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«A Dissertation Submitted To The Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

APPLYING INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY

TO COLLEGE STUDENT DRINKING

A Dissertation

Submitted To The Graduate Faculty of

the Louisiana State University and

Agricultural and Mechanical College

in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

in

The Department of Educational Leadership Research and Counseling

by

Linda Marie Regira

B.A. Louisiana State University, 1984 M.C.J. Louisiana State University, 1989 August, 2006 ©Copyright 2006 Linda Marie Regira All rights reserved ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………….. v LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………… vi

Abstract

………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………... 1 College Student Drinking ……………………………………………………………. 1 Patterns of Alcohol Use by College Students ……………………………………….. 2 Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CORE) …………………………………………. 2 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS) ………………… 3 Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ) …………………………………………… 4 Drinking Patterns by Student and School Characteristics …………………………... 6 Gender …………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Age / Class Standing ……………………………………………………………… 6 Ethnicity …………………………………………………………………………... 7 Religion……………………………………………………………………………. 7 GPA ……………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Memberships and Affiliations …………………………………………………….. 7 Residence …………………………………………………………………………. 8 School Type ………………………………………………………………………. 8 School Size / School Location ……………………………………………………. 9 The Primary and Secondary Effects of Student Drinking …………………………… 10 Potential Liability of Higher Education Institutions ………………………………… 11 Prevention Efforts …………………………………………………………………… 15 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ………………………………………. 18 Review of the Literature ……………………………………………………………… 18 Student Development Theory ………………………………………………………… 22 Contemporary College Student Development Theory …………………..…………… 25 Intellectual Development …………………………………………………………….. 28 Measuring Intellectual Development and College Student Drinking ………………… 29 Impacting Student Intellectual Development Level ………………………………….. 32 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………... 33 Purpose of the Study...………………………………………………………………... 34 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………… 35 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………... 36 Sampling ……………………………………………………………………………… 36 Reliability and Validity ……………………………………………………………….. 36 Core Alcohol and Drug Survey ……………………………………………………. 37 Campus Survey of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms ………………………………. 37 Moore’s Learning Environment Preferences (LEP) ….…………………………… 38 Limitations Related to Sampling ……………………………………………………… 40 iii Limitations Related to Self-Reports ………………………………………

Demand Characteristics …………………………………………………………… 41 Underestimates of Sensitive Behavior …………………………………………….. 41 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………. 42 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS ……………………………………………………………... 45 Hierarchical Regression Models ………..…………………………………………….. 48 Personal Consumption Regression Model ………………………………………… 50 Binge Drinking Regression Model ………………………………………............... 52 Further Testing of the Critical Assumptions ………..………………………………… 54 Pearson’s Correlations ………………………………………………………………... 61 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………. 64 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………… 71





APPENDIX

A: PERRY’S SCHEME OF MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT…… 79 B: ONLINE SURVEY CONSENT FORM ……………………………………………... 80 C: LEARNING ENVIRONMENT PREFERENCES SCORING KEY ………………… 81 VITA ……………………………………………………………………………………... 82

–  –  –

3: Comparison of Drinking Behavior, by Level of Consumption ………………….. 47 4: Actual versus Perceived Drinking Behavior, by Class Standing ………………... 48 5: Block Regression Results for Personal Consumption Regression Model ………. 50 6: Anova Results for Personal Consumption Regression Model……………………... 51 7: Block Regression Results for Binge Drinking Regression Model ………………. 53 8: Anova Results for Binge Drinking Regression Model ………………………….. 54

9. Block Regression Results for Binge Drinking Model with Outliers Removed …... 56 10: Anova Results for Binge Drinking Model with Outliers Removed …………….… 57 11: Model Specification Analysis ……………………………………………………... 58 12: Attrition Regression Analysis for Relationships – All Independent Variables and Personal Binge Drinking …………………………………………………… 59 13: Independent Samples T-Test Results for All Respondents ……………………….. 60 14: Correlation Analysis of Perception of Peer Personal Consumption, by CCI Score. 62 15: Correlation Analysis of Perception of Peer Binge Drinking, by CCI Score ……… 62 16: Research Objectives – Results Matrix …………………………………………….. 64

–  –  –

This study evaluates the presence of a relationship between a student’s level of Intellectual Development, as measured by Moore’s Learning Environment Preferences (LEP) test, and harmful drinking behavior in college students. An online survey instrument was sent to a random sample of 3,000 undergraduate students at a large public research-intensive four-year college in the South via student email accounts. The survey instrument included items about student drinking behavior, perception of peer student drinking behavior, and the Learning Environment Preferences Test. The results showed that there is a statistically significant relationship (inverse) between intellectual development and binge drinking behavior, after controlling for perception of peer bingedrinking behavior, but no relationship between intellectual development and drinking in general. A finding that increasing intellectual development levels may result in reduced negative drinking behavior has implications for curriculum development.

