«A Gap Analysis For B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network A report prepared by Fraser Basin Council Funded by the B.C. ...»
Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 Table of Contents Executive Summary
3 Key Acronyms
4 Gap Analysis Approach
Existing and Planned Stations — Phase One
Gap Analysis Workshop
EV Owner Survey
EV Infrastructure Planning Assistant
16 Next Steps
17 A Gap Analysis for B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 Executive Summary The Province of British Columbia has renewed funding for the Clean Energy Vehicle Program, which includes an investment for up to twenty new direct current fast-charging (DCFC) stations in the province. This is in addition to thirty stations already planned from the first phase of Clean Energy Vehicle infrastructure investments. This report assesses the critical gaps in the existing and scheduled DCFC network in B.C., and provides recommendations for the second phase of station deployment.
This analysis is primarily informed by consultations with industry stakeholders, survey results from plug-in electric vehicle (EV) drivers, and by a comprehensive EV mapping tool. Evidently, there is no perfect solution for DCFC placement, particularly as existing resources fall far short of the numbers needed to satisfy electric travel throughout the entire province. In addition, the range capabilities of electric vehicles vary, which makes ideal station spacing more challenging.
To most effectively serve EV drivers and enable future EV uptake, it is recommended to focus on high EV adoption regions in B.C. and connect them to strategic neighbouring destinations, allowing for inter-city travel, or an “EV Tourism” approach.
The following priority routes have been identified for the Phase 2 DCFC deployment:
South Coast Ferries: Near Southern Ferry Terminal routes (Tsawwassen, Swartz • Bay, Horseshoe Bay, Nanaimo) (4 stations) Highway 5: (“Coquihalla”) Hope to Kamloops via Merritt (3 stations) • Metro Vancouver: Add density (2-4 stations) • Highway 99: USA Border to Vancouver Airport / Vancouver (2 stations) • Highway 4: Qualicum Beach to Tofino (3 stations) • Highway 7: North of Fraser River, Vancouver to Hope (4 stations) • Highway 19: North of Qualicum Beach to Campbell River (2 stations) • Highway 1: Cache Creek to Kamloops (2 stations) • Highway 97: Vernon to Kamloops. (1 station) • Highway 3: Hope to Princeton (1 station) • This report represents a planning document, and does not confirm the final number or locations to be implemented, which will also depend on the availability of hosts and partners, technical capabilities of locations, leveraged funding, and suitable business models.
Fraser Basin Council recognizes that servicing the priority routes listed requires an estimated 24-26 stations, which exceeds the twenty stations (maximum) allotted for this phase of investments. However, we anticipate that once additional work is done to assess technical and business barriers, that the one or more of the routes may drop from the next phase of implementation. Details on the feasibility and prioritization across these routes are in the analysis. More work is needed to assess any technical and business barriers to the priority routes above, and further mapping assessments must be made before final locations are selected.
A Gap Analysis for B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 Key Acronyms B.C. – The Province of British Columbia CHAdeMo – Japanese standard of electric vehicle fast-charging station.
DCFC – Direct Current Fast-Charging. Refers to 400 volt, 50+kW charging that takes approximately 20min to charge an electric vehicle to 80%.
EV – Plug-in electric vehicle. Refers to both battery electric and plug in hybrid electric vehicles. Also may be interchanged with PEV.
SAE Combo – North American standard of electric vehicle fast-charging station.
Introduction The purpose of this gap analysis is to evaluate current geographic gaps in British Columbia’s direct current fast-charging (DCFC) network, and to provide recommendations for the next phase of station deployment, taking into consideration existing and planned stations, user demand, real-world factors that impact electric vehicle (EV) range, and stakeholder recommendations.
This phase of infrastructure deployment is funded by the Province of British Columbia’s renewed Clean Energy Vehicle Program, introduced on April 1 2015, to encourage and accelerate the adoption of clean energy vehicles in British Columbia. A maximum of $630,000 has been approved to support up to 20 new dual-standard stations, if matching funding goals can be met. The Clean Energy Vehicle Charging Program, a component of the Clean Energy Vehicle Program, is administered and implemented through a partnership between the B.C. Ministry of Energy and Mines and Fraser Basin Council.
Gap Analysis Approach This gap analysis and recommended strategy for the next phase of DCFC deployment has
been primarily informed by the following:
A. Overarching guiding principles for a B.C. fast-charging network, provided by the Province of B.C.
B. Existing and planned stations from BC Hydro’s Critical EV Infrastructure Project (Phase One).
C. Recommendations by key stakeholders through a gap analysis workshop held June 15, 2015.
D. Survey results from EV owners, prioritizing routes and locations.
E. The EV Infrastructure Planning Assistant: a mapping tool to understand range limitations and capabilities of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) based on real-world factors.
The following sections will go through lessons and insights from each of the above items.
A Gap Analysis for B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 A.
Guiding Principles The B.C. Ministry of Energy and Mines has identified the following four guiding principles for DCFC deployment.
1. Connect priority travel corridors across the province, where “priority travel corridors” are defined as travel corridors that either have a large volume of commuter traffic, support cross jurisdictional travel, or support tourism within B.C.
2. Ensure infrastructure deployment allows for safe travel in the province.
3. Support regions with dense plug-in electric vehicle (EV) adoption.
4. Maximize population areas served.
While it is unreasonable to expect that every station in B.C.’s fast-charging network will meet all four principles, these guiding principles should be referenced and balanced whenever new locations are considered, in the context of the network as a whole. These principles were presented to stakeholders at the June 15th gap analysis workshop, and there was a consensus that they were appropriate to guide the planning process.
