WWW.ABSTRACT.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 60 |

«Cosmic Dance of Lord Shiva Written and also arranged from various manuscripts and articles by Philippe L. De Coster, B.Th., D.D. Gita Satsang Ghent, ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Gita Society of Belgium

Branch of International Gita Society (IGS/USA)

© 2001-2012

Cosmic Dance of Lord Shiva

Written and also arranged from various manuscripts and articles by

Philippe L. De Coster, B.Th., D.D.

Gita Satsang Ghent, Belgium

© November 2012 – Philippe L. De Coster, Ghent, Belgium

(Non commercial, for personal and satsang use only)

Cosmic Dance of Lord Shiva

Review along the author’s two E-books: Shiva Devotion and Meditation As

It Is; and, Shiva The Destroyer and the Restorer, A Study in Psychosynthesis and Meditation, both published on Scribd and Internet Archives.

In the twenty-first century, the image of Shiva Nataraja has become popularised and repurposed across the globe. There is a natural tension when such a powerful deity in Hindu belief is brought into new secular contexts. People worldwide are seeing Nataraja through a multitude of lenses—commercial, personal, scientific, and artistic—and finding deep but differing meanings.

One striking example has its roots in twentieth-century physics. After physicist Fritjof Capra's book The Tao of Physics was published in 1975, Shiva Nataraja became a symbol of the movement of matter in the pattern of creation and destruction. A large sculpture of Nataraja stands outside the European Centre for Research in Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, underlining the link between cosmic forces and subatomic matter. In this context, Nataraja is also a political symbol for India's contribution to the sciences.

Along with appearing as a popular image on merchandise, Nataraja has been reinterpreted by artists to address issues in today's global society. Israeli artist Izhar Patkin, for example, created a glass sculpture fusing the deity with Brazilian entertainer Carmen Miranda and African-American performer Josephine Baker. The work, titled “Where Each is Both”, explores the confluences of these three figures as dancers and as boundary-crossers, creating and destroying on cosmic and human scales.

Indian-American graphic designer Sanjay Patel has depicted Nataraja in his unique illustration style, which is partly inspired by Japanese cartoons and comics. His brightly colored, two-dimensional deities sport large heads, big eyes, and stubby limbs. In his collection of illustrations and information on the Hindu pantheon, The Little Book of Hindu Deities, Patel uses this style to bring a deliberate playfulness to the exploration of Hindu gods and epics.

LORD SHIVA is the Father of all that is was and Shall be, he is Creator Preserver and Destroyer, the Great Lord Of Immortality giver of Immortality, Supreme Conciousness. Representing male divinity, He is Rudra Lord of the sky. Lord Shiva's Holy day of the week is monday and Holy day of month according to the lunar calendar is the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month usually the eve of the new moon, known as Masa Shivaratri and ofcourse Lord Shiva's great Festival Maha Shivaratri on the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month in the Hindu Month of Phalguna usually febuary or march on the western calendar. Lord shiva is Propritiated for Healing, Cleansing, for stimulating the third eye, and for wisdom as he is the great teacher Dakshinamurthi.

Shiva (or Siva ) is one of the chief deities of Hinduism. His name means "Auspicious One." Devotees of Shiva are called " Saivites." Shiva is known by many other names, including Sambhu ("Benignant"), Samkara ("Beneficent"), Pasupati ("Lord of Beasts"), Mahesa ("Great Lord") and Mahadeva ("Great God").

Shiva is a paradoxical deity: "both the destroyer and the restorer, the great ascetic and the symbol of sensuality, the benevolent herdsman of souls and the wrathful avenger." In the most famous myth concerning Shiva, he saves humanity by holding in his throat the poison that churned up in the waters and threatened mankind. For this reason he is often depicted with a blue neck.

In the Vedas, shiva is an aspect of the god Rudra, not a separate god. However, a joint form Rudra-Shiva appears in early household rites, making Shiva one of the most ancient Hindu gods still worshipped today. By the 2nd century BCE, Rudra's significance began to wane and Shiva rose in popularity as a separate identity.

In the Ramayana, Shiva is a mighty and personal god, and in the Mahabharata he is the equal of Vishnu and worshipped by other gods. Shiva became associated with generation and destruction; sometimes fulfilling the role of Destroyer along with Vishnu (the Preserver) and Brahma (the Creator) and sometimes embodying all three roles within himself.

In the Mahadeva image in the Elephanta caves (on an island off of Bombay), which dates to between the 5th and 7th centuries CE, Shiva is shown in his threefold form. This triple aspect of Shiva, which has become a dominant form,

is rich with symbolism:

Shiva's female consort is variously manifested as Uma, Sati, Parvati, Durga, Kali, and sometimes Shakti. Their sons are Skanda, the god of war, and the beloved elephant-headed Ganesh, remover of obstacles.

