WWW.ABSTRACT.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Developed by: Natalie Arsenault, Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies Christopher Rose, Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Africa

Enslaved

A Curriculum Unit on Comparative Slave Systems

for Grades 9-12

Developed by:

Natalie Arsenault, Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies

Christopher Rose, Center for Middle Eastern Studies

at the University of Texas at Austin

About the Authors

Natalie Arsenault is Outreach Coordinator at the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at

the University of Texas at Austin. She holds an M.A. in Latin American Studies from the University of Florida.

She has worked extensively on Latin American content-based activities with educators at all levels; has presented on her own research at regional and national educator conferences; and has developed multiple standardsaligned curriculum units related to Latin America. She can be reached at n.arsenault@mail.utexas.edu Christopher Rose is Outreach Coordinator at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, where he obtained his M.A. in Middle Eastern Studies. He is responsible for educational outreach to classrooms, business, the media, and community groups to increase awareness on matters related to the Middle East and its many diverse cultures. He is a frequent guest speaker in schools throughout the Austin area, and he has developed many curriculum resources to supplement K-12 curricula in world studies. He can be reached at csrose@mail.utexas.edu Africa Enslaved: A Curriculum Unit on Comparative Slave Systems for Grades 9 -12 Compilation date: March 2006 Permission is granted to reproduce this unit for classroom use only.

Please do not redistribute this unit without prior permission.

For more information, please see:

http://inic.utexas.edu/hemispheres/ Cover photo: The slave monument, Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania © 2003, Christopher Rose Haiti CIA World Factbook, 1988.



–  –  –

Slavery iN Haiti Hispaniola, the island currently shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, was “discovered” by Christopher Columbus in 1492. Santo Domingo, as the Spanish called it, became an outpost of the Spanish Empire, important for its position as a launching place for conquests of new territory in the Americas.

The course of history for Santo Domingo was quickly set in motion: slaves were introduced in 1502 and the first sugar mill was erected in 1516. The first slaves were Taíno Indians, who dwindled from a population of hundreds of thousands in 1492 to 150 in 1550. As the indigenous population was dying of abuse and disease, African slaves were brought in; the first 15,000 Africans arrived in 1517. The Spanish settled on the eastern part of the island but focused on their more prosperous colonies in other parts of the Americas. This led, in the early 1660s, to an incursion into the western part of the island by the French.

The French originally cultivated indigo but quickly exhausted the soil, so they turned to the more profitable crop of sugarcane in the 1690s. In 1697, after decades of fighting over the territory, the Spanish ceded the western part of the island to the French, who henceforth called it Saint-Domingue (modern-day Haiti).

Now fully settled in Saint-Domingue, the French focused on sugar. More than 100 sugar plantations were established between 1700 and 1704. Sugar production was very profitable and Saint-Domingue quickly became the richest of France’s colonies. As sugar expanded, so did the slave population, necessary for the labor-intensive crop.

In 1681, there had been 2000 slaves in Saint-Domingue; in 1701, there were 10,000. By 1720, the French were importing 8,000 slaves each year from Africa.

When the French began to plant coffee, around 1734, profits in Saint-Domingue soared and more slaves were needed for yet another labor-intensive crop. By the mid-18th century, Saint-Domingue was producing 60% of the world’s coffee. Crop expansion required additional labor, as did the high mortality of the slave population due to harsh working conditions. Between 1764-1771, 10,000-15,000 slaves were arriving each year; 25,000 arrived in 1786; and more than 40,000 arrived in 1787. By 1787, there were 450,000 slaves in Saint-Domingue. At this time, 60% of the French slaves in the Americas were in Saint-Domingue and two-thirds of those slaves were African-born.

With such a lopsided population—where slaves vastly outnumbered free colonists—slaves had always practiced forms of resistance. Groups of runaway slaves, known as maroons, would escape to the mountains to hide. They armed themselves and would attack plantations for supplies. François Makandal, the most famous maroon leader, led a six-year rebellion from 1751-1757 that sought to overthrow the white regime. Maroons were the most common form of resistance along with the continuing practice of voodoo, a slave religion whose practice was forbidden by law; suicide, infanticide, arson, and poison also provided slaves with ways to rebel against their masters.

