«ESTIMATING 2003 BUILDING-RELATED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION MATERIALS AMOUNTS This page intentionally left blank. Table of Contents Table of ...»
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Tables
List of Figures
1.1 The Construction Industry
1.1.1 Size of the Construction Industry
1.1.2 Efforts by the Construction Industry to Increase C&D Materials Recovery...... 3
1.2 Estimating Building-Related C&D Materials Generation Amounts
1.3 Estimating The Recovered amount of Building-Related C&D Materials.................. 6 2 Amount of Building-Related C&D Materials Generated
2.1 Methodology and Results
2.1.1 Residential Construction
2.1.2 Nonresidential Construction
2.1.3 Residential Demolition
2.1.4 Nonresidential Demolition
2.1.5 Residential Renovation
2.1.6 Nonresidential Renovation
2.2 Amount of Building-Related C&D Materials Generated in 2003
3 Building-Related C&D Materials Management
3.1 Source Reduction
3.2 Materials Recovery
3.2.1 Barriers to C&D Materials Recovery
3.2.2 Quantifying Recovery of C&D Materials
3.3 Landfill Disposal
APPENDICESA Building-Related C&D Materials Generation Amount Calculations B Sources of C&D Materials Recovery Data
1-1 Typical components of C&D Materials
2-1 Summary of Residential Construction Job Site C&D Materials Surveys.
2-2 Summary of Nonresidential Construction Job Site Surveys of C&D Materials............... 10 2-3 Summary of Residential Demolition Job Site Waste Surveys
2-4 Summary of Nonresidential Demolition Job Site Surveys of C&D Materials................. 14 2-5 Summary of Residential Renovation Job Site Surveys of C&D materials
2-6 Summary of Nonresidential Renovation Job Site Surveys of C&D Materials................. 17 2-7 Estimated Amount of Building-Related C&D Materials Generated in the U.S. During 2003
3-1 Amount of C&D materials disposed and recovered by reporting state.
A-1 Residential Construction Materials Worksheet
A-2 Nonresidential Construction Materials Worksheet
A-3 Residential Demolition Materials Worksheet
A-4 Residential Renovation Materials Worksheet
A-5 Nonresidential Renovation Materials Worksheet
A-5 Nonresidential Renovation Materials Worksheet
A-6 Estimated Weight of Residential Concrete Driveways Replaced in the U.S., 2003...... A-5 A-7 Estimated Weight of Residential Asphalt Roofs Replaced in the U.S., 2003................ A-6 A-8 Estimated Weight of Residential Wood Roofs Replaced in the U.S., 2003
A-9 Estimated Weight of Residential HVAC Equipment Replaced in the U.S., 2003.......... A-6
1-1 U.S. construction spending.
1-2 Estimated consumption of portland cement in 2003
1-3 C&D Materials Management Definitions
2-1 Average Unit Size of New Residential Construction
2-2 Contribution to the C&D Materials Stream by Each Building Sector
Construction and demolition (C&D) materials are generated when new structures are built and when existing structures are renovated or demolished (including deconstruction activities).
Structures include all residential and nonresidential buildings, as well as public works projects, such as streets and highways, bridges, utility plants, piers, and dams. While definitions on what constitutes C&D materials vary from state to state, C&D materials measured by various parties can include land clearing debris, the vegetation that is removed when a new site is developed.
Typical components of C&D materials are shown in Table 1-1.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has targeted C&D materials for reduction, reuse, and recovery as part of its Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC). The RCC is a national effort to conserve natural resources and energy by managing materials more efficiently.
The goals of the RCC are to prevent pollution and promote reuse and recycling, reduce priority and toxic chemicals in products and waste, and conserve energy and materials. The RCC has
identified four national focus areas:
Municipal solid waste recycling
Industrial materials recycling, specifically:
o C&D materials reduction, reuse, and recycling o Coal combustion products o Foundry sands Green Initiatives: Green Building and Electronics Priority and toxic chemical reductions 1 With respect to C&D materials, EPA has undertaken the following activities in an effort to
increase the amount of C&D materials reduced, reused, or recycled:
Conduct outreach and education with industry and public-sector partners; and Recognize those with successful reuse or recycling programs; and Participate in green efforts, such as green building programs and green highway programs.
More information about the RCC can be found at www.epa.gov/rcc.
Furthermore, the recently-issued Executive Order 13423 requires all federal construction, renovation, and demolition projects to achieve a 50% recycling rate where markets or on-site recycling opportunities exist. EPA is committed to helping achieve that recycling rate. One of the important tasks for EPA under the RCC is to track the progress of C&D materials recovery by estimating the amount that is generated and recovered.
The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of building-related C&D materials generated and recovered in the U.S. during 2003, updating the findings of the 1998 EPA report Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States (EPA 530-R-98-010). Limited information is available on the amount of C&D materials generated and managed in the U.S. The methodology used in this report to estimate the amount of building-related C&D materials generated and recovered in the U.S. during 2003 is based on national statistical data and typical waste generation during building construction, renovation, demolition, or maintenance activities. The recovery estimate relies on 2003 data reported by state environmental agencies.
Finally, we would note that accurate measurements of C&D generation and recovery are critical in order to measure progress toward achieving increased C&D materials reuse and recycling.
