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«Dissertation vom Fachbereich Material- und Geowissenschaften der Technischen Universität Darmstadt (D17) genehmigte Dissertation zur Erlangung des ...»

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Geothermal Cooling in Arid Regions:

An Investigation of the Jordanian

Harrat Aquifer System

Dissertation

vom Fachbereich Material- und Geowissenschaften

der Technischen Universität Darmstadt (D17)

genehmigte Dissertation

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.)

vorgelegt von

MSc. Sana’a Al-Zyoud

geboren am 3. September 1981 in Amman, Jordan

Referent: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Ingo Sass

Korreferent: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann Prüfer: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf Katzenbach Prüfer : Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Ahmad Al-Malabeh Eingereicht am: 20.11.2012 Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 16.08.2012 Darmstadt, 2012 I Getruckt mit Unterstützung des Deutschen Akademischen Austauschdienstes I Abstract Besides applications of heating and power generation geothermal energy has also the potential to significantly contribute to the cooling of buildings. A shallow basaltic aquifer system in north east Jordan was studied for its potential as a geothermal resource for cooling utilization. The groundwater here is used as a geothermal medium for cooling purposes. Cold water is pumped from the reservoir using extraction wells. This water is fed into the buildings’ circuit and heat exchange occurs between the buildings ambient air and the circulating cold water. The recovered warm water is injected again into the ground using injection wells.

The thermophysical properties, the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the Jordanian Harrat basalt were examined. This is followed by an assessment of the basalt’s suitability as a geothermal cooling reservoir. Representative thin sections were analyzed for their mineral components and then the results are compiled in a hydrogeothermal and a petrophysical model. Findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between selected petrophysical characteristics of basalt and its heat conducting abilities. A 10 % increase of opaque and ferromagnetic minerals volume proportion in the studied basalts lead to an increase thermal conductivity by approximately 0.5 W m-1 K-1. This may significantly contribute in providing a valuable alternative to direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of basalts in Jordan if sufficient mineralogical data is available. Thus, the prediction of thermal conductivity through modal mineral composition may become a key feature for efficient geothermal system exploration in volcanic and plutonic rocks.

Reservoir thermophysical properties were integrated with the hydrological data to develop the numerical model. A GOCAD® 3D structural model was created. Alongside with the reservoir characteristics, this 3D model was implemented into a numerical flow and heat transport model, created with FEFLOW ®. This numerical model is used to predict the performance of the geothermal cooling reservoir. Different possible geothermal installations are studied, using various approaches. The study shows that a geothermal utilization of the respective basaltic reservoir is feasible. It features sufficient hydraulic and thermal properties to be utilized for cooling purposes. The developed model has proven to be robust and flexible. It can be easily extended for analyzing other sites.

II Zusammenfassung Geothermie hat neben der Anwendung im Bereich des Heizens und der Stromerzeugung das Potenzial einen bedeutsamen Beitrag zur Gebäudekühlung zu leisten. Ein oberflächennaher basaltischer Aquifer im Nordosten Jordaniens wurde auf sein Potential zur Nutzung im Rahmen der Gebäudekühlung hin untersucht. Das Grundwasser wird dabei in einem offenen Kreislauf als Wärmesenke genutzt. Das kühle Grundwasser wird über Entnahmebrunnen in die Kühlsysteme der zu kühlenden Gebäude geleitet. Dabei kommt es zu einem Wärmeaustausch zwischen der Raumluft und dem Grundwasser. Das so erwärmte Wasser wird über Schluckbrunnen wieder in denselben Aquifer eingeleitet.

Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden die thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften des Harrat Basalts bestimmt und auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse die Eignung des Gesteins für die geothermische Nutzung bewertet. Dünnschliffe repräsentativer Gesteinsproben wurden petrographisch untersucht, und die Ergebnisse in einem hydrogeothermischen Modell und einem petrophysikalischen Modell zusammengestellt. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit können zu einem verbesserten Verständnis der Petrologie von Basalten und ihrer thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften beitragen. Bei den untersuchten Gesteinsproben führt ein um 10 % höherer Modalbestand an opaken und ferromagnetischen Mineralen zu einer um ca. 0,5 W m-1 K-1 höheren Wärmeleitfähigkeit. Dieser Zusammenhang könnte eine Alternative zu Methoden direkter Wärmeleitfähigkeitsbestimmung darstellen, wenn entsprechende petrologische Daten vorliegen. Demzufolge könnte die Bestimmung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit anhand des Modalbestandes des Gesteins ein Hauptmerkmal der wirtschaftlichen Exploration geothermaler Systeme in vulkanischen und plutonischen Gesteinen werden.