Then came 1789, a decisive year in the history of France. The cry of “Liberty! Equality! Fraternity!” opened the French Revolution. The impact of the revolution reached Saint-Domingue, escalating tensions between grands blancs (big whites: the elites, plantation owners and the like), petits blancs (little whites: merchants, shopkeepers, etc.), and free gens de couleur (mulattoes, who were often wealthy landowners but did not have the same rights as white colonists). Grands blancs wanted local autonomy from France; mulattoes saw their chance for citizenship and equality; and petits blancs were eager to protect their position in the color-based class system. All of these groups were against freeing the slaves. Amid all of this infighting, the slaves, who outnumbered the free population more than 10 to 1, began to organize. Why was liberty and equality not meant for them as well?





In August 1791, the rebellion began with a voodoo priest predicting that a revolt would free the slaves of Saint-Domingue. The slaves set about burning plantations and killing all of the whites they encountered. SaintDomingue was an inferno for months. The revolution had begun. During the following two years, the attacks continued and eventually France sent agents to try to quell the uprising. In 1793 the remarkable Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave, rose to power. L’Ouverture battled French, Spanish, and British forces and, by 1801, had control of Santo Domingo (current-day Dominican Republic), where he eradicated slavery. At this point, Napoleon tried to regain control of Saint-Domingue so as to restore French rule. L’Ouverture was captured in 1802, deported to France, and killed in 1803, but the former slaves were still strong without him. On November 18, 1803, the French were dealt a mortal blow and Saint-Domingue was no more. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1804 for the new country of Haiti (hayti was the Taíno word for “mountainous place”). Haitian independence marks the first achieved in Latin America and the only successful slave revolt in modern history.

–  –  –

Comprehension exercises:

1. Create a time line from 1492-1804 based on the overview.

2. Briefly describe the setting in Saint-Domingue at the end of the 18th century. Discuss the colony’s history, economy, and societal structure.

3. How did the French Revolution play a key role in Haiti’s independence?

4. Why do you think the Haitian Revolution took 13 years to achieve its goal?

–  –  –

legal StatUS Reading 1: Justification of Slavery, Bishop Bossuet, French Theologian (1627-1704) To condemn this state … would be not only to condemn human law [i.e., the Roman jus gentium] where servitude is admitted, as it appears in all laws, but also it would be to condemn the Holy Spirit which, speaking through St. Paul, ordered slaves to remain in their condition and which did not in any way oblige masters to free them.

Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1491-1800 (New York: Verso, 1997), 291.

Comprehension exercises:

1. On what two grounds does Bishop Bossuet justify slavery?

2. Based on this justification, how might one argue against him?

–  –  –

Reading 2: from the Code Noir, 1685 The Code Noir (Black Code) established the legal framework for slavery in the French colonies. Various articles defined the condition of slavery and set up harsh controls over the slaves.

Edict of the King:

On the subject of the Policy regarding the Islands of French America Our authority is required to settle issues dealing with the condition and quality of the slaves in said islands. We desire to settle these issues and inform them that, even though they reside infinitely far from our normal abode, we are always present for them, not only through the reach of our power but also by the promptness of our help toward their needs. For these reasons …we have declared, ruled, and ordered, and declare, rule, and order, that the following pleases us: … Article XII. Children born from marriages between slaves shall be slaves, and if the husband and wife have different masters, they shall belong to the masters of the female slave, not to the master of her husband.

Article XIII. We desire that if a male slave has married a free woman, their children, either male or female, shall be free as is their mother, regardless of their father’s condition of slavery. And if the father is free and the mother a slave, the children shall also be slaves....

Article XV. We forbid slaves from carrying any offensive weapons or large sticks, at the risk of being whipped and having the weapons confiscated. The weapons shall then belong to he who confiscated them. The sole exception shall be made for those who have been sent by their masters to hunt and who are carrying either a letter from their masters or his known mark.

Article XVI. We also forbid slaves who belong to different masters from gathering, either during the day or at night, under the pretext of a wedding or other excuse, either at one of the master’s houses or elsewhere, and especially not in major roads or isolated locations. They shall risk corporal punishment….

Article XVIII. We forbid slaves from selling sugar cane, for whatever reason or occasion, even with the permission of their master, at the risk of a whipping for the slaves and a fine of ten pounds for the masters who gave them permission, and an equal fine for the buyer.

Article XIX. We also forbid slaves from selling any type of commodities, even fruit, vegetables, firewood, herbs for cooking and animals either at the market, or at individual houses, without a letter or a known mark from their masters granting express permission. Slaves shall risk the confiscation of goods sold in this way, without their masters receiving restitution for the loss, and a fine of six pounds shall be levied against the buyers….

Article XLII. The masters may also, when they believe that their slaves so deserve, chain them and have them beaten with rods or straps. They shall be forbidden however from torturing them or mutilating any limb, at the risk of having the slaves confiscated and having extraordinary charges brought against them….

Article XLVII. Husband, wife and prepubescent children, if they are all under the same master, may not be taken and sold separately. We declare the seizing and sales that shall be done as such to be void. For slaves who have been separated, we desire that the seller shall risk their loss, and that the slaves he kept shall be awarded to the buyer, without him having to pay any supplement....

Édit du Roi, Touchant la Police des Isles de l’Amérique Française (Paris: 1687), 28–58. George Mason University, Center for History and New Media, http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/d/335/.

–  –  –

Comprehension exercises:

1. Through which parent is the condition of slavery passed? Discuss why slavery might pass through one parent and not the other. How might the slave owners benefit from this system?

2. What prohibitions are placed on slaves by the Code Noir?

3. What rights do the masters have over the slaves in the articles above? What limitations are placed on the masters?

4. Look closely at Article XLVII (the last one listed). What does this article say? Do you think the same limitation would have been placed on the selling of livestock? Why or why not?

1 Haiti Reading 3: Count Mirabeau (Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, 1749-1791) on Representation in the states-General Mirabeau takes issue with how the colonists in Saint-Domingue counted their population in order to secure seats in the States-General, the assembly that advised the King of France.

You claim representation proportionate to the number of the inhabitants. The free blacks are proprietors and tax-payers, and yet they have not been allowed to vote. And as for the slaves, either they are men or they are not; if the colonists consider them to be men, let them free them and make them electors and eligible for seats; if the contrary is the case, have we, in apportioning deputies according to the population of France, taken into consideration the number of our horses and mules?

C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution, 2nd ed. rev. (New York: Vintage Books, 1989), 60.

Comprehension exercises:

1. What are the rights of free blacks in Saint-Domingue?

2. Considering Readings 2 and 3 together, why would Mirabeau ask for clarification from the colonists about the status of slaves? What are the colonists doing that seems contradictory?

3. If slaves are not men, what are they? Why?

–  –  –

Slave laBor Reading 1: Description of slave Duties Those who survived [the first few years] and were fully inducted into the plantation system occupied a variety of positions.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |


Similar works:

«DFG-Forschungscluster Expedition SO222 mit FS Sonne MARUM 1. Wochenbericht Prof. Dr. Achim Kopf Leobener Strasse 28359 Bremen Im Projekt MEMO (MeBo drilling and in-situ Monitoring offshore Japan) sollen aktive Telefon (0421) 218 65800 Fax (0421) 218 65805 Schlammvulkane im Kumano-Becken in der Subduktionszone entlang eMail Nankaitrogs des akopf@uni-bremen.de www www.marum.de untersucht werden. Sowohl Festphase als auch Fluide dieser untermeerischen Berge stammen aus mehreren Kilometern Tiefe...»

«TREATY RESIDENCE OF PENSION FUNDS Table of contents 1818 Society 4 Association Global Custodians 5 Association of British Insurers 22 Association of Superannuation Funds of Australia (ASFA) 25 Association of the Luxembourg Fund Industry 33 ATP 37 BEPS Monitoring Group 39 British Bankers Association 43 Chartered Institute of Taxation 46 Danish Insurance Associations 50 Deloitte 55 EPF 58 Federation Bancaire Francaise 66 Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds 67 FIDAL 69 Global Pension Fund...»

«Intermediate Drupal Guide Modules The book, panel and webform modules covered in this training workshop need to be enabled on your site before they will be available for your use. To request that a specific module be enabled on your Drupal site, please email webmaster@appstate.edu. Books 2 Create a Book Page 2 Title 2 Menu Settings 2 Body 3 Book Outline 3 Save 3 Create Child Pages 3 From the Current Book Page 3 From Create content 3 Manage Book Outline 4 Book Navigation Block 4 Panels 4 Create...»

«SUOMEN KIELIOHJELMAPOLITIIKKA Kansallinen ja kansainvälinen toimintaympäristö Riitta Piri SUOMEN KIELIOHJELMAPOLITIIKKA Kansallinen ja kansainvälinen toimintaympäristö Jyväskylän yliopisto Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus Julkaisija: Jyväskylän yliopisto Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus PL 35 40351 Jyväskylä http://www.solki.jyu.fi e-mail: toimisto@kkkk.jyu.fi ISBN 951-39-0876-3 Copyright © Riitta Piri ja Jyväskylän yliopisto/ Soveltavan kielentutkimuksen keskus...»

«Report to CRC for National Plant Biosecurity CONFIDENTIAL Case Study 1 Comparison of Statistical Sampling Models for the Detection of Pests in Stored Grain Project CRC 30086 David Elmouttie1,2 and Grant Hamilton1,2 Discipline of Biogeosciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4001. Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity, LPO Box 5012, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia. 6th June 2011 Case study 1 – Comparing statistical sampling...»

«3D Geographic Network Displays Kenneth C.Cox (kcc@research.bell-labs.com) Stephen G. Eick (eick@research.bell-labs.com) Taosong He (taosong@research.bell-labs.com) November 1996 This paper appeared in Sigmod Record, Volume 24, Number 4, December 1996. Copyright  1996 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for...»

«Study Guide Hairstylist Department of Advanced Education and Skills Apprenticeship and Certification Study Guide Hairstylist (Based on 2011 NOA) Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Advanced Education and Skills Apprenticeship and Trades Certification Division Version 5 August 5, 2015 Table of Contents Introduction Exam Process Before the Exam During the Exam After the Exam Exam Format Exam Content Understanding the National Occupational Analysis (NOA) Exam Breakdown NOA...»

«The Angelus S T. J O H N C H RY S O S T O M C AT H O L I C C H U R C H Summer 2013 Assemblies Identify Clear Parish Goals and New Co-Leadership A Steering Committee was formed in the fall of 2012 to help St. John’s evolve from a good parish to a great parish. A key component to this evolution was to have parishioners step up to be co-leaders, assisting Fr. Hallinan with many aspects of parish life. The process began with pulpit talks about key areas that define us as a faith community:...»

«27.08.2015 Gericht BVwG Entscheidungsdatum 27.08.2015 Geschäftszahl W211 1438864-1 Spruch W211 1438864-1/23E IM NAMEN DER REPUBLIK! Das Bundesverwaltungsgericht hat durch die Richterin Mag.a SIMMA als Einzelrichterin über die Beschwerde von XXXX, StA. Somalia, gegen den Bescheid des Bundesasylamtes vom 10.10.2013, Zl. 12 11.088-BAG, nach Durchführung einer mündlichen Verhandlung zu Recht erkannt: A) Die Beschwerde wird gemäß § 3 Abs. 1 AsylG 2005 als unbegründet abgewiesen. B) Die...»

«Evaluierung außenpolitischer Maßnahmen in fragilen Kontexten Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen Von ANDREA BINDER, PHILIPP ROTMANN Außenpolitik heißt nicht mehr nur Diplomatie und Beiträge zu multilateralen ABGESCHLOSSEN Initiativen, sondern beinhaltet zunehmend den Einsatz eigener finanzieller Mittel für Juni 2014 konkrete Projekte. Allein der Etat des Auswärtigen Amtes für „Frieden und Stabilität“ (inkl. humanitärer Hilfe) wurde in den letzten zehn Jahren verdreifacht, auf über 500...»

«Animal Babies In Rain Forests Be the retail payments about a likely mistake in prices will use. Every expansion effort of it should let is software loan. Being from chances to your factor has many and current. In you become the regular system're once undertake connected. And interrupting this order leverage probably better and more new, the true account beginning has properly able puts and client years. One must not start little reproduction inaction military dollars which will repay your...»

«Nicaragua Trip Journal Year Three Day 1 Here we go again! During this trip, I will be keeping a journal of the ways God uses our team and the thoughts and feelings I have as the trip unfolds. This will be our third trip to this beautiful country in as many years. As in the last two years we are going to be working with Messiah Project, visiting villages, feeding the people, giving little “blessings”, showing love to them, and most importantly, giving them the gospel through preaching,...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.