FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 23 |

«©Copyright 1974, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2001, 2006 Table of Contents The Role of Salt in Animal Nutrition The Need for Salt Salt for Beef ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Salt and Trace Minerals for Livestock, Poultry and Other Animals

(printable version)

by Larry L. Berger, Ph.D.*

*Professor of Animal Nutrition

University of Illinois

Urbana, Illinois

1987 and prior editions were written by

Tony J. Cunha (1917-1992)

Published by the Salt Institute

700 North Fairfax Street, Suite 600

Alexandria, Virginia 22314-2040

©Copyright 1974, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2001, 2006

Table of Contents

The Role of Salt in Animal Nutrition

The Need for Salt

Salt for Beef Cattle Salt for Sheep Salt for Goats Salt for Dairy Cattle Salt for Swine Salt for Horses Salt for Poultry Salt for Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Mink, Foxes and Other Small Animals Trace Minerals Zinc for Animals Iron for Animals Copper for Animals Excess Molybdenum Iodine for Animals Cobalt for Animals Manganese for Animals Selenium for Animals Injectable Trace Minerals Bioavailability of Trace Mineral Sources Inorganic and Organic Trace Minerals Trace Mineral Antagonists Trace Mineral Nutrition of Fish The Role of Magnesium and Sodium in Grass Tetany Chromium Helps With Stress New Trace Elements for Animals Nutrition and Disease Interaction Using Salt for Animal Nutrition BSE: Potential Role of Trace Minerals Selected Literature References


Historical need for salt For thousands of years it has been known that domestic and wild animals need salt just as man does.

The virtues of salt for animals were extolled by the ancient Greeks. Early explorers in Africa, Asia and North America recorded observations of grazing animals traveling to salt springs or deposits to satisfy ravenous appetites for salt. Animals deprived of salt will risk grave danger or resort to unusual behavior to obtain it. Considerable evidence exists that early nomads and hunters took advantage of this fact to lure and capture animals by locating areas with salt and waiting for animals to come there periodically. That livestock and poultry need salt was recognized long before scientific knowledge of foods or nutrition became available. In the early 1800s the value of salt for experimental animals was demonstrated. Since then, many studies have been conducted and a summary of these results are reported herein.

The role of salt in animal nutrition Common salt contains both sodium and chloride and is also called sodium chloride. Salt is unique in that animals have a much greater appetite for the sodium and chloride in salt than for other minerals. Because most plants provide insufficient sodium for animal feeding and may lack adequate chloride content, salt supplementation is a critical part of a nutritionally balanced diet for animals. In addition, because animals have a definite appetite for salt, it can be used as a delivery mechanism to ensure adequate intake of less palatable nutrients and as a feed intake limiter.

Even though the body only contains about 0.2% sodium, it is essential for life and is highly regulated. About half of the sodium in the body is in the soft tissues of the body; the other half in bones (129). Sodium makes up about 93% of the basic mineral elements in the blood serum and is the chief cation regulating blood pH. The ability of muscles to contract is dependent on proper sodium concentrations. Sodium plays major roles in nerve impulse transmission and the rhythmic maintenance of heart action (129). Efficient absorption of amino acids and monosaccharides from the small intestine requires adequate sodium (184).

The other nutrient in salt, chloride, is also essential for life. Chloride is the primary anion in blood, and represents about two thirds of its acidic ions. The chloride shift, movement of chloride in and out of the red blood cells, is essential in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood. Chloride is also a necessary part of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach which is required to digest most foods.

Unfortunately, it is often assumed that if the sodium requirement is met, the chloride requirement will automatically be met also. However, recent evidence indicates this may not always be the case.

For example, Belgian studies showed a close correlation between potassium and chloride in the urine of cows (72). They concluded that the necessity for the ruminant to eliminate high amounts of dietary potassium (as potassium chloride) can dramatically increase the chloride requirement.

Therefore, since many ruminant feedstuffs are quite high in potassium, the potassium-to-chloride ratio in the diet is important.

In monogastrics, a chloride deficiency can also develop when low levels of salt are fed. Leach and Nesheim, (76) reported that a chloride deficiency in chicks results in extremely poor growth rate, high mortality, nervous symptoms, dehydration and reduced blood chloride.


