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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Brewer, Jordan Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Phonetic Reflexes of Orthographic Characteristics in Lexical

Representation

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Brewer, Jordan

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of

protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 7-May-2016 18:32:25 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195213

PHONETIC REFLEXES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN

LEXICAL REPRESENTATION

by Jordan B. Brewer _______________

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Jordan B. Brewer entitled Phonetic Reflexes of Orthographic Characteristics in Lexical Representation and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Date: 11/16/07 _______________________________________________________________________

Heidi Harley Date: 11/16/07 _______________________________________________________________________

Michael Hammond Date: 11/16/07 _______________________________________________________________________

Diane Ohala Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: 11/16/07 Dissertation Director: Heidi Harley ________________________________________________ Date: 11/16/07 Dissertation Director: Michael Hammond

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has beensubmitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

–  –  –

I would like to especially thank Mike Hammond, Heidi Harley, and Diane Ohala for serving on my dissertation committee and providing valuable feedback that greatly improved the quality of this work. I couldn’t have asked for a better committee or hoped to get the opportunity to sit in on so many intriguing discussions in committee meetings.

I would also like to thank Adam Ussishkin, Andy Wedel, and Natasha Warner for helping me more concretely formulate my ideas in the early stages of the dissertation.

Furthermore, I would like to thank my colleagues Sumayya Racy, Polly O’Rourke, Stacy Oberly, Jaime Parchment, Peter Richtsmeier, Dave Medieros, Adam Baker, Jason Ginsburg, and Benjamin Tucker, who each provided a listening ear, helpful suggestions, and refreshing end o’ semester feedings. These linguists just may comprise the kindest, smartest, and most encouraging graduate class of all time.

Lastly I want to extend my most sincere thanks to my husband Jed Brewer.

Without his constant support, and sacrifice (especially in the child-rearing domain) well beyond the call of marital duty, it is very likely that this dissertation would never have been completed.

DEDICATION

I dedicate this dissertation to my children, Gavrie Elliot Brewer, and the yet to be named little one. I can’t exactly say that you made the dissertation easier to complete, but sometimes motivation takes different forms. It’s going to be a lot of fun to see you two grow up. I love you very much.

–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES..…………………………………………………………………..……….8 LIST OF FIGURES..…………………………………………………………………..……..9

Abstract

.…………………………………………………………………………..…....10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………...…………....12

1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………. 12

1.1 What’s in a Word……………………………………………………………… 12





1.2 The Role of Orthography in Lexical Representation………………………….. 15

1.3 Orthographic Effects in Speech Perception…………………………………… 17

1.4 Orthographic Influence in Speech Production………………………………… 19 1.4.1 Three Possible Explanations…………………………………………... 23

1.5 The Current Research…………………………………………………………. 25 1.5.1 Dissertation Outline…………………………………………………… 26 CHAPTER 2. EXPERIMENTS ONE AND TWO …………………………………………….31

2.0 Introduction…………………………………...………………………………. 31

2.1 Experiment One: Production of English Words.....…………………………... 32 2.1.1 Methods……………………………………………………………….. 34 2.1.2 Materials………………………………………………………………. 38 2.1.3 Participants……………………………………………………………. 42 2.1.4 Procedure……………………………………………………………… 42 2.1.5 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………. 43 2.1.6 Results………………………………………………………………… 44 2.1.7 Discussion…………………………………………………………….. 51

2.2 Experiment Two: Production of Non-Words…………………………………. 52 2.2.1 Methods……………………………………………………………….. 54 2.2.2 Materials………………………………………………………………. 54 2.2.3 Participants……………………………………………………………. 56 2.2.4 Procedure……………………………………………………………… 57 2.2.5 Results………………………………………………………………… 57 2.2.6 Discussion……………………………………………………………... 59

2.3 General Discusssion…………………………………………………………… 60 CHAPTER 3. NOVEL WORD TRAINING EXPERIMENT THREE …………………………... 64

3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………….64

3.1 Experiment Three.……………………………………………………………..65 3.1.1 Participants ……………………………………………………………. 66 3.1.2 Materials...……………………………………………………………. 66 3.1.3 Procedure...…………………………………………………………… 68 3.1.4 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………. 70

