«Hotspot report for Pattern of Practices: PCBs Sources and Releases in Tanzania African Violet AGENDA for Environment and Responsible Development ...»
The International POPs Elimination Project
Fostering Active and Effective Civil Society Participation in
Preparations for Implementation of the Stockholm Convention
Hotspot report for Pattern of Practices: PCBs
Sources and Releases in Tanzania
AGENDA for Environment and Responsible
Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS) Building
Morogoro/ Sam Nujoma Roads, Ubungo Area
P.O. Box 77266
Dar es Salaam, TANZANIA Tel: +255 22 2450 213 Fax: +255 22 2450 836 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.agenda-tz.org April 2005 About the International POPs Elimination Project On May 1, 2004, the International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN http://www.ipen.org ) began a global NGO project called the International POPs Elimination Project (IPEP) in partnership with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) provided core funding for the project.
IPEP has three principal objectives:
• Encourage and enable NGOs in 40 developing and transitional countries to engage in activities that provide concrete and immediate contributions to country efforts in preparing for the implementation of the Stockholm Convention;
• Enhance the skills and knowledge of NGOs to help build their capacity as effective stakeholders in the Convention implementation process;
• Help establish regional and national NGO coordination and capacity in all regions of the world in support of longer term efforts to achieve chemical safety.
IPEP will support preparation of reports on country situation, hotspots, policy briefs, and regional activities. Three principal types of activities will be supported by IPEP: participation in the National Implementation Plan, training and awareness workshops, and public information and awareness campaigns.
For more information, please see http://www.ipen.org IPEN gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Global Environment Facility, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Swiss Agency for the Environment Forests and Landscape, the Canada POPs Fund, the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Mitchell Kapor Foundation, Sigrid Rausing Trust, New York Community Trust and others.
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and not necessarily the views of the institutions providing management and/or financial support.
This report is available in the following languages: English International POPs Elimination Project – IPEP ii W
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
2. ACTIVITY THAT GENERATE PCBS
3. HISTORY OF USE OF PCB OILS IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN TANZANIA
4. HOW USE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT GENERATES PCBS
4.1 PCBS IN TRANSFORMERS
4.2 PCBS IN CAPACITORS
4.3 SWITCHGEARS AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS
5. ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
5.2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
5.3 HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
6. RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
6.2 FUTURE PLANS
6.3 RELATION TO GOVERNMENT REGULATION
6.4 LIABILITY FRAMEWORK
7. ALTERNATIVE PRACTICES
7.1 IN USE IN THE COUNTRY
7.2 IN OTHER COUNTRIES
9. NGO RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDIX 1: TABLES SHOWING INVENTORY OF PCBS AND CONTAMINATED SITES IN TANZANIA......... 20 APPENDIX 2: REPORTED THEFT CASES OF TRANSFORMER OILS IN TANZANIA
TABLE 1: TRANSFORMERS FOUND TO CONTAIN PCBS
TABLE 2: NUMBER OF PARTIALLY CLOSED UNITS SUSPECTED CONTAINING PCBS....... 20 TABLE 3: NUMBER OF CLOSED UNITS SUSPECTED CONTAINING PCBS
TABLE 4: NUMBER OF PARTIALLY CLOSED UNITS CONDEMNED CONTAINING PCBS..... 20TABLE 5: NUMBER OF CLOSED UNITS CONDEMNED CONTAINING PCBS
TABLE 6: WASTE POSSIBLY CONTAMINATED WITH PCBS
TABLE 7: SITES HEAVILY CONTAMINATED WITH PCBS (HOTSPOTS)
P1: A DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER AT A SUBSTATION NEAR TBL IN ARUSHA.............. 16
P2: OUT OF SERVICE TRANSFORMER STORED OUTSIDE THE UBUNGO CENTRALWORKSHOP
P3: POWER TRANSFORMER AT A SUBSTATION LOCATED AT THE OLD POWER STATIONARUSHA, UNGA LIMITED AREA
P4: 132 KVA POWER TRANSFORMERS AT KIVUNGI SUBSTATION, MOSHI
P5 AND P6: OUT OF SERVICE TRANSFORMER STORED AT THE OLD POWER STATION INMOSHI.
P7: FISHING AT NYUMBA YA MUNGU: KEY TO THE LOCAL CULTURE AND ECONOMY.... 18
P8: A LADY WORKING AT DIA SUFFERED SKIN AILMENTS DUE TO CONTACT WITH PCBOIL
P9 AND P10: A LADY WORKING AT DAR ES SALAAM INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (DIA)
ABB TANALEC A company that produce and service electrical equipment including transformers BP (T) British Petroleum (Tanzania)
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals that are chemically inert. PCBs have been used as additives to oils in electrical equipment, hydraulic machines, and other applications where chemical stability has been required for safety, operation, or durability. Unfortunately if it is mishandled in the cause of its use it may cause both environmental and health problems due to its non-biodegradable characteristic and tendency to accumulate in human and animal fatty tissues. The likely extended period of its use, and the persistence of PCBs once released into the environment means that PCBs could pose a threat for decades to come. It is for this reason that PCBs were included among the 12 persistent organics pollutants (POPs). Therefore the policy framework set out in the Stockholm Convention on May 2001 on Persistent Organic Pollutants requires parties to eliminate the production and use of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).
Due to these problems many countries banned the production and use of PCBs in the early 1970s. Although manufacture of PCBs has reportedly ceased, the potential or actual release of PCBs into the environment has not, since significant quantities of PCBs oil are still in use or in storage facilities. PCBs are still favoured by major users in some countries despite being extremely toxic to human and animal health and other environmental organisms.
For example, electrical equipment replaced and disposed of long ago in developed countries is kept in service far longer in the less developed countries.
