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«By CHANG HYUN JIN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ...»

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ANIMATED COMMERCIALS’ EFFECTS ON LOW-EFFORT ROUTES TO

PERSUASION: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING APPROACH

By

CHANG HYUN JIN

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Copyright 2006 by ChangHyun Jin I dedicate this dissertation to my parents, Jeong-Ho Jin, Pan-Soon Kang who have made me what I am.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

It was a long way to be Dr. Jin. It was a great opportunity to start a new challenge in my life. It was not the end but just the beginning to pursue the endless knowledge. To be continued to open a new door of advertising area… I would like to express extreme gratitude to my committee chair, Dr. Jon D. Morris.

His guideline, interest, and selfless donation of time are what made this dissertation possible. Dr. Jorge Villegas has been particularly helpful and supportive in his capacity as my cochair, research partner, and informal mentor. Their teaching, guidance, support, and friendship, during my doctoral studies and throughout the writing of this dissertation, were invaluable. I am also grateful to Dr. Marilyn Roberts, Dr. Chan-Hoan Cho and Dr.

Ronald W. Ward, for help from the idea development through the completion of this dissertation.

In the process of writing my dissertation, I was very nostalgic. Yearning for my home and my family always enabled me complete the otherwise impossible dream of attaining this degree. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my parents, Jeong-Ho Jin and Pan-Soon Kang, for giving me continuous support and motivation throughout the completion of this dissertation. I could not have completed this study without the devoted and unconditional love of my parents, sisters, and brothers-in-law. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Korean Communication Gators at the University of Florida, especially JangYul Kim and ChongMoo Woo, for their stimulating academic discussions and friendship throughout this Ph.D. experience.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Historical Review of Animation

2.2 Animation and Peripheral Processing Routes

2.3 Classical Conditioning

2.4 The Role of Contingency Awareness ……………………………

2.5 The Influence of Involvement on Awareness

2.6 ELM and Involvement Issues

2.7 Stimuli in FCB Grid Model

2.8 The Animated Commercials as a New Creative Platform

2.9 The Relationship between Animated Ads and Human Behavior

2.10 The Effect of Motion on Consumer Behavior

2.11 Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions

2.11.1 Cognition ……………………

2.11.2 Affection …………………………………

2.11.3 AdSAM: A Pictorial Non-Verbal Measure ………………………....31 2.11.4 Conation ………………………

2.12 Summary and Hypotheses

2.12.1 Experiment 1 ………

2.12.2 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in Ads

2.12.3 Experiment 2 ………………………………

2.12.4 The Hierarchy of Communication Effects in C.C

3 METHODOLOGY

v

3.1 Overview of Experimental Design

3.1.1 Experiment 1 ……………………

3.1.2 Pilot Study ……………………..

3.1.3 Prestest the Animated Commercial Stimuli ……………………..........50 3.1.4 Subjects ………………………

3.1.5 Procedure …..…

3.1.6 Experimental Manipulation

3.1.7 Variables and Measures

3.1.8 Involvement Manipulation Check

3.2 Classical Conditioning Experiment 2

3.2.1 Conditioning Stimuli

3.2.2 Pretest the Animated Commercial Stimuli

3.2.3 Filler Materials

3.2.4 Procedure …..…

3.2.5 Experimental Manipulation

3.2.6 Measure ………………………….…

3.2.6.1 Contingency Awareness

3.2.6.2 Involvement Manipulation Check

3.2.6.3 Conditioning Requirement

3.2.6.4 Reliability of Manipulation Check

3.2.6.5 Construct Validity

3.2.6.6 Convergent Validity

4 RESULTS

4.1 Experiment 1

4.1.1 Testing of Hypotheses for Animated Commercial Effects..................71 4.1.2 Results of Ad-Recall ……………

4.1.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis in Experiment 1

4.1 Experiment 2

4.2.1 Results for the Classical Conditioning Experiment

4.2.2 Contingency Awareness ……………

4.2.3 Multi Group CFA Analysis

5 DISCUSSION

5.1 Discussion for Experiment 1

5.2 Discussion for Experiment 2





5.3 General Discussion

6 CONTRIBUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

6.1 The Effect of Animated Commercials

6.2 The Effect of a C.C Method in Ads Research

6.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research

–  –  –

A MULTI GROUP CFA ANALYSIS EQS PROGRAM

B QUESTIONNARE

C ANIMATION SNAPSHOTS

LIST OF REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

–  –  –

2-1. Types of Animation

4-2. Means and Standard Deviations by Types of Ads

4-3. MANOVA Results in Experiment 1

4-4. Results of Between Subjects in Experiment 1

4-5. The Results of Mean Difference

4-6. Ad Recall Crosstabulation and Chi-Square Tests

4-7. Group Difference for Ad Recall in Experiment 1

4-8. Logit Analsysis in Experiment 1

4-9. Variables in the Equation in Logit Analsyis for Experiment 1

4-10. Correlations Matrix for Multi Group Path Analysis in Experiment 1

4-11. Modification Indexes in Experiment 1

4-12. Means and Standard Deviations of Experiment 2

4-13. MANOVA Results in Experiment 2

4-14. Results of Between Subjects in Experiment 2

4-15. Results of Mean Difference in C.C

4-16. Analysis of Contingency Awareness

4-17. Logit Analysis for Contingency Awareness

4-18. Variables in the Equation in Logit Analysis for Contingency Awareness...............96 4-19. Mean and S.D for Contingency Awareness