However, efforts to improve C&D measurement are currently hampered by a general lack of data. Thus, it should be recognized that the C&D materials estimates presented to date, including those in this report, have some level of uncertainty, and the results should be viewed in that light. Nevertheless, we believe that the estimates contained in this report reflect and are based on the best data that are currently available.
1.1 THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY1.1.1 Size of the Construction Industry The amount of C&D materials that are generated and subsequently managed in the U.S. is dependent on the amount of activity that takes place in the entire construction, demolition, renovation, and maintenance industry. Construction is a vital sector of the economy, directly or indirectly, providing jobs and income to a large population in the U.S. Americans look to the construction industry to meet the demands of a growing population and economy. As such, federal agencies, such as the U.S. Census Bureau (USCB), regularly track the construction industry as an indicator of the economy. The construction industry is very large, yet dominated by very small businesses. For example, according to USCB data, there were 710,000 construction establishments in 2002 with 7.2 million employees, with an average employment of ten employees per establishment. In 2002, 90 percent of construction establishments had fewer than 20 employees, while only one percent of construction establishments had 100 employees or more (2005a).
The USCB uses construction spending, new home sales, and housing starts as one set of indicators of the health of the U.S. economy. The construction industry boomed during the late 1990s and into the early 2000s. Figure 1-1 shows the amount of growth in spending during that time. EPA published an estimate (in 1998) of the amount of building-related C&D materials generated in the U.S. during 1996. The estimate presented in the current report is for the amount of building-related C&D materials generated in the U.S. during 2003. Between these years, the amount of money spent on construction (for all structures, including buildings, roads, bridges,
Estimating 2003 Building-Related Construction and Demolition Materials Amounts
etc.) in the U.S. increased by approximately 50%, from an estimated $620 billion in 1996 to an estimated $930 billion in 2003. These costs do not have a direct relationship with materials consumption as they may include inflation, profit, and other costs. They can be used as an indicator of construction activity, however. The USCB does not break down these amounts by structure type (building vs. non-building), but does break the amounts down by use category.
Those categories (as described by the USCB) that were assumed to primarily consist of building construction were aggregated for this report 2. The USCB, however, did not break down public construction by use category until 2002, thus only private building construction spending is shown in Figure 1-1. Between 1996 and 2003, private building construction spending increased 32%. During that same time, the population of the U.S. only increased 8%.
The construction industry is taking large strides to lessen its impact on the environment. In furtherance of these efforts, the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC;
Based on their descriptions, the USCB categories that were assumed to consist mostly of building construction and used to estimate building construction spending for Figure 1-1 were Residential, Lodging, Office, Commercial, Health Care, Educational, Religious, Public Safety, and Manufacturing. Categories that were assumed to contain mostly non-building construction were Amusement and Recreation, Transportation, Communication, Power, Sewage and Waste Disposal, and Water Supply.
http://www.agc.org) created an Environmental Agenda in 2006, which lists seven goals. Four of
these goals relate most to materials management, which are:
1. Encourage environmental stewardship through education, awareness and outreach.
2. Recognize environmentally responsible construction practices.
3. Identify opportunities to reduce the impact that construction practices have on the environment, including o Facilitating members’ efforts to recycle or reduce construction and demolition debris.
o Identifying and maximizing the contractor’s role in “green” construction.
4. Identify ways to measure and report environmental trends and performance indicators of such trends.
Other efforts undertaken by the construction industry include the following:
The Building Materials Reuse Association (BMRA; http://www.buildingreuse.org) • facilitates building deconstruction and the reuse and recycling of recovered building materials. They produce information on deconstruction techniques and information on how to make a successful deconstruction or reuse business. They convene annually to transfer this knowledge among contractors, government representatives, and researchers.
The Construction Materials Recycling Association (CMRA; http://www.cdrecycling.org) • aids their members in the appropriate methods for processing material to ensure environmental protectiveness, as well as producing a high-value product. They have developed websites to reach out to any recyclers, users of recycled materials, and regulators in order to provide a better understanding of C&D materials recycling. They have developed websites that contain research and practical information for the recycling of concrete (http://concreterecycling.org), drywall (http://drywallrecycling.org), and asphalt shingles (http://shinglerecycling.org).
The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB; http://www.nahb.org) issued Green • Home Building Guidelines that contractors can follow to make their homes more “green,” including reducing, reusing, and recycling construction waste. They also put on an annual Green Building Conference that brings together contractors and researchers to discuss new “green” construction techniques. The NAHB Research Center also pursued research in the area of C&D materials recycling, such as using the material on-site.
The National Demolition Association (NDA; http://www.demolitionassociation.com) • actively promotes recycling and reuse of the materials generated during a demolition.
They released a report titled, “Demolition Industry Promotes C&D Recycling,” in which they describe ways that the industry and government can work together to overcome recycling barriers. The “members of the National Demolition Association are committed to increasing the recycling and reuse of the material generated” on their jobsites. They state that “recycling is good for the environment, good for the nation’s economy, a positive use of valuable commodity, and good for the country.” Estimating 2003 Building-Related Construction and Demolition Materials Amounts