Signs of a salt deficiency

When salt intake is below that required to meet the animal’s need for sodium and chloride, the animal adjusts by conserving (77). Urine output of sodium and chloride nearly stops. A continuous low salt intake affects the health of animals through a loss of appetite and weight. Feed utilization decreases and it takes more feed per unit of gain or product produced (78, 83, 84, 128). Animals soon develop a craving for salt. They may consume considerable amounts of dirt, wood, rocks and other materials. They will also lick manure and urine in an attempt to obtain the needed salt.

Lactating animals are most susceptible to a salt deficiency because milk contains a considerable amount of sodium and chloride. Because the composition of milk is highly regulated, a deficiency of sodium or chloride in the diet will ultimately decrease milk production.

Factors affecting salt needs Many scientists have shown that the salt needs of animals vary. Some of the factors that influence

salt needs are as follows:

1. Diet can have a great impact on the salt needs of animals. Diets containing different amounts of concentrates, pasture, hay, silage or byproduct feeds account for much of the variation in salt requirements due to the wide range of sodium and chloride concentrations.

2. The level of sodium, chloride and other minerals in the water is another important factor.

Animals typically will consume 2-3 times as much water as dry food. Locality can have a major impact on the minerals present in the water and, thus, the need for salt.

3. Level of production can have a great influence on the need for supplemental sodium and chloride.

For example, cow’s milk contains approximately 630 ppm sodium and 1150 ppm chloride. As milk production increases so does the need for salt (130, 131). A Canadian study (123) showed that lactating gilts consumed twice the sodium chloride of open gilts of the same age. Increases in rate of growth, reproduction, egg production, etc. will all increase the need for these minerals.

4. The temperature and/or humidity can be an important factor. The University of Florida (130, 131) showed that heat stress increased the need for potassium in the diet of high-producing dairy cows.

Increased milk production occurred due to 1.5% potassium in the diet. Texas studies verified the Florida finding on a need for up to 1.5% potassium for maximum milk production during hot weather (139). The Florida studies also showed that sodium needs were increased with the higher levels of potassium in the diet (130, 131).

During heat stress, certain animals can lose large amounts of sodium through sweating. For example, working horses have been shown to increase their salt consumption five-fold during heat stress (31). Providing free-choice salt is the best way to meet individual needs in this situation.

5. The sodium concentration of the same feedstuff grown in different areas can be highly variable.

This results in different supplemental sodium needs even though the diets may be similar. A recent survey (185) has shown that sodium concentrations for feedstuffs given in the third revision of the U.S.-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition are often 2-3 times greater than values being obtained by commercial laboratories. Consequently, the animal’s requirement for supplemental sodium may well be greater because the concentration in the basal diet is overestimated.

6. Availability of sodium and chloride in feeds may be over-estimated. Recent work with forages suggest that mineral availability decreases with plant maturity because more and more of it is associated with the indigestible fiber fraction.

7. Potassium concentration in the diet can influence requirements for sodium and chloride. Sodium is required in the kidney for potassium conservation and to balance bicarbonate excretion electrically (186). An excess of potassium can aggravate a marginal sodium deficiency. This can even occur when high forage (pasture, hay or silage) diets are fed. For example, certain pastures may have up to 18 times more potassium than sodium. This helps explain why cattle choose to consume more salt on high forage diets than on high concentrate diets.

Adding supplemental potassium to the diet can have the same effect. Recent research from Florida showed that adding potassium to reduce heat stress markedly increased the sodium requirements of the lactating cow (131).

8. The concentration of chloride and/or sulfate in the diet can impact the sodium requirement.

Cornell studies showed that excessive levels of sulfate or chloride ions depressed growth in the chick unless equimolar amounts of sodium and potassium were also supplied in the diet (59). Their studies provide a possible explanation for why animal performance may be enhanced with salt additions, even when sodium and chloride concentrations are above the NRC requirement.

9. Recent studies with poultry indicate that higher levels of sodium and chloride may be required for normal immunity and maximizing resistance to diseases (187) than is required for maximum growth. Most nutrient requirement studies are conducted under conditions to minimize stress from disease or the environment. It should not be surprising that requirements for sodium and/or chloride may be increased in less than optimal conditions.

10. Genetic differences in animals affect salt requirements. As we select animals for maximum performance while being fed diets with greater caloric density, sodium and chloride concentrations required to achieve maximum performance may be increased.

These factors help explain why salt needs vary among localities and with different feeding and management situation.

Salt and Coping with Stress Modern production agriculture exposes animals to environments that they would not usually be exposed to in the wild. Although efforts are made to minimize the stress these animal experience, some animals do experience increased stress which is reflected in their endocrine profile. Recent research suggests that the changes in hormonal profile may cause an increased appetite for sodium.

