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«Harald Honer Diplomarbeit unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Markus Weiler Freiburg im Breisgau, Februar 2010 Harald Honer Hydrological and ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Hydrological and Geomorphological Processes of an

extreme Flood in the Rio San Francisco Valley,

South Ecuador

Harald Honer

Diplomarbeit unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Markus Weiler

Freiburg im Breisgau, Februar 2010

Harald Honer

Hydrological and Geomorphological Processes of an

extreme Flood in the Rio San Francisco Valley,

South Ecuador

Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Markus Weiler

Co-Supervisor: Dr. Lutz Breuer

Respect the spiritual nature!

Figure 1: Ecuador, North Peru and South Colombia (Google Earth 2010) What one thinks with the heart, mind can’t follow. Blaise Pascal Table of contents List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

V Data DVD

V

Abstract

V Zusammenfassung

1 Introduction

2 Basics

2.1 Definition of the Tropes and Climate Graph of Quito, Ecuador

2.2 Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes in Ecuador

2.3 Altitudinal Levels of the South American Andes

2.4 Deforestation and other Problems in Ecuador

2.5 Mangroves and Coral Reefs

2.6 Flood Climate

2.7 Spatial and Temporal Scales of Hydroclimatic Activity

2.8 Drainage Basin Morphometry

2.9 Runoff Generation

3 State of the Art

3.1 Fluvial Geomorphology

3.2 Sediment Transport in the humid Tropics

3.3 Flow Types

3.4 Geomorphic Impacts of Floods

3.5 Water Chemistry

3.6 Runoff Generation in the humid Tropics

3.7 Climate Change

3.8 Paleoflood Hydrology

4 Methodology

4.1 Isotopes

4.2 Anions & Cations

4.3 Water Samples

4.4 Sediment

4.5 Cross-sectional Measurements

4.6 Slope-area Method

4.6 Hydraulic Modeling with HEC-RAS

5 Study Area

5.1 Geology

5.2 Landslides

5.3 Soils

5.4 Vegetation, Land Use, Biodiversity and Fire Dynamics

5.5 Climate

5.6 El Niño

5.7 Flowpaths

5.8 Water Chemistry

5.9 Nutrient Fluxes

5.10 Impressions of the wider study area

6 Results & Discussion

6.1 Drainage Basin

6.2 Climate

6.2.1 Landslides as indicator for maximum rainfall intensity

6.2.2 Pre-Flood Conditions

6.2.3 Wind direction, wind velocity and rainfall intensity

6.2.4 Air Temperature, Relative Humidity and Rainfall Intensity

6.2.5 Discussion

6.2.6 Sea Surface Temperature

6.3 Water Chemistry

6.3.1 Conductivity and pH

6.3.2 Cations

6.3.3 Anions

6.3.4 Isotopes

6.3.5 Sediment Concentration

6.3.6 Discussion

6.4 Anthropogenic Influences

6.5 Hydraulics & discharge estimation

6.5.1 Study Reach

6.5.2 Cross-sectional Measurements

6.5.3 Eddies

6.5.4 Discussion

6.5.5 Slope-area Method

6.5.6 HEC-RAS Modeling

6.5.7 Discussion

6.5.8 Response Time

6.6 Geomorphic Effects

7 Conclusion

8 Acknowledgements

9 Eidesstattliche Erklärung

10 Bibliography

List of Figures I

List of Figures

Figure 1: Ecuador, North Peru and South Colombia

Figure 2: Metric Climate Graph of Quito, Ecuador

Figure 3: Plates of the Earth

Figure 4: Quilotoa Lagoon in Ecuador

Figure 5: Comparison between the Andes and the Alps

Figure 6: Deforestation in Morona Santiago on Shuar and Colonist land

Figure 7: Mangrove tree and kind of roots

Figure 8: Geographic range of mangroves

Figure 9: Extent of Shrimp farms in the Gulf of Guayaquil

Figure 10: Position of the ITCZ in January and July.