4-20. Contingency Effect on Attitude toward the Ads, Brand and PI

–  –  –

4-22. Modification Indexes in C.C

4-23. Correlations Matrix in Affection Model

4-24. Modification Indexes in Affection Model

4-25. Correlations Matrix in High and Low Involvement Group

4-26. Modification Indexes in High and Low Invovlement Group

4-27. Correlations Matrix in Affection Model High and Low Involvement

4-28. Modification Indexes in Affection Model High and Low Involvement................107

–  –  –

4-1. Emotional Response: Pleasure

4-2. Emotional Response: Arousal

4-3. Attitude toward the Commercial

4-4. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand

4-5. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in types of Commercials

4-6. Emotional Response: Pleasure in C.C

4-7. Emotional Response: Arousal in C.C

4-8. Attitude toward the Commercial in C.C

4-9. Attitude toward the Advertised Brand in C.C

4-10. Purchase Intent in C.C

4-11. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Classical Conditioning

4-12. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection

4-13. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in High and Low Involvement

4-14. Tripartite Attitudinal Dimensions in Affection Model in Involvement................107

–  –  –

Chair: Jon D. Morris Cochair: Jorge Villegas Major Department: Journalism and Communications The motivation of the study was to examine the effects of animation and its relationship to human cognitive and affective processes by categorizing the different types of animation and live action featured in television commercials. This study also assessed the impact of animation in commercials through a series of classical conditioning experiments. A 3 (types of commercials (clay, cartoon and real human based commercials) x 2 (degree of involvement: high versus low) between-subjects factorial design was employed on dependent variables in the first experiment.

A 2 (experimental vs. control group) x 2 (high versus low involvement with the product) between subjects factorial design was performed on two different conditions on linear combinations of all dependent variables in the second experiment. In this experiment, advertised products have been treated as a conditioned stimulus while the different types of animation have been treated as potential unconditioned stimuli.

–  –  –

between animated commercials and human cognitive and affective processing. Animated commercials can more effectively provide visual demonstrations and recall testimonies for products. Also implication from this study is that animated ads should take into account the influence of lower-level peripheral processing routes on viewer persuasion.

This study demonstrated that awareness leads to favorable perception of the ad about the target attribute and favorable brand attitudes. The experiment in this study reexamined the degree to which awareness of the CS/US contingency plays a role in classical conditioning. The result of this study was that awareness is enhanced by involvement. In addition, involvement influences attitude formation through classical conditioning procedures with affect and belief formation acting as mediators. The study demonstrated benefits of the effective animated advertising stimuli. Through evidence for classical conditioning experiment, it can be provided the opportunity to better understand how classical conditioning can be used as a framework for affecting attitude toward the brand. The study confirmed that the classical conditioning method would be more effectively working under the low level personal relevant involvement toward the stimuli.

Understanding the relationship between animated commercials and how they stimulates viewers or effect their emotional responses and behavioral expectations, provides valuable information to practitioners who designs animation ads when they create effective animated commercials. Animation has become an important design tool in recent graphic interfaces because they motivate consumer actions and draw viewers’ attention to specific product features.

–  –  –

Animation has become the new creative advertising trend in today’s entertainment industry. As a character-based business, animation can expand the design of advertisements by applying digital content to different media, such as the Internet, mobile phone technology, and television. However, little research has been conducted on animated ad and animated characters as spokespersons that identifies whether or not they prove more effective at building consumer awareness about a product or service (Bush., Hair, & Bush 1983; Callcott & Lee 1994; Van Auken & Lonial 1985). Some research suggests that animated commercials can effectively provide visual demonstrations and verbal testimonies for a wide variety of products (Callcott & Lee 1994), while studies on motion (Detenber & Reeves 1996; Detenber, Simons, & Bennett 1998; Sundar & Sriran Kalyanaranman 2004) have focused on the relationship between size and speed and emotional response, as well as explored animated objects on the Internet.

The classical conditioning paradigm (Pavlov, 1927) has been widely applied to the field of consumer behavior. Many researchers have studied its implications on consumer behavior, and it has been adopted as a process relevant to advertising (Allen & Janiszewski 1989; Allen & Madden 1985; Bierley, MacSweeney, & Vannieuwkerk 1985;

Gorn 1982; Janiszewski & Warlop 1993; Nord & Peter 1980; Priluck & Till 1998, 2004;

Rossiter & Percy 1980; Shimp et al. 1991). Classical conditioning suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertised product (conditioned stimulus) might develop through a product’s association in a commercial with other positive stimuli (unconditioned stimuli).

Attractive colors, pleasant music, and humor are examples of potential unconditioned stimuli used in commercials (Gorn 1982, p.94). Bierley at al. (1985) reported that generalization of the conditioned response to other, similar stimuli is typically found in classical conditioning experiments (p. 317). Thus, a classical conditioning paradigm could be of use when discussing animated commercials as a new form of stimuli.

Purpose and Design of Study Given the little previous research on animation, this remains a relatively new genre in advertising design. This study aims to examine the effects of animation and its relationship to human cognitive and affective processes by categorizing the different types of animation featured in television commercials. Furthermore, the motivation of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how animation and the animated advertisement influence cognition, affection, and conation responses.



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