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«Characterising the cleaning behaviour of brewery foulants. To minimise the Cost of Cleaning In Place Operations. by Kylee Rebecca Goode A thesis ...»

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i

Characterising the cleaning behaviour of

brewery foulants.

To minimise the Cost of Cleaning In Place Operations.

by

Kylee Rebecca Goode

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the

degree of Doctor of Engineering

in the college of Engineering and Physical Sciences

School of Chemical Engineering

August 2012

i

University of Birmingham Research Archive

e-theses repository

This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties.

The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation.

Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.

ii

ABSTRACT

Industry operations require a clean plant to make safe, quality products consistently. As well as product quality, the environmental impact of processes has become increasingly important to industry and consumers. Cleaning In Place (CIP) is the ubiquitous method used to ensure plant cleanliness and hygiene. It is therefore vital the system is optimal and efficient. I.e. the correct cleaning agent is delivered to the fouled surface at the right time, temperature, flow rate and concentration. This cannot be assured without effective online measurement technologies.

Fryer and Asteriadou (2009) describe how the nature of a fouling deposit can be related to the cost of cleaning. The evolution of three key deposit types has also enabled current fouling and cleaning literature to be easily classified. In the brewery there are many types of soil that need to be cleaned of which the cost of cleaning was unknown. The cost of fermenter CIP in one brewery was found to be £106 k per year. Effective fouling methods for yeast and caramel;

and the relationship between flow, temperature, and caustic concentration in the removal of yeast and caramel soils seen in industry has been done. This work has helped determine effective cleaning methods for these soils from stainless steel coupons and pipes.

Fermentation vessels have been found by Goode et al., (2010) to have two types of soil: A – fouling above the beer resulting from the act of fermentation, and B – fouling below the beer resulting from emptying the fermenter. The type B fouling below the beer was found to be a type 1 soil that could be removed with water. An increase in flow velocity and Reynolds number decreased cleaning time. An increase in temperature did not decrease cleaning time significantly at higher flow velocities, 0.5 m s-1. Fouling above the beer occurs when material is transported to and stick on to the wall during fermentation foaming. This happens initially and as a result the fouling has a long aging time. This yeast film represents a type 2 deposit, removed in part by water and in part by chemical. Most of the deposit could be removed by rinsing with warm water. At 50°C the greatest amount of deposit was removed in the shortest time. A visually clean surface could be achieved at all temperatures, 20, 30, 50 and 70°C, using both 2 and

0.2 wt % Advantis 210 (1 and 0.1 wt % NaOH respectively). A visually clean surface was achieved quicker at higher detergent temperatures rather than rinsing at higher flow velocity or concentration. This finding suggests most deposit can be removed with warm water and cleaned with lower detergent concentrations. Currently in the brewery 2 % NaOH is used at 70°C.

Caramel represents a type 3 soil. When heated it sticks to stainless steel and requires chemical action for removal.

Confectionary caramel was cooked onto pipes and coupons and the effect of flow velocity, temperature and concentration on removal determined. At high flow velocity most of the deposit could be removed from the pipe using water. There was no significant difference in the mass of caramel removed by the water however. A visually clean surface was achieved by rinsing at 80°C with 2.5% Advantis. A visually clean surface could not be achieved at lower temperatures at higher concentration, 5% Advantis, or at higher flow velocity.

The measurement of online conductivity and flow rate values was invaluable during each experiment. Turbidity values did indicate the removal of yeast and caramel from pipes however offline measurements were required to confirm removal. Caramel removal could be wholly quantified by mass when cleaning pipes. The integration of the turbidity values measured during each rinse correlated well with the mass of deposit removed in most cases. Coupon cleaning was wholly quantified by area. A cost saving of £69 k can be made by optimising fermenter CIP to warm pre-rinsing followed by ambient caustic circulation. An £8 k saving can be made by optimising yeast tank CIP to pre-rinsing only and acid sanitisation. Industry must ensure effective online CIP measurements are made throughout cleaning to describe the process effectively and enable optimisation. It is crucial to have cleaning measurement information to hand because that is how we ensure our customers they are buying a quality product. Also you cannot optimise what you do not measure effectively.