Shiva is especially associated with the Ganges River, which flows through his hair in images, and Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas.

Shiva's symbols are the bull and the linga. The latter symbol is historically associated with the phallus, but is not generally perceived as such by worshipers.





Other depictions of Shiva have his hair in matted locks and piled atop his head like an ascetic and adorned with the crescent moon and the Ganges River (according to legend, he broke the Ganga's fall to earth by allowing her to trickle through his hair).

The Shiva Lingam is normally a naturally occurring stone formation or a manmade stone sculpture, usually on a square or circular mounting, that is treated as a powerful symbolic object in the Hindu faith. The structure is cylindrical with either a flat or rounded top and is a common feature in Hindu temples, where it is worshiped for its association with the deity Shiva. Hindus believe that the Shiva Lingam possesses metaphysical powers -- qualities inherent to the object but not traceable to its physical substance.

Male Energy

The form of the stone itself -- strongly phallic in shape -- is meant to suggest an inherent, if undetectable, masculine energy. It is believed that the hot-tempered nature associated with the god Shiva is manifested in the volatile energy of the stone itself. Large Shiva Lingam structures are therefore often bathed in water and sandalwood paste to calm this energy prior to worship.

Female Energy

The base of the Shiva Lingam is shaped like a yoni, a symbol suggestive of both the female reproductive organ and the female divinity that is the origin of life.

Carvings and markings on the stone are also said to contain divine female energy. The fact that this feminine symbol underlies the strongly masculine stone results in the metaphysical ability of the stone to be a force of balance, unifying opposing energies.

Healing Properties Another property attributed to Shiva Lingam is a healing force that derives from a cosmic or universal source. As a result, some believers in alternative healing methods, related to the ancient concept of chakras or subtle energy centers, purchase and wear small Shiva Lingam amulets and pendants as jewelry. In particular, polished stones gathered from the Narmada River in India are believed to be potent with metaphysical healing powers.

Shiva the Hindu god of destruction is also known as Nataraja, the Lord of Dancers (In Sanskrit, Nata means dance and raja means Lord). The visual image of Nataraja achieved canonical form in the bronzes cast under the Chola dynasty in the 10th century AD, and then continued to be reproduced in metal, stone and other substances right up to the present times. The Chola Nataraja is often said to be the supreme statement of Hindu art.

The Sanskrit word "Shiva" is an adjective meaning kind, friendly, gracious, or auspicious. As a proper name it means "The Auspicious One", used as a euphemistic name for Rudra. In simple English transliteration it is written either as Shiva or Siva. In English it is pronounced as - ɕivə (IPA). The adjective Shiva meaning "auspicious" is used as an attributive epithet not particularly of Rudra, but of several other Vedic deities. In the Rig Veda, Indra uses this word to describe himself several times. (2:20:3, 6:45:17, 8:93:3) The Sanskrit word saiva means "relating to the god Shiva", and this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism, and for a member of one of those sects. It is used as as adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism.

There is an interesting legend behind the conception of Shiva as Nataraja. In a dense forest in South India, there dwelt multitudes of heretical sages. Thither proceeded Shiva to confute them, accompanied by Vishnu disguised as a beautiful woman. The sages were at first led to violent dispute amongst themselves, but their anger was soon directed against Shiva, and they endeavoured to destroy him by means of incantations. A fierce tiger was created in sacrificial fires, and rushed upon him; but smiling gently, he seized it and, with the nail of his little finger, stripped off its skin, and wrapped it about himself like a silken cloth. Undiscouraged by failure, the sages renewed their offerings, and produced a monstrous serpent, which however Shiva seized and wreathed about his neck like a garland. Then he began to dance; but there rushed upon him a last monster in the shape of a malignant dwarf. Upon him the god pressed the tip of his foot, and broke the creatures back, so that it writhed upon the ground; and so, his last foe prostrate, Shiva resumed the dance.

To understand the concept of Nataraja we have to understand the idea of dance itself. Like yoga, dance induces trance, ecstasy and the experience of the divine.

In India consequently, dance has flourished side by side with the terrific austerities of the meditation grove (fasting, absolute introversion etc.). Shiva, therefore, the arch-yogi of the gods, is necessarily also the master of the dance.

Shiva Nataraja was first represented thus in a beautiful series of South Indian bronzes dating from the tenth and twelfth centuries A.D. In these images, Nataraja dances with his right foot supported by a crouching figure and his left foot elegantly raised. A cobra uncoils from his lower right forearm, and the crescent moon and a skull are on his crest. He dances within an arch of flames.

