«THE VOICE AND THE FILIATION Dra. Araceli Colín Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, México Abstract Filiation according to ...»
European Scientific Journal August 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
THE VOICE AND THE FILIATION
Dra. Araceli Colín
Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, México
Filiation according to Legendre is a structural order linked to the reproduction of the
word meaning that no human being can be subject of a word of his own if he has not
previously come across the incest prohibition by an instance called “Father”. Father 124 conceived as a ternary instance culturally embedded. It is always said “on behalf of”. The possibility of reproducing the word could not be achieved without voice. Voice exceeds the word. According to Freud, it deals with a fragmented past, linked to desire, which historicizes itself in a singular matter in the analytical process. It accomplishes this through the enunciation of a mixture of ancestral voices, which inhabit the subject in an instance called Id. Freud read this historical legacy in an oscillating mode: sometimes from a ideological perspective, sometimes from a biological predisposition. As Lacan proposes, the voice is a crucial resource of generational transmission and a vehicle for filiation. In neoliberal times, the desymbolization of culture, as proposed by Dufour, has several consequences on filiation. Finally I will present three cases in which filiation is affected.
Each case belongs to an ethnic group from México and Guatemala.
Keywords: Psychoanalysis, filiation, voice, “Name-of-the-Father” culture desymbolization Introduction The filiation comprises the bond between ancestors and descendants. Filiation comes from the term filus which means son in Latin. The filiation in the human order is a legal right whether it is determinated by a legal act or a natural event. Anyway it is a legal sanction naming it as such because procreation is covered under the law in every culture. The most important filiation is not the biological one. Legal filiation is necessary but not sufficient; for a subject can be the subject of the word and the subject of desire. The filiation is a fact of language. It is not a biological inheritance.
Legendre (1994:20) has shown the important place that society has given to incest and homicide in relation to filiation. Due to these prohibitions of these two crimes the social pact founds its culture. But the Holocaust attacked the symbolic reference of the law when the Nazis placed science in substitution of the symbolic law as a reason for extermination.
Legendre notes that the Nazi’s logic has not disappeared to the extent that it attacked the references system of the European world (1994:19). But has this only reached Europe?
Legendre remarks that it is not indifferent that two opposed systems of faith, the Jewish and the Christian religions, were interweaved to the Holocaust.
The logic of the Nazi’s extermination has returned in many ways and in various places around the world. One of the premises is giving to science the place that the ancestor's knowledge had before. Nowadays, child procreation runs more in the trading criteria as a metonymy of a craving which is asked from a scientist in exchange for money; the actual generation demands to determine the genitor, the donor, the womb that gestates a son, the Father with capital letter refers to the ternary reference notion, it’s a concept; and father with small letter refers to the colloquial sense.
European Scientific Journal August 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 infant’s sex, the eye and skin color and so on instead of the infant as a metaphor of the parents’ love, and instead of having the chance of weaving their fantasy into the expectance of an new life.
The law has changed considerably recently on filiation when it comes to assisted reproduction. One of the first countries to deal with it was Spain. The law oscillates to establish filiation for adoption or for nature, especially when it comes to gay couples, particularly when it comes to two women (Romeo, 2006:1). But even if the law changes, the importance of the signifier of the Name-of-the-Father proposed by Lacan (2006a:230), that humanizes the child, remains intact. And it even emphasizes that the lineage that constitutes the subject of desire, is not a matter of consanguinity.
The filiation is an issue of great interest to psychoanalysis; it is not reduced to the legal nor religious order. These orders are understood and transcended by psychoanalytic filiation sense. They are committed to the “network” of desire and transindividual discourses in which the subject is immerse at birth and on which its subjectification depends. In this sense, this implies not only the direct ancestry and descendency but also other significant family members.
I am going to use three meanings of myth in this work: Freud built a myth for modern humans that I am going to explain later. The second meaning is proposed by Lacan: the myth is a way to encrypt the truth of the subject and defines the myth as an objectified representation of a feat that expresses, in an imaginary way, the fundamental characteristic relationships of a certain way of being human in a given time; and that it is possible to appreciate its role in the neurotic’s experience called individual neurotic myth (Lacan, 1985:40). The third meaning is the family myth, a notion proposed by Rodulfo (1989).
Legendre claims that the very foundations of the social and subjective rationalities are based on the Father conceived as the great ternary mythical reference. The essential idea of the mythological link is the course of procedures to access the identity. This involves mobilizing the institutional framework by each newcomer to humankind. He states that places of father and mother are operative because they are based on a logical relationship to the ternary reference. This reference brings into play the notion of Father (1994:168).
Thanks to the hypnotic command, Freud notices the split between “enunciated” and “enunciation”. He abandoned the hypnotic technique. From the voice of his patients he realized how memory was built. In the enunciation there could be words or fragmented words belonging to different times, themes and contexts of one patient´s life. In attempting to explain this "collage", Freud drew this scheme in his called "M" manuscript (1986a: 293).
Fantasy is the way the subject attempts to answer the question: What was lacking in my parent’s life before my birth, so that I was conceived?
The archive of the social and family memory that pre-exists before the emergence of a subject is in the discourse. Before a child is born, the family file is already in the form of a myth that encrypts vital dramas of a family and its response to them. This file is updated and cuts through the voice that parents direct to the infant.