–  –  –

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

There have been many chapters to my life during the EngD. Mostly beer filled! It has been a great journey I would not change it. I have learned valuable skills and knowledge, and obtained fabulous friends and advice I am sure I will keep for a long time. The people who have supported me and my work throughout the last four years I have to thank for different things.

I would like to thank my Heineken supervisors Billy Mathers, Mark Picksley and Richard Heathcote, and my academic supervisors Phil Robbins and Peter Fryer for their guidance, support and helping to keep the industrial and

academic goals aligned. I would also like to thank three of my newest and dearest friends part of project ZEAL:

Konstantia Asteriadou for her invaluable experience, knowledge and practical hand in setting up the CIP equipment at the university; Pamela Cole, fellow EngD working on toothpaste cleaning, for sharing the experience; and Kathleen Hynes for making project admin enjoyable with several cups of tea and great gossip.

I would also like to thank my industrial colleagues Dick Murton and Claire Anderson for helping me integrate so well into the brewery and helping me to learn all about the complexities of brewing beer. And thanks to the ZEAL consortium for their shared interest and experience, and for coming together from both academia and industry to solve a shared problem.

And of course, I cannot forget to thank my fellow EngD partner in crime, Paul Wilson, without whom I would not have had the confidence to do the EngD. He has been both enthusiastic and supportive and I am grateful we made the EngD journey together. And of course I have to thank my parents and my sister for shouting my praises even though they are still not 100% sure what I have been doing these past four years. Although they know it involved beer!

–  –  –

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Chapter Introduction

1.2 Brewery operations

1.3 The fouling problem

1.4 The drivers for change

1.5 Challenges to CIP optimisation

1.5.1 CIP best practice in a brewery

1.5.2 Process design

1.5.3 How clean is clean?

1.6 The aim of project ZEAL

1.7 Quantifying CIP performance of fermenters and areas of improvement

1.7.1 Fermenter cleaning time

1.7.2 Cost of fermenter CIP

1.8 Summary, thesis aims and direction

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF CURRENT FOULING AND CLEANING STUDIES