This dance is called the Dance of Bliss (anandatandava).

These iconographic details of Nataraja are to be read, according to the Hindu tradition, in terms of a complex pictorial allegory. The most common figures depict a four-armed Shiva. These multiple arms represent the four cardinal directions. Each hand either holds an object or makes a specific mudra (gesture).

The upper right hand holds a hour-glass drum which is a symbol of creation. It is beating the pulse of the universe. The drum also provides the music that accompanies Shivas dance. It represents sound as the first element in an unfolding universe, for sound is the first and most pervasive of the elements.

The story goes that when Shiva granted the boon of wisdom to the ignorant Panini (the great Sanskrit grammarian), the sound of the drum encapsulated the whole of Sanskrit grammar. The first verse of Paninis grammar is in fact called Shiva sutra.

The hour-glass drum also represents the male and female vital principles; two triangles penetrate each other to form a hexagon. When they part, the universe also dissolves. The opposite hand, the upper left, bears on its palm a tongue of flames. Fire is the element of destruction of the world. According to Hindu mythology at the end of the world, it will be fire that will be the instrument of annihilation. Thus in the balance of these two hands is illustrated a counterpoise of creation and destruction. Sound against flames, ceaselessness of production against an insatiate appetite of extermination.

The second right hand is held in the abhaya (literally "without fear") pose and so a gesture of protection, as an open palm is most likely to be interpreted. It depicts the god as a protector.

The left leg is raised towards the right leg and reaches across it; the lower left hand is stretched across the body and points to the upraised left foot which represents release from the cycle of birth and death. Interestingly, the hand pointing to the uplifted foot is held in a pose imitative of the outstretched trunk of an elephant. In Sanskrit this is known as the gaja-hasta-mudra (the posture of the elephant trunk), and is symbolic of Ganesha, Shivas son, the Remover of obstacles.

Shiva dances on the body of a dwarf apasmara-purusha (the man of forgetfulness) who embodies indifference, ignorance and laziness. Creation, indeed all creative energy is possible only when the weight of inertia (the tamasic darkness of the universe) is overcome and suppressed. The Nataraja image thus addresses each individual to overcome complacency and get his or her own act together.

The ring of fire and light, which circumscribes the entire image, identifies the field of the dance with the entire universe. The lotus pedestal on which the image rests locates this universe in the heart or consciousness of each person.

The Nataraja image is also eloquent of the paradox of Eternity and Time. It shows us that the reposeful ocean and the racing stream are not finally distinct.

This wonderful lesson can be read in the significant contrast of the incessant, triumphant motion of the swaying limbs to the balance of the and the immobility of the mask-like countenance. Shiva is Kala, meaning time, but he is also Maha Kala, meaning Great Time or eternity. As Nataraja, King of dancers, his gestures, wild and full of grace, precipitate the cosmic illusion; his flying arms and legs and the swaying of his torso produce the continuous creationdestruction of the universe, death exactly balancing birth. The choreography is the whirligig of time. History and its ruins, the explosion of suns, are flashes from the tireless swinging sequence of the gestures. In the beautiful cast metal figurines, not merely a single phase or movement, but the entirety of this cosmic dance is miraculously rendered. The cyclic rhythm, flowing on and on in the unstayable, irreversible round of the Mahayugas, or Great Eons, is marked by the beating and stamping of the Masters heels. But the face remains, meanwhile in sovereign calm.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 60 |


Similar works:

«Contract Concerning Page of 9 12-05 -2011 (Address of Property) PROMULGATED BY THE TEXAS REAL ESTATE COMMISSION (TREC) EQUAL HOUSING OPPORTUNITY ONE TO FOUR FAMILY RESIDENTIAL CONTRACT (RESALE) NOTICE: Not For Use For Condominium Transactions 1. PARTIES: The parties to this contract are (Seller) and (Buyer). Seller agrees to sell and convey to Buyer and Buyer agrees to buy from Seller the Property defined below. 2. PROPERTY: A. LAND: Lot Block, Addition, City of, County of, Texas, known as...»

«LISA WILLIAM-WHITE, Ph.D. 9522 Village Tree Drive Elk Grove, CA 95758 (916) 684-0199 EDUCATION Ph.D. University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, 2003 Education (Language, Literacy and Culture) Dissertation area: How High Achieving African American Students Negotiate Their Social and Academic Identities Advisor: Dr. Karen Watson-Gegeo M.A. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 1994 Education (Teaching English as a Second Language) Master's Project: Black English Vernacular and Its...»

«Blending Descriptive and Numeric Analysis in Human Reliability Design Shamus P. Smith and Michael D. Harrison The Dependability Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration Department of Computer Science, The University of York York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom {Shamus.Smith, Michael.Harrison}@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract. Scenario based design allows for the early elicitation of requirements and can be helpful in the design phase of system development. It is typical for cycles of iteration to be used to...»

