORDING FLEXOR II SIGNALS.

FIGURE 26. ELECTRODE PLACEMENT FOR RECORDING EXTENSOR SIGNALS.

FIGURE 27. NORMALIZED FORCE (NFORCE) AND NORMALIZED ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC CURVES (FLEXORS I –

NEMG1; EXTENSORS – NEMG2; FLEXORS II – NEMG3) FOR A TYPICAL FORCE EXERTION (LATERAL

PINCH).

FIGURE 28. MUSCLE ACTIVITY PRESENT AT VARYING LEVELS OF FORCE DURING THE INCREASE AND

DECREASE OF FORCE.

FIGURE 29. MEASURED VERSUS PREDICTED FORCES (PERCENT OF MAXIMUM) FOR THE WHOLE TASK (R2-ADJ

= 0.95, STANDARD ERROR = 8.35N). A LINEAR REGRESSION LINE HAS BEEN SUPERIMPOSED ON THE CURVE FOR COMPARISON.

FIGURE 30. MEASURED VERSUS PREDICTED FORCES (PERCENT OF MAXIMUM) FOR THE PORTION OF THE TASK

ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN FORCE (R -ADJ = 0.97, STANDARD ERROR = 6.73N). A LINEAR REGRESSION LINE HAS BEEN SUPERIMPOSED ON THE CURVE FOR COMPARISON

FIGURE 31. MEASURED VERSUS PREDICTED FORCES (PERCENT OF MAXIMUM) FOR THE PORTION OF THE TASK

ASSOCIATED WITH A DECREASE IN FORCE (R -ADJ = 0.97, STANDARD ERROR = 5.54N). A LINEAR REGRESSION LINE HAS BEEN SUPERIMPOSED ON THE CURVE FOR COMPARISON

FIGURE 32. NORMALIZED FORCE AND NORMALIZED EMG CURVES FOR A “BAD” FORCE EXERTION (90DEGREE DISTAL PAD PULL).

FIGURE 33. MUSCLE ACTIVITY PRESENT AT VARYING LEVELS OF FORCE DURING THE INCREASE AND

DECREASE OF FORCE.

FIGURE 34. MEASURED VERSUS PREDICTED FORCE FOR THE PORTION OF THE TASK ASSOCIATED WITH AN

INCREASE IN FORCE (R -ADJ = 0.70, STANDARD ERROR = 6.82N).

FIGURE 35. MEASURED VERSUS PREDICTED FORCE FOR THE PORTION OF THE TASK ASSOCIATED WITH A

DECREASE IN FORCE (R -ADJ = 0.64, STANDARD ERROR = 10.14N).

FIGURE 36. AVERAGE R -ADJ VALUES FOR THE DIFFERENT COUPLINGS COMPARING ACROSS THE THREE

EXERTION CLASSIFICATIONS

FIGURE 37. AVERAGE STANDARD ERROR VALUES FOR THE DIFFERENT COUPLINGS COMPARING ACROSS THE

THREE EXERTION CLASSIFICATIONS

FIGURE 38. AVERAGE NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT PARAMETERS INCLUDED IN THE REGRESSION MODELS FOR

THE THREE EXERTION CLASSIFICATIONS

FIGURE 39. PERCENTAGE OF REGRESSION MODELS IN WHICH THE PARAMETERS WERE FOUND TO BE

SIGNIFICANT WHEN CONSIDERING THE WHOLE EXERTION.

FIGURE 40. PERCENTAGE OF REGRESSION MODELS IN WHICH THE PARAMETERS WERE FOUND TO BE

SIGNIFICANT WHEN CONSIDERING THE ASCENDING PORTION OF THE EXERTION.

FIGURE 41. PERCENTAGE OF REGRESSION MODELS IN WHICH THE PARAMETERS WERE FOUND TO BE

SIGNIFICANT WHEN CONSIDERING THE DESCENDING PORTION OF THE EXERTION.

–  –  –

TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS AND CLASSIFIED BY

GENDER

TABLE 2. SUMMARY OF STRENGTH AND VARIABILITY IN EACH OF THE FINGER COUPLINGS AND FOR SIMPLE

GRIP ACROSS THE 100 SUBJECTS.

TABLE 3. SUMMARY OF STRENGTH AND VARIABILITY IN EACH OF THE FINGER COUPLINGS AND FOR SIMPLE

GRIP CLASSIFIED BY GENDER

TABLE 4. SUMMARY OF STRENGTH AND VARIABILITY IN EACH OF THE FINGER COUPLINGS AND FOR SIMPLE

GRIP CLASSIFIED BY AGE.

TABLE 5. PEARSON’S CORRELATION MATRIX (R) FOR STRENGTH MEASURES AND ANTHROPOMETRIC

MEASUREMENTS

TABLE 6. PEARSON’S CORRELATION MATRIX (R) FOR ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

TABLE 7. PEARSON’S CORRELATION MATRIX (R) FOR SINGLE DIGIT FORCE EXERTIONS VERSUS MULTIDIGIT FORCES

TABLE 8. R2-ADJ VALUES FOR MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODELS PREDICTING SINGLE FINGER STRENGTH FROM

ONE MULTI-DIGIT STRENGTH AND GRIP STRENGTH.

TABLE 9. A COMPARISON OF MULTI-DIGIT AND GRIP STRENGTH FROM THE PRESENT STUDY AND TWO



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