Tanzania being one of the developing countries that used PCBs in the past may still have PCBs in use or in stores and/or leaking or failed equipment releasing PCBs into the environment. This study focuses on identifying PCBs-hotspots, pattern and practices that release PCBs into the environment in Tanzania paying particular attention to electrical equipment. The study also assesses the extent of contamination and availability of alternatives to PCBs locally and globally. Finally the report gives recommendations on how to deal with the hotspots and PCBs releases in general.
2. ACTIVITY THAT GENERATE PCBsThe Guidelines for the identification of PCBs and Materials containing PCBs of 1999 lists the following activities that generate PCBs into the environment:
Production i. Production of PCBs ii. Production of PCBs containing fluids Uses iii. Use of PCB-containing equipment and fluids iv. Handling of PCB-containing equipment and fluids
Disposal of PCB containing equipment Misuse of PCB containing fluids The above activities, which are potential pattern of practices that release PCBs,
are discussed in the following subsections:
2.1 Production 2.1.1 Production of PCBs PCBs are man-made chemicals. During the production of this chemical there is generation of effluents which when discharged untreated may release PCBs into the environment. Fortunately, Tanzania does not produce PCBs.
2.1.2 Production of PCBs containing fluids PCB is used as an additive in the production of fluids such as transformer oil, lubricants, heat exchanger fluids etc. During the production spillage/leakage of the fluids may occur. Again, Tanzania does not produce PCB containing fluids.
2.2 Uses Use of PCBs oils and fluids As it is reported in the Vice President Draft Report on Inventory of PCBs, Tanzania in the past used to import and use PCB oils and fluids for many
purposes, including the following:
a) As oils in electrical equipment such as transformers, capacitors, switchgears and circuit breakers
b) As lubricants for turbines and pumps
c) As heat exchanger fluids
d) As additives in sealants, adhesives, chlorinated rubbers, paints, glues, tapes and carbonless copy paper
1. As oil in electrical equipment The use of PCBs containing oils in electrical equipment is regarded as the main problematic area in Tanzania. This study on pattern of practices and the Vice president Draft report on PCB inventory in Tanzania found out that electrical equipment constitutes a major source of PCBs releases as they were used or still in use in Water treatment plants e.g. Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Authority (DAWASA) Lower and Upper Ruvu stations in Kibaha and Bagamoyo.
International POPs Elimination Project – IPEP 2 Website- www.ipen.org All substations in Tanzania which include large transformers.
Medium size transformers that are scattered in many places in the country.
Normal industrial and domestic application e.g. in capacitors (from those fitted to fluorescent lights to high voltage units), switchgears and circuit breakers.
Information gathered indicated presence of PCBs in old electrical installations owned both by private and the Tanzania Electrical Supply Company (TANESCO) as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Transformers found to contain PCBs
2. As lubricant and heat exchanger fluid PCBs were used as a lubricant for turbines, pumps and in hydraulic machines.
Also PCBs were used as heat exchanger fluids. The use of PCBs in this equipment is estimated to be 15% of the use.
3. As additives PCBs were used as additives in carbonless carbon paper, paint, chlorinated rubbers, plastics, sealants, adhesives, glues and tapes. The use of PCBs however was in fewer amounts. According to an expert from Insignia (manufactures Coral Paints) the company is no longer using PCBs in its production.
From the above it can be concluded that all areas where there was/is a significant use of PCBs containing fluids in electrical equipment are potential hotspots, because of the above factors. Use/handling of oil in electrical equipment is further discussed later in the report.
Handling of PCB containing equipment and fluids Improper handling of transformer and waste oil may lead into significant oil leakages and/or spillages, which poses a serious health risk to the workers, particularly those involved in maintenance and repairs, and the environment.
Poor handling of equipment containing PCBs and transformer oils during retro
Storage of PCB containing equipment and fluids If the storage facilities for transformer and waste oil is open type, or the storage facilities are of inadequate size to accommodate the amount of the waste oil available, spillage is an inevitable consequence.
Leakage of PCBs containing equipment Leakage of PCB from the equipment can occur as a result of accident or damage of the equipment or as a result of corrosion to the metallic parts of the equipment due to weathering effect.
Maintenance and repair of equipment PCB emissions may occur during equipment servicing/repairing and decommissioning or as a result of damaged equipment. When transformer seals are dismantled (to allow access to the core), there are possibilities that PCBs vapour, fumes or aerosols to be released. This effect can be very significant at higher temperatures. Heat from any sort of flame-cutting operation or welding not only vapourises PCBs on the surface of the piece being cut, but spreads to adjacent parts and increase the volatilisation of nearby PCBs.
Retrofilling This is a process of emptying the equipment of its dielectric fluid, and replacing it with new non-PCB oil. The oil is first filtered to remove particulate matters before retrofilling. It is worth mentioning that transformer usually contains wooden and possibly paper components. These materials are porous and retain some oils, which may be contaminated with PCBs. The employment of the same facilities that were used many years ago for filling transformers with PCBs oil will lead into cross contamination when used to fill non-PCBs oil. The leakage of the PCBcontaminated equipment may lead to PCB contamination of the environment.
Disposal of PCB containing equipment Improper disposal of waste oil and equipment containing PCBs results in contamination of soils, surface as well as ground water.
Misuse of PCB containing fluids There are cases where leaks of the oils have been caused by malicious tampering of equipment mainly with intent to steal the oil. There are undocumented claims that the stolen oil is used for various purposes such as blending with cooking oils for profit making, and/or selling the product as lubricating oil. Sometimes the oil is used as medicine for curing muscle pains, like in sprain or injuries and burns and as skin lightening product as shown in appendix 2.2.