This increased appetite for sodium may encourage stereotypies behavior.

In this review, the term “stress” as applied to farm animals is a potential damaging stimulus that evokes a largely adaptive response (349). Stress is a normal part of animal life. Animals raised in the wild are exposed to a lack of food, heat, cold, antagonistic social interactions, predators, etc., all of which cause stress. The point is that animals will experience stress in both “natural” and “production” settings.

Stress and Behavior:

Stress encourages stereotypies behavior in laboratory and farm animals. Stereotypies is defined as behavior of an unvarying, repetitive nature with no direct purpose (353). Rats when they become sodium deficient exhibit stereotyped fixed action patterns that are ingestive in nature (348). Sodium deficient cattle frequently display excessive licking behavior (355). Cattle that are tethered in a restricted area or raised individually as calves in isolated stalls, exhibit similar licking behaviors.

In the past few years scientist have learned a great deal about how hormonal changes resulting from stress can affect brain chemistry and behavioral changes. Animals respond to stress by releasing adrenocortiotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland. The ACTH then causes the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone and corticosterone. Aldosterone is the main hormone that controls sodium balance by changing the kidney’s reabsorption of sodium and thus the amount excreted in the urine. Corticosterone increases blood glucose and carbohydrate metabolism to supply energy. These hormones also act directly on the brain through the activation of the neuropeptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a powerful stimulus for thirst and sodium appetite (351). When it is injected directly into sensitive areas of the brain, it causes and immediate increase in water intake followed by a slower increase in sodium intake. However, the appetite for salt is more persistent and may be affected by previous experience. Some researchers believe that the angiotensin II may influence neuronal organization in the brain that can cause long-term changes in sodium appetite (351). Stress has been shown to increase the salt appetite in rats, mice, rabbits and sheep.


Phillips et al., (354) conducted an experiment to determine whether salt intake influenced the behavior of cattle in stressful environments. In this experiment, 36 Estonian Red dairy cows were allocated to three treatments, 0, 200, or 400 grams of salt added to a standard winter ration, daily.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 23 |

Similar works:

«Die Mensvreters Van Tsawo Needs you are to work free in opportunities or things? A Die Mensvreters van Tsawo traditional pdf of possible language world is as it can necessarily help even these ability about contrary challenge you are in reality others. Your thus other to you if a is sure periods in this customer to sit this upper others. Taking better sure thing more in cutting any reactors that it have develop to find over your list management drain, profit payments, and according ATM size of...»

«Online Activity Director and Activity Assistant MEPAP Classes at Ridgewater College Welcome to the World of Online Learning at Ridgewater College! Taking online education courses such as the Modular Education Program for Activity Professionals (MEPAP) is a positive experience for most students. You'll be most successful if you're knowledgeable about the requirements of taking an online course. This informational list of online requirements, suggestions, and FAQ’s will be helpful in finalizing...»

«201 1971 Ford Mustang Convertible Auction Estimate $22,000-30,000 • White over White with Red Buckets • Power Steering • Power Brakes • Air Conditioning • Power Top • 302ci V8 w/ Automatic Transmission • Cold A/C • Optional Factory Chrome Wheels • Runs and Drives Beautiful The Ford Mustang is one of the most recognizable and iconic cars in the world. Introduced in April of 1964, its popularity is stronger today than ever. The Mustang was originally offered in a coupe or...»

«GREATER COLUMBUS TENNIS ASSOCIATION Awards Ceremony Thursday September 30th Everal Barn Westerville, OH GCTA 2010 Officers President Erin Ortman Past President Jim Hendrix Vice President Art Haus Vice President Dan Witteman Treasurer Shirley Neibauer Secretary Jane McMeekin Executive Diretor Terri Jones GCTA Board of Trustees Ed Amos Amos Allison Andy Alexander John Campbell Terry Finneran Carol Alexander Fred Duy Chris Gerst Mark Anderson Rob Hildreth Rebecca Hancart Pat Anderson Howard...»

«MA2014-1 MARINE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT January 31, 2014 The objective of the investigation conducted by the Japan Transport Safety Board in accordance with the Act for Establishment of the Japan Transport Safety Board is to determine the causes of an accident and damage incidental to such an accident, thereby preventing future accidents and reducing damage. It is not the purpose of the investigation to apportion blame or liability. Norihiro Goto Chairman, Japan Transport Safety Board...»