«July 17, 2013 Dear Member of the Class of 2018: Welcome to Tulane University! With your demonstrated interest in studying architecture, we are delighted to have you joining the Tulane School of Architecture. his is an exciting time of rebirth and renewal in New Orleans, one that offers remarkable opportunities for architectural education. We have enclosed for your review our 5-year undergraduate curriculum leading to the Master of Architecture accredited professional degree. We have also...»

«Declaration of Protest to the 2007 Commemoration of the Bicentenary of the British Parliamentary Abolition of the Transatlantic Slave Trade The Ligali Organisation 1/20 August 2005 em: mail@ligali.org | ph: + 44 20.8986.1984 | ml: po box 1257.london.e5.0ud.uk | web: www.ligali.org CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 4 SUMMARY OF PRIMARY OBJECTIONS 5 Objection 1 5 Objection 2 5 Objection 3 6 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 7 Why can’t African people just galvanise behind the spirit of the abolitionist movement?...»

«Rehák László BOGDAN ŠEŠIĆ HOZZÁJÁRULÁSA AZ ANTROPOLÓGIAI NEOMARXISTA FILOZÓFIA SZÁMBAVÉTELÉHEZ A jugoszláv marxista közvélemény előtt dr. Bogdán Sesic a tekintélyes idősek köréhez tartozik, így Sesic professzor nem egy tanítványa maga is már jelentős eredményeket ért el, és a hazai filozófusaink élgárdájának oszlopos tagjai. A körülmények úgy alakították Sesic professzor tudomá­ nyos tevékenyságét, hogy legtöbbet a filozófia terén a dialektikus...»

«WHAT THE #$%& IS HAPPENING ON TELEVISION? INDECENCY IN BROADCASTING Treasa Chidester I. INTRODUCTION Imagine sitting down with your children to watch an awards show on television aired live during “prime-time” hours.1 While watching the show, you are shocked when you and your family hear an award recipient use “the Fword” in an acceptance speech.2 This is exactly what happened at the January 2003 Golden Globe Awards, when U2 singer Bono accepted an award and exclaimed: “This is...»

«Cities Alliance Project Output Taj Ganj Slum Housing Upgrading Project Phase II: DPR for funding under RAY Citywide Slum Upgrading Plan (CSUP) for the Heritage City of Agra (India) P120112 This project output was created with Cities Alliance grant funding. Taj Ganj Slum Housing Upgrading Project, Phase-II Content List of Figures, tables and Graphs Check-List For Preparation / Appraisal Of DPR For Agra City under RAY Summary of Cost of DPR 1. Background 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Taj Trapezium Zone...»

«Gilles Kepel Avec la collaboration de Leyla Arslan, Sarah Zouheir Résumé intégral www.banlieue-de-la-republique.fr www.institutmontaigne.org Octobre 2011 Clichy ­sous ­Bois  et  Montfermeil  en  quelques  chiffres     60 000 habitants dans l’agglomération Taux de chômage :  ­ Clichy-sous-Bois : 22,7 %  ­ Montfermeil : 17,5 %  ­ Ile de France : 11 % Poids des moins de 14 ans dans la population totale :  ­ Clichy-sous-Bois : 28,55 %  ­ Montfermeil : 22,5 %  ­...»

«EUROPEAN COMMISSION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL JUSTICE and CONSUMERS Directorate E Consumer Affairs E3 Product and service safety Brussels, 06/03/2015 SUMMARY REPORT ON THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION ON THE GREEN PAPER ON THE SAFETY OF TOURISM ACCOMMODATION SERVICES Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3. ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS 3.1. Respondent's profile 3.2. Respondent's activity 3.3. Geographical distribution of respondents 4. ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS' CONTRIBUTIONS 4.1. Existing...»

«Made in North America: A new agenda to sharpen our competitive edge Eric Miller, John Dillon and Colin Robertson December 2014 Table of contents About the authors About the Canadian Council of Chief Executives Summary Recommendations in brief The North American opportunity Towards a more competitive North America Supply chain and border management Trade-related infrastructure Manufacturing Energy and environment Regulatory cooperation and alignment Trade rules and practices Skills and jobs...»

«Nutrition Update The Office can need calling mortgage on their home long if being and helping up surprises to your stones, sell person of products and people and even tuning your tasks. Prevent up in this cash etc. them are remaining states this incurable people. Leads for the agree the mortgages in the 70 options from Boulder but Australia nurses. Truly, include just enable you direct, you had a only Book but income thought you Nutrition Update in going if software of no year how you listed...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.