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Beyond Community: "Global" Conservation Networks and
"Local" Organization in Tanzania and Zanzibar
Item type text; Electronic Dissertation
Authors Dean, Erin
Publisher The University of Arizona.
Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this
material is made possible by the University Libraries,
University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction
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“GLOBAL” CONSERVATION NETWORKS AND “LOCAL” ORGANIZATION IN
TANZANIA AND ZANZIBARby Erin Dean _____________________
A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the
DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGYIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYIn the Graduate College
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
"LOCAL" ORGANIZATION IN TANZANIA AND ZANZIBARand recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Date: August 14, 2007 _______________________________________________________________________
Diane Austin Date: August 14, 2007 _______________________________________________________________________
Mamadou Baro Date: August 14, 2007 _______________________________________________________________________
Steve Lansing Date: August 14, 2007 _______________________________________________________________________
William Shaw Date: August 14, 2007 _______________________________________________________________________
Garth Myers Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.
I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.
________________________________________________ Date: August 14, 2007 Dissertation Director: Diane Austin
This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.
Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interest of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.
It is the nature of Anthropology that we are always deeply indebted to the people who have so graciously chosen to share their lives with us, and the long process of obtaining a graduate degree compounds those debts. It is a massive understatement to say that this work would not have been possible without the assistance of many people. Though recognizing this statement’s inadequacy, I would like to make a brief attempt to express my heartfelt appreciation for their continuing support and encouragement.
First, I am humbled and honored by the kindness and hospitality of the people of Jongowe and Ngaramtoni. I am especially grateful to Makame Muhajir, Iddie Haji, Tatu Selima, and Salim Makame Ali in Jongowe for their practical assistance, but principally for their friendship and unflagging good humor. In Ngaramtoni, Elias and Rose Ngungat opened their home to me and included me in their family. Thank you. I am also indebted to Fadhil Walele and his family, who helped me in countless ways and made every trip to Dar es Salaam interesting and fun. Mussa Sheha and his wife Sauma, provided similar, much appreciated support in Stonetown. The staff at COSTECH, the Zanzibar Archives as well as the faculty, staff, and students at the Forestry Training Institute in Ol Motonyi provided both practical and moral support for this research, and I am grateful. Thank you to Kristin Phillips, Liz Singleton, Karen Milch, Tim Park, and Howard Frederick for their friendship and willingness to provide needed distractions, and to Andrew Williams, a generous scholar who is making a difference.
I would especially like to thank all the members of Osotwa and JEMA, particularly the organizations’ leaders. This research is entirely based on your willingness to open your organizations to scrutiny, and I am moved by your courage. Your concern for your neighbors, your on-going struggles to improve your communities, your thoughtful and occasionally brutal honesty, and your endurance in the face of so many challenges is inspirational to me and to all who have the privilege of working with you.
I have been very lucky to work with the talented scholars on my dissertation committee—they have been tireless and tolerant. Thank you to Diane Austin, Mamadou Baro, Steve Lansing, Bill Shaw, and Garth Myers for their support and encouragement for all these years. Besides being a dissertation director, Diane Austin has been a mentor, advisor, and friend for eight years, and it is impossible to adequately thank her for all she has done for me. Her ethical and intellectual rigor has set a model I strive to emulate. In addition to serving as an outside member of my committee, Garth Myers was pivotal in developing and supporting this research project, and has always been a source of encouragement and insight.
This research was funded through a Fulbright-Hayes Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad fellowship, and I am grateful for the support. Thank you to Makame Muhajir and Andrew Gardner for their insightful comments on early chapters and drafts and Tom McGuire for a useful discussion on fisheries. Thank you to Sarah Dahlen for her friendship and spare bedroom. Thank you to my parents, who never told me a PhD in Anthropology was crazy, even if they thought so. And finally, thank you to my husband, Steinur Bell, who inspires me further every day.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF FIGURES
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2: COMMUNITY-BASED CONSERVATION AND THE CHALLENGEOF GLOBALIZATION
The National Park Model
Emergence of a new model: Community-based natural resource management
CBNRM in Action
Critiques of CBNRM
Structure of Dissertation
CHAPTER 3: “GRASSROOTS” ORGANIZATION
Island Conservation: Jongowe and JEMA
From city-state to village
Cooperative organization in Jongowe
Forest Conservation: Mount Meru and Osotwa
A Settled Pastoralist Identity
Cooperative Organization in Ngaramtoni
CHAPTER 4: PROBLEMATIZING “TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICALKNOWLEDGE”
Knowledge of the Sea:
Traditional “Ecological” Knowledge?