The voice has two dimensions: The first is as sounding phenomena that conveys the signification (Julien, 2005). The second is its evanescent character which transmits the enigma. The voice carries the words. The voice could be meaningful in the origin of the infant’s breeding. Then it is devoiced and remains a leftover of the voice. This devoicing happens thanks to the intervention of the signifier Name-of-the-Father. One part of the voice is symbolized and the other part rests in real register (Vives, 2001: 165). The voice returns in at least two ways: As superego’s voices and as auditory hallucinations. When Vives speaks of devoicing, he does not refer to the registration of the audible. It means being "deaf" to it so that the Subject disobeys it and attends his own desire (Vives, n/d). Erik Porge (2011:9) European Scientific Journal August 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 emphasizes that the consideration of the voice in the auditory hallucination opened the way that allowed Lacan the psychosis treatment and deep study of the superego.
Parental voices and the Freudian myth Voices that the parents use has a privileged place to decipher and name their child’s cry. Every mother and father have to face the anguish of the infant’s prematurity and crying and bring into play the signifier system to give meaning to it. These signifiers were transmitted by their voice, their tone, their inflections, the evanescent character of the voice, what this manifested and what this concealed. In some countries called “first world” the grandmothers are not asked how to breastfeed anymore; now the question is for “technicians”. Now there is a North-American gadget called "Why cry?" It is expected to be bought by the parents and to become an indispensable commodity. This appliance has limited and pre-set options: bored, sleepy, hungry, annoyed, and stressed.
What consequences does this substitution have on the infant? The voices are crucial on body’s formation. This is intended to expel the big Other and with it the genealogical system built by mankind over thousands of years, in the act of raising a newborn who renews filiation generation by generation. The gadget “Why Cry?” is designed by a logic that reduces a kid, in the genesis of the human constitution, to his more animalistic and instinctive dimensions (Ribeiro, 2014: 80). It leaves no place for the drive in the Freudian sense (Trieb).
The gadget stops the privileged field for filiation: precisely that which relates to the constitution of the object of desire. It emerged in “the first world”; the very important thing is not how a lot of it is consumed, but that it exists. That gadget reflects the intention to supply an ancestral function.
The voices of the ancestors are updated in the analytic clinic by the voice of the analysand. The signifier is manifested not in what it is thought was said, but in what is “heard”.
Freud, to account for singularity, required a social reference. How to do it without considering a historical legacy? He changed the meaning of the notions of phylogeny and ontogeny of Häeckel; it was the boom of evolutionism. Each subject repeated ontogenetically in his own life what mankind has made over thousands of years (phylogeny).
In the 19th century Linguistics did not exist, neither the discourse studies. Freud required social references to explain the subjectivity, and he suggested two: one that today we could say it is a myth of origins, and that he considered “history”; and another that he formalized as a concept which he called Id. The first contribution resulted in a book, Totem and Taboo, which today has no historical value, but a large mythical value. Psychoanalysis recognizes that there are forms of truth that can only be transmitted as myth. That myth was developed to build an empty chair, symbol of the law. The function of the law is to attempt the social bond between the members of the clan. The totem is a symbol of the ternary reference (Freud, 1986b). The law is a “chair” that no one can occupy, It says "... on behalf of..." "In Memory of..."
Freud invented a myth about the origins of the law for humanity to give phylogenetic support to the ontogenetical experiences that unfold in the Oedipus. The childhood would be a kind of update of phylogenesis (Duvernay, 2001:13-34). Despite the trends of his time, with his discovery of the unconscious processes, he moved away from evolutionism. Freud discovered how the unconscious formations (the joke, the slip, the symptom, the dream) are interwoven with word games and letters. Wo es war soll ich werden (Freud 1986c: 74);
Fink’s translation is as follows: “Where it was, there must I come to be as a subject” (Lacan, 2006b:734). It is a thesis that today we can read as Freud's explanation of the relationship between subject and discourse.
European Scientific Journal August 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 The Id for Freud was a clinical evidence of thoughts that were imposed on subject and from which the subject could not escape. In order to be enrolled in filiation as speaker and then to be subject of the word, the symbolic register is required. Legal sanction of paternity and genetic determination are not enough. To be subject of their own word implies to recreate the discourse of the father.
Vives (2001:160) points out that in "Totem and Taboo" Freud highlights two references to voice question: First, Freud insists on a kind of identification that would be in part an imitation of vocal essence. He analyzes the Onomatopoeia sound emission of the totemic animal after the sacrificial feast, once the sons have ingested the father (Freud, 1986b:142). The second idea is Freud's reference to the chorus in Greek tragedy. The hero has to take on the blame himself to exonerate the choir from that burden; and at the time of the assassination of the hero, the singing of the choir would be a sublimated form of the dying father’s scream (Freud, 1986b:157).
The other contribution of Freud, to which I refer, is the concept of Id, which was suggested by Groddeck (Freud, 1977:89) but that Freud had also read in Nietzsche (Freud,1986c:67) in his work Beyond Good and Evil 125. In this book Nietzsche emphasizes that a thought comes to mind not when the subject wants it and believes to think rationally, but it comes alone; Nietzsche employs even the notion of "it" that would call into question the idea of thinking as a cause of thoughts (Nietzsche, 1978:38). Which means that thoughts that inhabit the subject and that "speak" on it do it as impersonal, not because of but despite ego. This Id of Freud is not a biological instance. Thoughts are from discursive order.
Parental voices may or may not resonate in the infant’s body. Freud argued that the drive (Trieb) makes a brazing (Verlötung) with the body. The drive builds the body.
The voices on the body’s imaginary constitution Lacan takes up the term from Charlotte Bühler transitivism on his work “The Mirror Stage” where it describes a time of undifferentiation on body constitution (Lacan, 2006c:79).
The first speech of the infant called “lalangue” 126 appears simultaneously with the body building. At that time the imago’s body has not precise boundaries, the child is confused with the other. The “lalangue” is a protolanguage that the child builds with his mother from their phonemes and babbling. This "protolanguage" from which the child will gain access to language, then would be an unconscious knowledge.