Ein numerisches Reservoirmodell wurde unter Berücksichtigung der thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften und von hydrogeologischen Daten erstellt. In einem ersten Schritt wurde ein strukturgeologisches 3D-Modell mit dem Softwaresystem GOCAD erstellt. Zusammen mit den Reservoireigenschaften wurde dieses strukturgeologische 3D-Modell in ein numerisches FEFLOW Wärmetransportmodell überführt. Mithilfe dieses Modells werden die Betriebseigenschaften des Reservoirs unter dem Einfluss einer geothermischen Brunnenanlage zur Gebäudekühlung simuliert. Verschiedene Varianten geothermischer Brunnenanlagen wurden unter verschiedenen Ansätzen untersucht. Die Simulationen belegen die Durchführbarkeit einer Nutzung des basaltischen Aquifers zu Kühlungszwecken, aufgrund ausreichender hydraulischen und thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften. Das erstellte Modell hat sich in den Simulationen als robust und flexibel erwiesen und kann verhältnismäßig einfach auf andere Untersuchungsgebiete übertragen werden.





–  –  –

IV Acknowledgment The present research work has been conducted at Chair of Geothermal Science and Technology, Technische Universität Darmstadt between October 2008 and August 2012.

First of all I would like to take this opportunity to express my grateful thanks and appreciation to my advisor Prof. Dr. Ingo Sass for his invaluable guidance, encouragement, and patience.

The confidence he offered me provided a great opportunity to gain experience in research and experimental work.

I want to thank Prof. Dr. Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann for his assistance during the petrophysical investigations and for his prompt willingness to review this dissertation.

I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Ahmad Al-Malabeh from Hashemite University in Jordan for his help in and suggestions in the field work as well as in the mineralogy, chemistry, geology of the Harrat. I admire his support, fruitful discussions and advice.

I am grateful for Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf Katzenbach, Director of the Institute and the Laboratory of Geotechnics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, for his contribution during the work.

I would thank Prof. Dr. Stephan Kempe for his support, cooperation and advice within this work.

My heartfelt thanks extend to Dr. Wolfram Rühaak for his support, motivation and illuminating instructions. His significance help, beside his inspiring ideas, developed my modeling skills that definitely helped me to advance my work.

I have to thank Mrs. Dunja Sehn and Mrs. Simone Roß-Krichbaum for their endless moral and emotional support, I was motivated by their strength during 4 years; I appreciate also their arrangement of many administrative matters.

The financial support of Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst “DAAD” through the doctoral research is gratefully acknowledged. I would like also to thank NaturPur for their financial support in the field work.

I would like to thank Dr. Kristian Bär for his illuminating instructions. I owe a special thanks to Ms. Johanna Rüther for her help in well design calculations. I want to thank Mr. Sebastian Homuth for his help and being ready to answer my questions. I would like to thank Mr. Philipp Mikisek for his help in GOCAD modeling. I am more than grateful for Mr. Robert Priebs for the dissertation English revision. Many thanks for Dr. Norbert Laskowski, Mrs. Gabriela Schubert, Mr. Rainer Seehaus, Mr. Holger Scheibner and Mr. Jürgen Krumm for their technical help in experimental work. Many thanks to Ms. Petra Kraft and to other colleagues Yixi Gu, Liang Pei, Achim Aretz and Johannes Stegner for their help.

Grateful thanks to Natural Resources Authority (Amman) staff for their support in experimental work and providing the available literature. Many thanks to the Ministry of Water and Irrigation as well as the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in Jordan for their permission to use the available data bank.

I would like to thank my friends and to everyone supported me throughout my research.

Especially the people I have met while in graduate school in Darmstadt, who have become my closest and dearest friends, their support to this work is appreciated, and to all I give my love, respect and thanks.

–  –  –

VI Contents

Abstract

Zusammenfassung

1. Introduction

1.1. Preface

1.2. Thesis Outline

1.3. Renewable Energy and Energy Policy in Jordan

1.4. Literature Review

2. Analysis of the Geothermal Situation in the Jordanian Harrat Region.............. 11

2.1. Study Area

2.2. Field work and sampling

2.3. Geology and Tectonic Settings

2.4. Petrography and Mineralogy

2.5. Geochemistry

2.6. Thermophysical Properties

2.7. Hydrogeology

3. 3D - Numerical Model for the Prospective Geothermal Reservoir and Geothermal System Design

3.1. Cooling Applications

3.2. Structural Model

3.3. Heat Transport Model

4.4. Flow - Initial and Boundary Conditions

3.5. Heat - Initial and Boundary Conditions

3.6. Setup of the Cooling Scenarios

3.7. Geothermal System and Well Design

3.7.1 System Design

3.7.2. Well Design

4. Results

4.1. Cooling Scenarios

5.1.1 Scenario 1, 2 and 3

4.1.2. Scenario 4

4.2. Cooling Performance of the Scenarios

4.3. Economic and Environmental Feasibility

5. Conclusions and Outlook

References

VIIList of Figures

Figure 1: Geothermal Gradient Map of Jordan (modified after Williams, et al., 1990).

Figure 2: (a) Location and structural map of Jordan includes the study area (modified after Diabat and Masri, 2002). (b) Jordanian Harrat and Harrat AlShaam are modified after Al-Malabeh, (2011)...11 Figure 3: Lithological section with images showing typical occurrences in Wadi Al Ajib (A1 to A3) and Wadi Az Za`atri (Z1 to Z3) (cross section modified after Abu Qudaira, 2004).

Figure 4: (a and b) Rock core samples (length: 30 cm, diameter: 6.4 cm), (c and d) different sampling orientations and coring angles.

Figure 5: Geological map modified after Abu Qudaira, (2004) shows the aquifer lithology.

Figure 6: Modal proportions for the studied flows in Al Ajib and Az Za’atri, showing the average mineral volume proportions for the six sub-flows. The minerals volume proportions were analyzed using polarized microscope.

Figure 7: Classification and nomenclature of the studied basalts according to their modal mineral contents using the APF silica under saturated diagram. (Streckeisen, 1979).

Figure 8: Mineral components phynocrysts of Jordanian Harrat Basalt from one representative sub-flow

A2 :(a) plane PL, (b) CN. Ol.: Olivine; Idd.: Iddingsite; Pl.: Plagioclase; Cal.: Calcite; Mag.:

Magnetite; Cpx.: Pyroxene and Chl.: Chlorite.

Figure 9: Randomly crystallized plagioclase laths, yellow arrows are the crystals axes. (a) PPL. (b) CN.

Figure 10: Wo-En-Fs plot (Morimoto et al., 1988) for the pyroxene from the studied basalts.................26 Figure 11: Total Alkali Silica or TAS - Diagram (Le Maitre et al., 2002) for the studied basalts, each cross present one sub-flow sample.

Figure 12: Zr / TiO2 – Nb / Y diagram (Winchester & Floyd, 1977) for the basaltic rocks from the studied sub-flows.

Figure 13: Cpx-Ol-Opx projection (Irvine & Bargar, (1971) in weight percent, of the investigated basalts.

Figure 14: An-Ab’-Or (Irvine & Bargar, 1971) from the basalts of the studied flows; Ab’= Ab+5/3Ne, An and Or in weight percent.

Figure 15: Alkaline-silica diagram from studied basaltic rocks. Dividers are A: Saggerson & Williams (1964), B: Irvine & Bargar (1971); C: Macdonald & Katsura (1964); D,E,F: Schwarzer & Rogers (1974).

Figure 16: Zr/P2O5 versus TiO2 (Winchester and Floyd, 1977), variation diagram showing alkali basalt affinity of the Jordanian Harrat basalts

Figure 17: TiO2-Zr diagram (Pearce, 1980), showing the typical (within-plate) character of the pyroclasstic rocks from the studied volcanoes.

Figure 18: TiO2-Y/Nb diagram (Floyed & Winchester, 1975) for the pyroclastic rocks from the studied volcanoes. The analyses plot almost entirely in the CAB-field.

Figure 19: Plot analyzed samples on the Sr-Zr diagram (Camp & Roobol, 1989), showing the limited plagioclase fractionation.

Figure 20: (a) Thermal Conductivity Scanner, the left part after Mielke, 2009 and Bär, 2008, (b) Minipermeameter the lower part after Mielke, 2009. (c) Pycnometer modified after Bär, 2012.....42 Figure 21: Thermophysical properties of studied basalt flows, n = 12 for each subflow.

Figure 22: Box-and-whisker diagram for thermophysical properties of basalts.

Figure 23: Thermal conductivity and permeability correlation showing the logarithm relationship expressed in Eq. 4

Figure 24: Experimental thermal conductivity versus predicted thermal conductivity using geometric and non- geometric models.

Figure 25: Correlation between thermal conductivity and plagioclase volume proportion.



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