Figure 11: Frequency of annual thunderstorms

Figure 12: Zones of easterly wave and trade wind disturbance

Figure 13: Flood climate regions of the world

Figure 14: Meteorologic, climatologic and hydrologic space-time domain

Figure 15: Rainstorm event in the Walnut Gulch catchment

Figure 16: Strahler ordering system of a drainage network and morphometric definitions..... 30 Figure 17: Drainage density and Thornthwaites precipitation effectiveness index................. 31 Figure 18: Runoff hydrographs as a function of basin shape and bifurcation ratio................. 32 Figure 19: Streamflow hydrograph resulting from a rainstorm

Figure 20: Changes in lag time as a function of rainfall intensity

Figure 21: Simulated Geomorphic Unit Hydrograph for a third-order basin

Figure 22: Wave speed and travel time at flood discharges

Figure 23: Relationship between shear stress and velocity

Figure 24: Partial Area Model and Variable Source Area Model

Figure 25: Relationship between infiltration volume and overland flow

Figure 26: Location of interrill, rill and gully erosion

Figure 27: Flow direction as controlled by soil anisotropy

Figure 28: Longitudinal profile of a river

Figure 29: Meandering reach and areas of deposition and erosion





Figure 30: Longitudinal profile of a riffle-pool sequence

Figure 31: Classification of bars

Figure 32: Bank erosion of a huge terrace in the Rio San Francisco Valley, Ecuador............ 49 Figure 33: Relation of velocity and size of grains that can be eroded

Figure 34: Profile of a rigid boundary channel

Figure 35: Profile of a rigid boundary with floodplain vegetation

Figure 36: Profile of changing cross-sections of a channel

Figure 37: Loose boundary textural and form drag resistance

Figure 38: Flexible boundary resistance coefficient at low and high stage

Figure 39: Classification of suspensions based on shear strength & sediment concentration. 60 Figure 40: Channel widening due to the 1969 Hurricane Camille flood

Figure 41: Important factors controlling channel and floodplain response to floods.............. 71 Figure 42: Conceptual framework of runoff-generation mechanisms

Figure 43: Ksat as function of soil depth

Figure 44: Spectrum of hydrologic flowpaths in tropical rainforests

Figure 45: Historical and paleoflood techniques for estimating paleoflood discharge............ 86 Figure 46: Postbomb radiocarbon curve

Figure 47: Conservation of energy for gradually varied flow

Figure 48: Specific energy curve

II List of Figures Figure 49: Hydraulic modeling

Figure 50: Topography and geology of the ‘Cordillera Real’

Figure 51: Upper tree line and lowest glacial stands within the west-Andes

Figure 52: Study area below the ‘El Tiro’ watershed

Figure 53: ‘El Tiro’ watershed in the upper Rio San Francisco Valley

Figure 54: Extension of the Páramo

Figure 55: Orographic map and river systems in Ecuador

Figure 56: Classification of rapid mass movements

Figure 57: Distribution of landslides on RBSF terrain

Figure 58: Landslides of a section of Quebrada Milagro

Figure 59: Successional stages on landslides

Figure 60: Relationship between altitude and C/N ratio in organic layers.

Figure 61: Typical Cambisol after dye tracer experiment in the forested study area............ 113 Figure 62: Relationship between calcium and pH and magnesium and pH in O horizons.... 115 Figure 63: Cation-exchange capacity, base saturation and C concentrations of soils............ 115 Figure 64: Potential natural vegetation of the Cordillera Real and land-use pattern............. 117 Figure 65: Profile diagram of Forest Type 1 at the RBSF (1960 m)

Figure 66: Profile diagram of Forest Type 2 at the RBSF (2050 m)

Figure 67: Profile diagram of Forest Type 3 at the RBSF (2210 m)

Figure 68: Profile diagram of Forest Type 4 at the RBSF (2450 m)

Figure 69: Profile diagram of Forest Type 5 at the RBSF (3000 m)

Figure 70: Pollen percentage diagram and spore taxa from the RBSF - T2/250

Figure 71: Pollen percentage diagram and spore taxa from the Refugio

Figure 72: Pollen percentage diagram of pollen and spore taxa from El Tiro Pass............... 125 Figure 73: Average air temperature along the altitudinal transect

Figure 74: Average hourly irradiance along the altitudinal transect

Figure 75: Cloud frequency along the western- and eastern Andean mountain range........... 129 Figure 76: Average wind velocity along the altitudinal transect

Figure 77: Frequency of wind direction, rainfall and rain rate at the Páramo MS................. 131 Figure 78: Average monthly rainfall along the altitudinal transect

Figure 79: Average monthly fog water intake along the altitudinal gradient

Figure 80: Average relative humidity along the altitudinal gradient

Figure 81: Altitudinal gradients of pH, conductivity and ion concentrations in rain water... 137 Figure 82: Altitudinal gradients of pH, conductivity and ion concentrations in fog water.... 137 Figure 83: Time series of monthly mean ion concentrations in rain and fog water.............. 138 Figure 84: Time series of fire frequency