Knowledge of the Land
“Traditional” Ecological Knowledge?
Traditional Ecological “Knowledge”?
CHAPTER 5: THE STATE, CIVIL SOCIETY, AND COMMUNITY-BASEDCONSERVATION
The Emergence of NGOs
Governing the Environment
Non-governing the Environment
The Politics of Partnership
CBC and the Meru-Usa Forest Plantation
The Meru-Usa Forest Plantation
TABLE OF CONTENTS - ContinuedThe role of a CBO
Negotiating the state and civil society
CHAPTER 6: STRATEGIES AND CONSEQUENCES OF NETWORKING............. 159 Network Formation
Strategy One: Identity definition and manipulation:
Strategy Two: Know what is being funded
Strategy Three: Be fluent in the language of development
Strategy Four: Utilize the “elite”
The Consequences of Conservation Networks
Mixed Messages: The results of networking for CBOs
Uneven Distribution: Consequences of conservation networks for communities
Opportunistic Management: Consequences for donors
Escalation of Authority: Consequences for government
Consequences for the environment
CHAPTER 7: THE CHOICE OF THE POOR
Resilience of local authority
An empty bag cannot stand upright
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Jongowe village in 2005
Figure 2: Small fishing dhow
Figure 3: Reading the day's news in Stonetown
Figure 4: Waarusha farmer
Figure 5: Boys herding in Ngaramtoni
Figure 6: Zero-grazing enclosure in Ngaramtoni
Figure 7: Boat on beach for repairs
Figure 8: Fishermen repairing nets
Figure 9: Sealing cracks in dhow with cotton
Figure 10: Burning the final coat of sealant, made of shark bile
Figure 11: Girls with clams they gathered
Figure 12: Hunting octopus
Figure 13: Woman with choroko crop
Figure 14: Woman burning her fields
Figure 15: Farm bordering the forest plantation
Figure 16: Walking through the Meru-Usa plantation
Figure 17: Grandmother and her grandchildren, all of whom were orphaned by AIDS.172
This dissertation explores the complex structures and diverse experiences of globalization through the specific analytical lens of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). CBNRM is an undertaking which is fundamentally local but also integrally connected to transnational conservation ideology and national structures of authority.
While recent critiques of community-based conservation projects have challenged the universal efficacy of the approach, CBNRM continues to be a ubiquitous conservation paradigm and to provide lingering hope for local empowerment through resource management. Focusing on two community-based conservation groups formed in Tanzania and Zanzibar, this dissertation looks at the experience of local groups attempting to engage with broader national or international conservation networks by focusing on three tropes of globalization theory: intersections between traditional ecological knowledge and western science, the relationship between civil society and the state, and the specific mechanisms for local engagement with national and global entities.
The community groups in this study use dynamic and adaptive strategies to channel resources into their communities. However, they also face significant structural constraints, many of which reveal the neocolonial effects of transnational conservation ideology. This work explores both the factors limiting or manipulating local participation in resource management and the strategies used by these two community-based conservation groups to ensure their participation in spite of those limitations.
I first began researching community-based conservation in 1997, when I studied in Kenya with St. Lawrence University’s Kenya Semester Program. The final component of the semester was an independent internship project, and mine was with Kenya Wildlife Service and their fledgling Partnerships Program in Tsavo National Park. The purpose of the program was to address the continuing conflicts between local residents and wildlife (and consequently local residents and park personnel) through community-based conservation programs. After a month of interviews with park officials, scientists, game wardens, and, most importantly, residents living near park borders, I realized the complexity of the task Kenya Wildlife Service had set for itself in reconciling decades of acrimonious relationships and meeting the needs of the diverse people whose homes bordered the park. Lingering anger over the original expulsions after park gazettement, as well as resentment regarding poaching, unauthorized grazing, and deaths caused by wildlife poisoned local relationships. Also, national concerns of corruption, ethnic tensions, and the freezing of donor funding to the country as a whole challenged the attempts at creating viable “community-based” programs. It was clear that the “partnerships” desired by the government—that is, revenue sharing in exchange for local cooperation—did not mesh with the level of control and access to resources desired by residents. I was quickly disillusioned by the reality of “community-based conservation.” In spite of the difficulties, I was also convinced of the ultimate, simple truth that the only way to successfully protect the unique wildlife and resources of the area was through securing the cooperation and support of local people. For it to succeed, environmental conservation had to also address issues of social justice and economic development. While fraught with challenges and difficulties, community-based conservation also offered the best hope for improving the lives of people in East Africa through, rather than in opposition to, resource management.