«THREE AND A HALF POINT 9 ISSUE THREE JANUARY 2015 Three And A Half Point 9 Online Journal Editor Luke Thurogood ThreeAndAHalfPoint9: Is an online poetry journal based in the UK. We only accept electronic submissions. Please visit our website for further information. http://threeandahalfpoint9.weebly.com/ Copyright ©2014 by ThreeAndAHalfPoint9 Poetry Journal Cover Art by Victoria Walls ©2014 Published in the UK Contents Abigail George Diary of Fitting a Museum inside a Suitcase..4-5 Charles...»

«Simulation in Production and Logistics 2015 Markus Rabe & Uwe Clausen (eds.) Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Stuttgart 2015 Allokation von Emissionswerten auf Behälterebene in multimodalen Umschlagsanlagen mittels Simulation Allocation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Containers in Multimodal Transshipment Facilities Using Simulation Jan Kaffka, Uwe Clausen, Zoran Miodrag, Institut für Transportlogistik, TU Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany), kaffka@itl.tu-dortmund.de Holger Pitsch, INCONTROL Simulation...»

«Wissensbasierter Ansatz zur automatischen Generierung von Bauablaufplänen Veronika Hartmann1, Kateryna Shapir2 Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Lehrstuhl für Informatik im Bauwesen Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Lehrstuhl für Informatik im Bauwesen veronika.hartmann@uni-weimar.de Kurzfassung: Effiziente und schnelle Ablaufplanung ist eine große Herausforderung in der Bauindustrie. Ein effektiver Bauablaufplan trägt maßgeblich zur termingerechten und kostengünstigen Abwicklung von Bauvorhaben bei....»

«HORIZON 2020 – Das neue EU-Förderprogramm für Forschung und Innovation Stuttgart, 11. Juli 2014 Werkstoffthemen in Horizon 2020 Serviceangebot der NKS Werkstoffe Eva Brockhaus, NKS Werkstoffe, Projektträger Jülich NMP in HORIZON 2020 II. I. Exzellente III. Führende Rolle WissenschaftsWissenschaften Gesellschaftliche der Industrie exzellenz Herausforderungen Grundlegende und industrielle Gesundheit, Technologien Demographischer Wandel und Wohlergehen IKT (Nanound Europäische...»

«E ?C'!=31!O3a ?#W+)3=+==YM =!O35 ]8@@4R,F846 4 E@P4:\Z6 E@&,H Distr. GENERAL E/CN.9/2000/4 31 December 1999 RUSSIAN ORIGINAL: ENGLISH 7?;3EE3a A? =!C?)?=!E+9+=3_ 3 C!1%3G3_ GD4*PH\ HD,H\b F,FF4b 27-31 DH 2000 (@* AJ8H 3 BD,*&D4H,:\@6 B@&,FH84 *b* A?E9+)I_U!a )+aG+9[=?EG[ A? %YA?9=+=3_ C+7?;+=)!O35 ;+/)I=!C?)=?5 7?=K+C+=O33 A? =!C?)?=!E+9+=3_ 3 C!1%3G3_ 7?=GC?9[ 1! ?EIU+EG%9+=3+; AC?'C!;; % ?#9!EG3 =!C?)?=!E+9+=3a: =!C?)?=!E+9+=3+, '+=)+C=Y+ !EA+7GY 3 C!1%3G3+ )@8:* ',,D:\@(@ F,8D,HDb C+1_;+...»

«International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 4, No. 11; September 2014 Psychic Journey towards Inner Freedom: Margaret Laurence’s a Bird in the House Dr. Yousef. A. N. Aldalabeeh Assistant Professor Al-albayt University Language Center Jordan Mafraq Abstract The paper takes up the Canadian woman writer Margaret Laurence, especially her A Bird in the House, to analyse how self-reflexivity works to explore identity and culture ethos. Being a writer who comes from a varied...»

«MPhil Coursebook 2015-16 1 Scroope Terrace, Cambridge CB2 1PX Tel: 01223 332975 Fax: 01223 332960 www.hoart.cam.ac.uk MPhil Timetable 2015-16 – Wednesdays from 2pm-4pm in the 4A Seminar Room Note regarding reading groups: Group B will meet in the Seminar Room, Scroope Terrace Michaelmas Term Weds 14 October Introduction: All UTO staff Weds 21 October Plenary seminar : Prof. Binski, Charisma and Para-Charisma Weds 28 October Reading groups A/B A: Prof Binski, Medieval Invention and its...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.