Figure 85: Ten-day daily backward trajectories

Figure 86: Wind and rainfall in Ecuador during El Niño and normal conditions.................. 140 Figure 87: Cloud motion winds in the central Niño area of Ecuador and Northern Peru...... 141 Figure 88: Average MCSST

Figure 89: Mean 18O values in rainfall and streamwater

Figure 90: Course of soil water content during a rainstorm event

Figure 91: Estación Científica San Francisco, Pastos and RBSF study area

Figure 92: Cajanuma at 3400 m and Bombuscaro at 1000 m

Figure 93: Tarabita during the mudflow phase, steps to overcome the steep slopes............. 152 Figure 94: Rio San Francisco Valley, above the tara bita rock face

Figure 95: Bacteria and algae in the river bed in the dry period 2009

Figure 96: Rio San Francisco, variable source area

Figure 97: Antennas, upper Rio San Francisco headwaters

Figure 98: Wider study area in South Ecuador showing the ‘Cordillera Real’

Figure 99: Drainage network system of the study area

List of Figures III Figure 100: RBSF study area

Figure 101: Landslides and incised Jipiro on the western slope of the ‘El Tiro watershed’. 157 Figure 102: rainfall intensity, air temperature and relative humidity before the flood.......... 158 Figure 103: Wind direction and wind velocity at the El Tiro watershed

Figure 104: Air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation intensity at El Tiro watershed160 Figure 105: Niño 4, Niño 3, Niño 1+2 and Costero

Figure 106: Sea Surface Temperature anomalies for Costero area

Figure 107: Weekly Sea Surface Temperature anomalies relative to 1971-2000.................. 164 Figure 108: Conductivity and pH in the flood phase

Figure 109: Conductivity and pH in the recovery phase

Figure 110: Conductivity and pH in the post-flood phase

Figure 111: Conductivity and pH in the dry period 2009

Figure 112: Box Plots of conductivity in the different phases

Figure 113: Box Plots of pH in the different phases

Figure 114: Concentrations of magnesium and calcium in the flood phase

Figure 115: Concentrations of magnesium and calcium in the recovery phase

Figure 116: Concentrations of magnesium and calcium in the post-flood phase.................. 172 Figure 117: Box Plots of magnesium concentrations in the different phases.

Figure 118: Box Plots of calcium concentrations in the different phases

Figure 119: Concentrations of sodium and potassium in the flood phase

Figure 120: Concentrations of sodium and potassium in the recovery phase

Figure 121: Concentrations of sodium and potassium in the post-flood phase

Figure 122: Box Plots of sodium concentrations in the different phases

Figure 123: Box Plots of potassium concentrations in the different phases

Figure 124: Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the flood phase

Figure 125: Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the recovery phase

Figure 126: Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the post-flood phase

Figure 127: Box Plots of nitrate concentrations in the different phases

Figure 128: Box Plots of phosphate concentrations in the different phases

Figure 129: Concentrations of sulphate and chloride in the flood phase

Figure 130: Concentrations of sulphate and chloride in the recovery phase

Figure 131: Concentrations of sulphate and chloride in the post-flood phase

Figure 132: Box Plots of sulphate concentrations in the different phases

Figure 133: Box Plots of chloride concentrations in the different phases

Figure 134: Isotope contents of 18O and 2H in the flood phase

Figure 135: Isotope contents of 18O and 2H in the recovery phase

Figure 136: Isotope contents of 18O and 2H in the post-flood phase

Figure 137: Box Plots of 18O and 2H contents in the different phases

Figure 138: Sediment concentrations in the flood phase

Figure 139: Sediment concentrations in the recovery phase

Figure 140: Sediment concentrations in the post-flood phase

Figure 141: Sediment concentrations in the dry period 2009

Figure 142: Box Plots of sediment concentrations in the different phases

Figure 143: Compuerta after the extreme flood

Figure 144: Flow conditions of the ‘Camino Canal’ in the dry period 2009

Figure 145: Extreme low flow conditions in the Rio San Francisco

Figure 146: ‘Planta’ and ‘Quebrada Milagro’, surplus water of the ‘Camino Canal’........... 200 Figure 147: Nightly fire at the ‘Planta’ in the dry period

Figure 148: Road from Loja to Zamora at the ‘El Tiro’ watershed

Figure 149: Gullies extending from the road to the streams

Figure 150: Flood protection structure built after the extreme flood

IV List of Figures Figure 151: Peak discharge influencing bridge through backwater effects

Figure 152: Landslides on the road from Loja to Zamora

Figure 153: The three sub-reaches of the whole study reach

Figure 154: Schematic overview over the three sub-reaches



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