Existing and Planned Stations — Phase One Phase One of B.C.’s fast-charging infrastructure deployment for thirty DCFC stations was launched in 2012, known as the Critical EV Infrastructure Project. The project is led by BC Hydro, and supported by the Province of British Columbia, the Government of Canada, municipalities and the private sector. The first fifteen stations were tendered with the CHAdeMO standard, which primarily supports Japanese-built vehicle makes and models. The remaining 15 stations are tendered for dual CHAdeMO and SAE Combo Charging System (North American) standards. A separate project will support future retrofitting for many of the first 15 CHAdeMO station locations, to add the SAE Combo charger standard.
Site selection for Phase One was partially informed by a planning framework study provided by the University of British Columbia’s Transportation Infrastructure & Public Space (TIPS) Lab.1 The deployment followed general guidelines to meet a corridor (as opposed to a cluster) approach, focusing on town centers close to highway corridors, and distancing stations 50 – 70 km apart. Additionally, the first few stations in B.C. served to complete the West Coast Electric Highway, a cross-border initiative of the Pacific Coast Collaborative2 to allow electric transportation from Whistler, British Columbia to Baja, California (BC to BC).
A map of existing and planned stations for the Critical EV Infrastructure Project is here:
http://bit.ly/1PTT6Vy. While the factors guiding station selection for Phase Two of deployment will be different than that of Phase One, it is imperative that the two networks work as one. Thus, site selection for new infrastructure must consider both existing and planned locations. For any locations that have not yet been confirmed for Phase One, it is recommended that BC Hydro, Fraser Basin Council and the Province of UBC Tips Lab Report http://www.tipslabubc.com/images/documents/EVFC_Provincial_120523_WEB.pdf
For information on the Pacific Coast Collaborative West Coast Electric Highways, see:
http://www.pacificcoastcollaborative.org/priorities/transportation/Pages/GreenHighways.aspx A Gap Analysis for B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 B.C. consult to maximize the effectiveness of their placement within context of the next phase of deployment.
Gap Analysis Workshop A workshop was organized to bring together thirty key stakeholders representing industry, EV drivers, station site hosts, EV researchers and experts, and funders, with the
a. Information sharing to bring all participants up to speed on fast-charging station locations, gaps, and current tools b. Define and agree on minimum acceptable requirements for a fast charging station network c. Identify priority routes/corridors for future investments in fast charging stations and locations within those routes/corridors Approach for the DCFC Network Deployment The group discussed optimal strategies for planning for B.C.’s fast-charging network, and what standards should be met. While ideally a network would be planned for all vehicle types to reach all parts of the province, realistically there are limitations on what can be serviced today and within the scope of the next phase of deployment.
Considerations for planning a DCFC network include:
Charger spacing The range of an EV depends on many factors, including make/model/year of the vehicle, vehicle age, terrain, weather conditions, starting state of charge, vehicle load, and driving habits. Therefore, defining ideal spacing between fast chargers for corridor routes is not a simple undertaking. Many early-market EVs are designed for urban use, and aren’t ideal for long distance travel. It was generally agreed that DCFC spacing should not cater to early generation and urban EVs, such as the 2011 Leaf or the Smart EV. Rather, the core network should aim to serve current generation EVs, up to five years old (e.g. a five-year-old 2013 Leaf), with secondary routes servicing second generation EVs (e.g. rated with 200km+ range). It was also agreed that while the DCFC network will be accessible to Tesla owners, it would not be designed for them, as Tesla’s vehicles don’t face the same range limitations, and the Tesla Supercharger network is currently being deployed to help serve this niche.
Corridor vs. Cluster Approach There are good arguments for both adding density within cities (a cluster approach), and for prioritizing inter-city routes (a corridor approach). The average trip in B.C. is well within the range of electric cars today3. Adding density in urban regions makes EVs an option for a greater number of drivers. Particularly, DCFC stations within cities will help serve drivers who may not have access to charging at home or at work, and will also serve to extend the range of fleet About 95% of all car trips in B.C.’s urban areas are less than 30km – See BC Hydro www.bchydro.com/ev A Gap Analysis for B.C.’s Electric Vehicle Direct Current Fast Charging Network, 2015 vehicles in the area, supporting the majority of usage needs. Experience from existing DCFC networks shows that the most highly used stations tend to be within urban cores, or dense metropolitan locations (see the West Coast Electric Highway Project usage results4).
However, high usage rates do not necessarily mean these urban-based stations are more critical, or that they will result in higher rates of EV adoption. Drivers will view EVs as impractical if inter-city travel is not feasible. EV drivers primarily charge at home, and can top up at level 2 charging stations during the day.
Without adequate fast-charging support between cities, travelling between cities or regions can be challenging at best. Comments from the EV owners survey, and from the Victoria Leaf Club emphasize the need to support inter-city travel, which will be covered further in following sections.
Workshop participants generally agreed that we do need increased density in urban areas, and that these urban centers should also be connected to major neighbouring regions, to make EVs viable for the mass market. Therefore, the approach would be to plan for regional travel with densification in the main population centers where the EV uptake has been highest (Lower Mainland and Southern Vancouver Island), but still allow options for early market travellers to reach other key destination regions. Essentially, this would favour a cluster and EV tourism approach, over a long-haul corridor approach.
Breakout discussions during the Gap Analysis Workshop, June 15 2015
Idaho National Laboratory EV Project results: