# «7. R. F. O'Connell and C. O. Carroll, Internal Conversion Coefficients: General Formulation for all Shells and Application to Low Energy Transitions, ...»

ROBERT F. O'CONNELL

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7. R. F. O'Connell and C. O. Carroll, "Internal Conversion Coefficients: General Formulation

for all Shells and Application to Low Energy Transitions," Phys. Rev. 138, B1042 (1965).

28. R. F. O'Connell and J. J. Matese, "Effect on a Constant Magnetic Field on the Neutron Beta

Decay Rate and its Astrophysical Implications," Nature 222, 649 (1969).

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47. R. F. O'Connell and S. N. Rasband, "Lense-Thirring Type Gravitational Forces Between Disks and Cylinders," Nature 232, 193 (1971).

58. R. F. O'Connell, "Spin, Rotation and C, P, and T Effects in the Gravitational Interaction and Related Experiments," Invited Lecture, in Experimental Gravitation: Proceedings of Course 56 of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" Varenna, Italy, 1972, ed. B. Bertotti (Academic Press, 1974), p.496.

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69. B. M. Barker and R. F. O'Connell, "Nongeodesic Motion in General Relativity," Gen. Relativ.

Gravit. 5, 539 (1974).

78. B. M. Barker and R. F. O'Connell, "The Gravitational Two Body Problem With Arbitrary Masses, Spins, and Quadrupole Moments," Phys. Rev. D 12, 329 (1975).

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79. B. M. Barker and R. F. O'Connell, "Relativistic Effects in the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16," Astrophys. J. Lett. 199, L25 (1975).

Publications of R. F. O'Connell, Page 5 93. R. F. O'Connell and E. P. Wigner, "On the Relation Between Momentum and Velocity for Elementary Systems," Phys. Lett. 61A, 353 (1977).

R.F. O’CONNELL and E.P. WIGNER Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA Received 29 March 1977 We investigate how the quantum mechanical position operator can be defined for elementary systems so that the connection, postulated by the special theory of relatively, between velocity (the time derivative of the position) and momentum remains valid.

96. R. F. O'Connell and E. P. Wigner, "Position Operators for Systems Exhibiting the Special Relativistic Relation Between Momentum and Velocity," Phys. Lett. 67A, 319 (1978).

R.F. O’CONNELL and E.P. WIGNER Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA We have previously shown that if the position operator is defined as in ref. [21,the movement of the mean position of a free particle obeys the classical equation u = P/P0 where P0 is the total energy, including the rest mass.

Conversely, it will be demonstrated here that the validity of this equation implies that, for spinless particles, the position operator is that of ref. [2]. For spin 1/2 particles, however, another choice is also possible (eq. (7)). The corresponding value of the orbital angular momentum in the latter case is unity, whereas for the state of ref. [2] it is zero.

137. M. Hillery, R. F. O'Connell, M. O. Scully, and E. P. Wigner, "Distribution Functions in Physics:Fundamentals", Physics Reports 106 (3), 121 (1984).

145. J. L. Greenstein, R. J. W. Henry and R. F. O'Connell, "Further Identification of Hydrogen in GRW + 70° 8247", Ap. J. (Lett.) 289, L25 (1985).

149. R. F. O'Connell, "The Gyroscope Experiment", Physics To-Day 38, 104 (Feb. 1985).

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154. G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O'Connell, "Quantum Oscillator in a Blackbody Radiation Field", Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985).

179. G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O'Connell, "The Quantum Langevin Equation," Phys. Rev.

A 37, 4419 (1988).

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209. R. F. O'Connell and G. Y. Hu, "The Few-Body Problem in Nanoelectronics," Invited paper, presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute, Il Ciocco, ASI Series B, Vol 251, Italy, July 23-August 4, 1990, in Physics of Granular Nanoelectronics, edited by D. K. Ferry, J. Barker and C. Jacobini (Plenum Press, 1991).

214. G. W. Ford and R. F. O'Connell, "Radiation Reaction in Electrodynamics and the Elimination of Runaway Solutions," Phys. Lett. A 157, 217 (1991).

The familiar Abraham-Lorentz theory of radiation reaction in classical non-relativistic electrodynamics exhibits many problems such as "runaway solutions" and violation of causality. As shown by many authors, such problems can be alleviated by dropping the assumption of a point electron. We also drop this assumption (by introducing a form-factor with a large cutoff frequency Ω) but we present a new approach based on the use of the generalized quantum Langevin equation. For an electric dipole interaction, an exact treatment is possible and we obtain a new equation of motion which, in spite of being third order, does not lead to runaway solutions or solutions which violate causality (the sole proviso being that Ω cannot exceed an upper 23 -1 limit of 3Mc /2e = 1.60 x l0 s ). Furthermore, Ω appears in the third-derivative term but we show that, to a very good approximation, this term may be dropped so that we end up with a simple second-order equation which does not contain Ω and whose solutions are well-behaved.

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223. G. W. Ford and R. F. O'Connell, "Relativistic Form of Radiation Reaction", Phys. Lett. A 174, 182(1993).

We present a relativistic extension of the new form which we have recently obtained for the equation of motion of a radiating electron.

244. G. W. Ford and R. F. O'Connell, "Derivative of the Hyperbolic Cotangent", Nature 380, 113 (1996).

Publications of R. F. O'Connell, Page 10 253. G. W. Ford and R. F. O'Connell, "There is No Quantum Regression Theorem", Phys. Rev.

Lett. 77, 798 (1996).

The Onsager regression hypothesis states that the regression of fluctuations is governed by macroscopic equations describing the approach to equilibrium. It is here asserted that this hypothesis fails in the quantum case. This is shown first by explicit calculation for the example of quantum Brownian motion of an oscillator and then in general from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is asserted that the correct generalization of the Onsager hypothesis is the fluctuation-dissipation theorem.

268. R. F. O'Connell, "Noise in Gravitational Wave Detector Suspension Systems: A Universal Model", Phys. Rev. D 64, 022003 (2001).

In a recent review of gravitational wave detectors, Ricci and Brillet discussed models for noise in the various suspension systems and concluded that ‘‘... there is probably no universal model....’’ Here we present such a model which is based on work carried out by Ford, Lewis, and the present author [Phys. Rev. A 37, 4419 (1988)]; the latter work presents a very general dissipative model (which has been applied already to many areas of physics) with the additional merit of being based on a microscopic Hamiltonian. In particular, we show that all existing models fall within this framework. Also, our model demonstrates (a) the advantages of using the Fourier transform of the memory function to parameterize the data from interferometric detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (rather than the presently-used Zener function) and (b) the fact that a normal-mode analysis is generally not adequate, consistent with a conclusion reached by Levin [Phys. Rev. D 57, 659 (1998)].

272. G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis and R. F. O'Connell, "Quantum Measurement and Decoherence", Phys. Rev. A 64, 032101 (2001).

Distribution functions defined in accordance with the quantum theory of measurement are combined with results obtained from the quantum Langevin equation to discuss decoherence in quantum Brownian motion.

Closed form expressions for wave packet spreading and the attenuation of coherence of a pair of wave packets are obtained. The results are exact within the context of linear passive dissipation. It is shown that, contrary to widely accepted current belief, decoherence can occur at high temperature in the absence of dissipation.

Expressions for the decoherence time with and without dissipation are obtained that differ from those appearing in earlier discussions.

Publications of R. F. O'Connell, Page 11 273. G. W. Ford, and R. F. O'Connell, "Exact solution of the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation", Phys. Rev. D 64, 105020 (2001).

The Hu-Paz-Zhang equation is a master equation for an oscillator coupled to a linear passive bath. It is exact within the assumption that the oscillator and bath are initially uncoupled. Here an exact general solution is obtained in the form of an expression for the Wigner function at time t in terms of the initial Wigner function.

The result is applied to the motion of a Gaussian wave packet and to that of a pair of such wave packets. A serious divergence arising from the assumption of an initially uncoupled state is found to be due to the zero-point oscillations of the bath and not removed in a cutoff model. As a consequence, worthwhile results for the equation can only be obtained in the high temperature limit, where zero-point oscillations are neglected. In that limit closed form expressions for wave packet spreading and attenuation of coherence are obtained. These results agree within a numerical factor with those appearing in the literature, which apply for the case of a particle at zero temperature that is suddenly coupled to a bath at high temperature. On the other hand very different results are obtained for the physically consistent case in which the initial particle temperature is arranged to coincide with that of the bath.

297. G. W. Ford and R. F. O’Connell, “Is there Unruh Radiation?”, Physics Lett. A, 350, 17 (2006).

G.W. Ford a, R.F. O’Connell b a Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120, USA b Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001, USA Received 1 June 2005; received in revised form 28 September 2005; accepted 29 September 2005 Available online 6 October 2005 Communicated by P.R. Holland Abstract We present an exact analysis of an oscillator (the detector) moving under a constant force with respect to zero-temperature vacuum and coupled to a one-dimensional scalar field. We show that this system does not radiate despite the fact that it thermalizes at the Unruh temperature. We remark upon a differing opinion expressed regarding a system coupled to the electromagnetic field.

298. G. W. Ford and R. F. O’Connell, “A Quantum Violation of the Second Law”, Phys. Rev.

Lett. 96, 020402 (2006).

An apparent violation of the second law of thermodynamics occurs when an atom coupled to a zero temperature bath, being necessarily in an excited state, is used to extract work from the bath. Here the fallacy is that it takes work to couple the atom to the bath and this work must exceed that obtained from the atom. For the example of an oscillator coupled to a bath described by the single relaxation time model, the mean oscillator energy and the minimum work required to couple the oscillator to the bath are both calculated explicitly and in closed form. It is shown that the minimum work always exceeds the mean oscillator energy, so there is no violation of the second law.

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304. G. W. Ford and R. F. O’Connell, “Measured quantum probability distribution functions for Brownian motion,” Phys. Rev. A, 73, 032103 (2007).

The quantum analog of the joint probability distributions describing a classical stochastic process is introduced.

A prescription is given for constructing the quantum distribution associated with a sequence of measurements.

For the case of quantum Brownian motion this prescription is illustrated with a number of explicit examples. In particular, it is shown how the prescription can be extended in the form of a general formula for the Wigner function of a Brownian particle entangled with a heat bath.

Summary. — We survey theoretical and experimental/observational results on general-relativistic spin (rotation) effects in binary systems. A detailed discussion is given of the two-body Kepler problem and its first post-Newtonian generalization, including spin effects. Spin effects result from gravitational spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions (analogous to the corresponding case in quantum electrodynamics) and these effects are shown to manifest themselves in two ways: (a) precession of the spinning bodies per se and (b) precession of the orbit (which is further broke down into precessions of the argument of the periastron, the longitude of the ascending node and the inclination of the orbit). We also note the ambiguity that arises from use of the terminology frame-dragging, de Sitter precession and Lense-Thirring precession, in contrast to the unambiguous reference to spin-orbit and spin-spin precessions.

Turning to one-body experiments, we discuss the recent results of the GP-B experiment, the Ciufolini-Pavlis Lageos experiment and lunar-laser ranging measurements (which actually involve three bodies). Two-body systems inevitably involve astronomical observations and we survey results obtained from the first binary pulsar system, a more recently discovered binary system and, finally, the highly significant discovery of a double-pulsar binary system.

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313. G. W. Ford and R. F. O'Connell, "Decay of Coherence and Entanglement of a Superposition State for a Continuous Variable System in an Arbitrary Heat Bath," Inter. J. Quantum Information 8, 755-763 (2010).