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

3.2 Results ………….……………………………………………………………...71 3.2.1 Orthographic Effects on Sound Durations…………………………….. 71 3.2.2 Orthographic Effects on Word Durations……………………………... 75

3.3 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………78

3.4 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………81 CHAPTER 4. BUCKEYE CORPUS ANALYSES....…………………………………………83

4.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………83

4.1 The Data set from the Buckeye Corpus..……………………………………… 85 4.1.1 Materials...……………………………………………………………. 85 4.1.2 Variables..………………………………………………………….… 86

4.2 Research Questions………………….………………………………………… 89 4.2.1 Question 1: Effects of Orthography on Sound Durations….………….. 92 4.2.2 Question 2: Effects of Orthography on Word Durations…………….. 101 4.2.3 Question 3: Interaction of Lexical Status and Orthographic Effects on Durations ………………………………………………… 105

4.3 Discussion…………………………………………………………………..... 115 CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS …………………………………………………………...117

5.0 Summary …………………………………………………………………….. 117

5.1 General Discussion………………………………………………………....... 120

5.2 Two Theories………………………………………………………………… 121

5.3 Production Model Implications……………………………………………….124

5.4 Research Directions………………………………………………………….. 128 APPENDICES ……………………..………………………………………………………134 A. Experiment One Materials …………………………………………………134 B. Experiment Three Pictures and Definitions …………………………………..135 C. Perl Program to Extract Buckeye Data set…………………………………....137 D. Function Words List…………………………………………………………. 139 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………….141

–  –  –

TABLE 2.1.

Experiment One Variables Summary Statistics…………………………. 42 TABLE 2.2. Mean Durations by Consonant Letters………………………………….. 44 TABLE 2.3. Linear OLS Output ………………………………………………………46 TABLE 2.4. Non-linear OLS Output ……………………………………………….... 48 TABLE 2.5. Experiment Two Materials ……………………………………………... 56 TABLE 2.6. Mean Durations by Sound Type and Representation …………………... 58 TABLE 3.1. Experiment Three Orthographic Materials ……………………………... 67 TABLE 3.2. Experiment Three Mean Sound Durations and Number of Responses ……………………………………………………………. 72 TABLE 3.3. Mean Word Durations by Phonological and Orthographic Length …………………………………………………………………... 75 TABLE 3.4. Variable Values for Two Example Stimuli …………………………….. 76 TABLE 3.5. OLS Output for Word Durations ……………………………………….. 77 TABLE 4.1. Buckeye Dataset Sound Summary Statistics …………………………… 86 TABLE 4.2. Sound Duration Analysis 1: OLS Output ………………………………. 95 TABLE 4.3. Sound Duration Analysis 2: OLS Output ………………………………. 97 TABLE 4.4. Sound Duration Analysis 3: OLS Output ………………………………. 98 TABLE 4.5. Sound Duration Analysis 4: OLS Output ……………………………... 100 TABLE 4.6. Word Duration Analysis 1: OLS Output ……………………………… 102 TABLE 4.7. Word Duration Analysis 2: OLS Output ……………………………… 104 TABLE 4.8. Lexical Status Analysis 1: Content Word OLS Output ……………….. 107 TABLE 4.9. Lexical Status Analysis 1: Function Word OLS Output ……………….107 TABLE 4.10. Lexical Status Analysis 2: Function Word OLS Output ……………….109 TABLE 4.11. Lexical Status Analysis 2: Content Word OLS Output ……………...... 109 TABLE 4.12. Lexical Status Analysis 3: Frequency and Consonant Letter Interaction ……………………………………………………………... 112 TABLE 4.13. Lexical Status Analysis 4: Morpheme and Word Letter Interaction ……………………………………………………………... 114

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1.1.

Lexical Representations ………………………………………………… 15 FIGURE 2.1. Experiment One Variables ……………………………………………… 39 FIGURE 2.2. Mean Durations by Segment ……………………………………………. 45 FIGURE 3.1. Mean Sound Durations for Non-Words ………………………………… 73 FIGURE 3.2. Mean Sound Durations for Novel Words ………………………………. 74 FIGURE 4.1. Formula to Derive Impact of Interaction Term ………………………...112 FIGURE 5.1. Speech Production Model ……………………………………………... 125 FIGURE 5.2. Modified Speech Production Model …………………………………... 127

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