2.1 Chapter Introduction

2.2 Fouling studies

2.2.1 A specific case: beer fermentation and fouling

2.2.2 Adhesion of microbes to surfaces

2.2.3 Preventing fouling

2.3 Cleaning

2.3.1 Product recovery

2.4 The effect of CIP parameters on type 1 removal

2.4.1 Flow and wall shear stress

2.4.2 Temperature

2.5 Design

2.6 The effect of CIP parameters on type 2 and type 3 removal

2.6.1 Membrane cleaning

2.6.2 Flow and Temperature effect of water

2.6.2 Chemical effect on type 2 deposits

2.6.3 Chemical effect on type 3 deposits

2.7 Novel approaches to decreasing cleaning time

2.7.1 Boundary layer disruption

2.7.2 Alternative cleaners

2.7.3 Surface chemistry

2.8 Alternative parameters relating to cleaning behaviour

iv v 2.8.1 Deposit shear

2.8.2 Deposit deformation and strength

2.9 Measuring cleaning

2.9.1 Bulk measurements

2.9.2 Surface measures

2.9.3 Measuring microbial cleanliness

2.10 Conclusion

CHAPTER 3: EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES

3.1 Chapter Introduction

3.2 Cleaning Rig

3.2.1 Chemical concentration

3.2.2 Cleaning rig operation

3.2.3 Cleaning rig coupons

3.2.4 Calculating the area of deposit removed during cleaning

3.2.5 Microfoil heat flow sensor (MHFS) theory

3.3. Pilot plant CIP system

3.3.1 Chemical concentration

3.3.2 Measurement technologies

3.4 Rheology

3.5 Micromanipulation

3.6 Caramel fouling

3.6.1 Fouling pipes

3.6.2 Fouling coupons

3.7 Yeast fouling and cleaning pilot study

3.7.1 Mimicking type B fouling

3.7.2 Yeast slurry collection and handling

3.7.3 Mimicking type A fouling

3.7.4 Rheology of yeast and fermenter deposits

3.7.5 Fermentation and scalable fouling

3.7.6 Fermentation in other systems

3.7.7 Maximising yeast cell transport to the surface

3.8 Conclusions

CHAPTER 4: REMOVAL OF YEAST SLURRY FROM STAINLESS STEEL PIPES AND SURFACES... 148

4.1 Chapter Introduction

4.2 Measurement device characterisation

4.2.1 Heat transfer coefficient (U) response

4.2.2 Conductivity and turbidity response

v vi 4.2.3 Measuring yeast slurry

4.3 Characterisation of yeast slurry

4.4 Yeast slurry removal from stainless steel coupons

4.4.1 Average area profiles and visual cleaning time

4.4.2 Visual cleaning time

4.4.3 Cleaning phases and time determined by plotting Rd and U

4.5 yeast slurry removal profiles from pipes

4.5.1 Determining removal time

4.5.2 Effect of flow and wall shear stress

4.5.4 Effect of temperature

4.5.5 Effect of Re

4.6 Relating coupon and pipe cleaning times

4.7 Conclusions

CHAPTER 5: CLEANING OF TYPE 2 DEPOSIT, AGED YEAST SLURRY

5.1 Chapter Introduction

5.2 Deposit removal profiles

5.3 Water rinsing

5.3.1 The effect of temperature and flow on the lag phase

5.3.2 The effect of temperature and flow on removal

5.3.3 Determining of the removal phase (II) by Rd

5.4 Chemical cleaning

5.4.1 Average cleaning times

5.4.2 Rinsing using 0.2 % Advantis 210

5.4.3 Rinsing using 2 % Advantis 210

5.4.4 Cleaning time

5.5 Deposit rheology

5.6 Monitoring cleaning using U

5.6.1 Water rinsing

5.6.2 Chemical rinsing

5.7 Conclusion

CHAPTER 6: CHARACTERISING THE REMOVAL BEHAVIOUR OF TYPE 3 DEPOSIT: COOKED

CARAMEL

6.1 Chapter Introduction

6.2 Deposit characterisation by rheology

6.3 Removal of caramel from a pipe by water

6.3.1 Mass of cooked caramel removed by the pre-rinse

6.3.2 Conductivity and turbidity measured during water rinsing

vi vii 6.3.

3 Integration of FTU during the pre-rinse.

6.3.4 Rates of removal during the pre-rinse

6.4 Chemical removal of a patch of caramel

6.5 Chemical removal of caramel from a pipe

6.5.1 Deposit mass removed by detergent circulation

6.5.2 The effect of deposit mass on turbidity

6.5.3 The effect of flow velocity and temperature on turbidity

6.5.4 Integration of turbidity measurements

6.6 Conclusions

CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

7.1 The importance of understanding cleaning in breweries

7.2 Experimental work

7.2.1 Yeast slurry removal mechanism

7.2.2 Fermenter deposit removal behaviour

7.2.3 Cooked caramel deposit removal behaviour

7.2.4 Measurement findings

7.3 Industry recommendations

7.4 Future work

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

A.1 Benchmarking case study

A.2 CIP unit and cleaning stages

A.3 CIP resource quantification

A.3.1 Water

A.3.2 Detergent

A.3.3 Additive

A.3.4 Steam

A.3.5 Electricity

A.2.6 Sanitiser

A.2.7 Yield loss estimation

A.2.8 cost of CIP Tank recharges

A.2.9 The total cost of FV CIP and MV CIP

A.2.10 The cost of cleaning YSTs

B: SOP developed for the Cleaning Rig

C.1: SOP for the pilot plant and file exporting to Excel

C.2 Manual set up

vii viii C.3 Start up procedure

C.3.1 The pilot plant

C.3.2 The laptop (Toshiba Satellite Pro)

C.3.3 Using additional instruments

C.3.4 Tanks filling and concentration preparation.

C.4 Fouling

C.4.1 A pipe with yeast

C.4.2 A pipe with caramel

C.4.3 The whole test piece

C.5 Experiment procedure

C.6 Saving and exporting data from Matlab files

C.7 Shut down procedure

D: AR500 and AR1000 rheometer operation and file acquisition in Excel

–  –  –

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Schematic of brewery operations. The general process stages are in yellow and products in and out of the system are in white.



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