–  –  –

College Student Drinking College student drinking has been researched extensively since the landmark Straus & Bacon study in 1953, Drinking in College. Although anything but a new phenomenon, student drinking has fallen under increasing scrutiny as the country has shifted from a legal drinking age of 18 up to 21, and the majority of college students have thereby been categorized as illegal drinkers (Chaloupka & Weschler, 1996). Despite decades of study into the causes and correlates of harmful college student drinking behavior and the myriad of student development programs designed to address the problem, college student drinking patterns are generally unchanged today from those described by researchers more than a half century ago. Studies of problematic alcohol consumption among college students continue to show that although the majority of students do not engage in problematic drinking, and that they do not drink more heavily than their non-college peers, those students who are heavy drinkers are at much higher risk of alcohol-related problems than are than other students (Johnston et. al., 2000).

Based on the findings of the three largest national surveys of college student drinking patterns, and upon numerous smaller-level (single institution, i.e.) studies that provide corroboration for these findings across a variety of communities, schools and students, the “typical” college student binge drinker can be described as a white male under age 24 who has some level of Greek affiliation, resides off campus or in Greek housing, and has a lower grade point average. (Engs (1977), Engs and Hanson (1985) and Engs, Hanson and Diebold (1997), Presley, Meilman, Leichliter and Harrold, (1998a) Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Moeykens and Castillo (1994)).

Patterns of Alcohol Use Three national studies have shown that the percentage of college students reporting some use of alcohol is relatively consistent over time, in about the 75% to 85% range. What is not so clear is the extent to which binge drinking or heavy drinking has increased (or decreased) over the past twenty years. There are at least two schools of thought – one that says binge drinking is not on the rise and another that says it is.

Which school one belongs to depends largely on how binge drinking is defined and how the level of binge drinking is calculated. Keeling (1998) noted that the politics surrounding college student drinking research, scholarship and prevention efforts has resulted in ineffective programs and a confused public. “To say that there are multiple, conflicting agendas is the gentlest of understatements” (p.51). To highlight these issues, the definitions and results from each of the three studies with respect to quantity/ frequency (QF) measures is presented.

Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CORE). The Core Institute’s Alcohol and Drug Survey is an annual national survey of college students from two- and four-year colleges dating back to 1989. Presley, Meilman, Leichliter and Harrold, (1998) conduct the survey under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education under the Drug Prevention in Higher Education Program, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE). Students are randomly selected within each institution participating in the survey. The survey is designed to assist colleges and universities obtain a common “core” of baseline data about college student alcohol and other drug use. Students are asked to report quantity/frequency (QF) measures on a range of drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, steroids, etc.) in two categories: using at least once in the previous year and using at least once within 30 days prior to completing the survey. They are also asked to give an estimate of the average number of drinks per week they normally consume and to indicate the number of times they engaged in binge drinking activity, defined as five or more drinks in one sitting, within the past two weeks. The number of students reporting they engaged in binge drinking at least once during the past two weeks rose from 41.8% in 1989 to 46.8% in 1999, and to 49.8% in 2003.

Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). Wechsler, Davenport, Dowdall, Moeykens and Castillo (1994) published the first of the College Alcohol Studies defining binge drinking as five or more drinks in a row for men and four or more drinks in a row for women at least once during the two weeks prior to the survey. Frequent/heavy binge drinking was defined as binge drinking three or more times in the two weeks prior to the survey.

In all four years that the study has been conducted to date, students were selected randomly from each participating institution. Consistent findings in all four studies showed that binge drinkers (both occasional and frequent) comprised approximately 44% of all respondents, with one in five defining themselves as frequent binge drinkers.

The survey was first administered in 1993 to 15,403 students at 140 colleges and universities. Approximately 84.6% of the students indicated that they had consumed alcohol during the past year and 24.7% reported binge drinking. They also found that 19.8% of all the students reported heavy binge drinking. In 1997, only 116 of the original 140 schools were resurveyed (including 39 states) because several of the original schools chose not to participate in the second study. The results showed that of 14,724 students surveyed, 81.1% indicated consuming alcohol within the past year, 22.7% were binge drinkers. They also found that 20.9% of all students were frequent binge drinkers.

In 1999, Wechsler et. al. (2003) resurveyed surveyed 119 of the original 140 schools (including 38 states and the District of Columbia). Of the 14, 138 students surveyed, 80.8% indicated consuming alcohol within the past year, 21.4% were binge drinkers, and 22.7% were heavy binge drinkers. And finally, Wechsler et. al. (2002)’s survey from 2001 shows remarkably little difference from the findings of the earlier CAS studies.



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