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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Suddarth, Rachael Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

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Orthographic Influences on Sublexical Processing

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Suddarth, Rachael

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of

protected items is prohibited except with permission of the

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Downloaded 7-May-2016 18:32:24 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/201497

ORTHOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON SUBLEXICAL PROCESSING

by Rachael Suddarth A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND HEARING SCIENCES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Rachael Suddarth entitled “Orthographic Influences on Sublexical Processing” and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Date: 05/06/11 Elena Plante Date: 05/06/11 Pelagie Beeson Date: 05/06/11 Mary Alt Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I herby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

Date: 05/06/11 Dissertation Director: Elena Plante

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

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Many thanks to my advisor, Elena Plante who encouraged me when I needed encouragement and told me to get it together when I needed to get it together. It has been an invaluable experience to work with her and I pray that twenty years from now I will have students who are impacted by my work just as she has impacted mine. A big thank you to the other members of my committee, Mary Alt and Pelagie Beeson, for the hours they spent reviewing my project and dissertation. There insight was invaluable and has helped me refine this research. The three members of my committee have helped me create this work of sweat and art that I am proud of and am pleased to call my own.

Thank you to Rebecca Vance who generously allocated students to help me collect data and analyze responses. It has been a blessing having a colleague and friend who has contributed so much to my research and my life. Thank you to my parents, Paul & Sharon Clouse, who have always wanted the best for me. Thank you to my grandparents, Bob & Ann Bergen and Jim & Chris Clouse, for being there for me in many practical ways.

Many thanks to my little one, Eli Suddarth, who has kept me laughing. Last, but not least, thank you to my husband, Tim Suddarth, who has always encouraged me to have fun and put things off to the last minute. These last years have been delightful, learning the dance of marriage together. It has been a hard road, but Tim has been an encourager and supporter even when life was out of control. Without him, I would not be who I am.

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LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………. 8 LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………………... 9

Abstract

…………………………………………………………………………… 10 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………. 11 Orthographic and Phonological Representations in Reading ………………..…. 11 Language Impairment and the Simple View of Reading ……………………...… 13 Triangle Model of Reading ………………………………………………………... 15 Orthographic Consistency Effect …………………………………………….…… 16 Feedforward consistency effects ………………………………………………... 17 Feedback consistency effects …………………………………………………..... 17 Literacy and Orthographic Consistency Effects ………………………………. 18 Literacy and the feedforward relationship …………………………………….. 18 Literacy and the feedback relationship ………………………………………… 18 Bidirectional influences ………………………………………………………... 19 Spreading Activation: A Challenge to the System ……………………………….. 20 Neighborhood density …………………………………………………………… 21 A Model of Phonological and Orthographic Co-Activation …………………….. 22 The Role of Language Impairment in Activation ………………………………... 26 The Role of Talker Variability in Activation ………………………...…………... 28 Implications of Current Study ……………………………………………….……. 29 Purpose of Current Study …………………………………………………………. 31 Statements of Purpose and Associated Hypotheses ……………..……………….. 32 METHODS ………………………………………...………………………………….. 34 Participants ………………………………………………………………………… 34 Adults with language impairments …………………………………………….. 34 Adults with typical language ……………………………………………….….... 35 Participant selection criteria ……………………………………………………. 35 Language testing ………………………………………………………………… 35 Group placement ………………………………………………………………. 35 Additional language testing ……………………………………………………. 36 Materials ……………………………………………………………………………. 38 Stimuli ……………………………………………………………………………. 38 Instrumentation …………………………………………………………………. 39 Procedures ……………………………………………………………………….. 40 Familiarization phase ………………………………………………………….... 41 Repetition phase ………………………………….……………………………… 43





TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued

Scoring procedure …………………………………..………………………….. 44 Spelling test ………………………………………………………………………. 45 Scoring procedure ……………………………………………………………… 46 Reliability Measures ……………………………………………………………….. 46 RESULTS ………………………………………………………………...…………… 47 Preliminary Analyses ………………………………………………………………. 47 Version effects …………………………………………………………………… 47 Nonword string length ……………………………………………………….….. 48 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ……………………………. 48 Main Analyses ……………………………………………………………………… 49 Orthographic Consistency Effect and language status ……………………..… 49 Orthographic Consistency Effect and talker context …………………………. 53 Nonword Spelling …………………………………………………………………... 53 Orthographic Consistency Effect and Language and Literacy Skills ……….….. 56 DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………...……….. 64 Is Activation at the Sublexical Level Affected by Attention? …………...………. 64 Is Activation at the Sublexical Level Affected by Language Status? ………..….. 65 Does Increased Activation at the Sublexical Level have Facilitative or Inhibitory Effects on Nonword Repetition? ………………………………………………….. 69 The interaction between nonword string length and orthogonally varied neighborhood density …………………………………………………………… 71 Is Activation Influenced by the Talker Context in Which Words are Heard?.... 72 Is Nonword Spelling Influenced by Increased Activation? ……………………… 73 Do Language and Literacy Skills Predict Performance? ………………………... 75 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 78 APPENDIX A: Nonword Stimuli ……………...…………………………………..… 79

APPENDIX B1: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF NONWORD

REPETITION TASK ……………………………………………………………….... 83

APPENDIX B2: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF NONWORD

REPETITION TASK ……………………………………………………………….... 87 REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………..…… 88

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FIGURE 1. Adapted from Seidenberg & McClelland (1989), triangle model of reading ………………………………………………………………………………….

. 16 FIGURE 2. Phonological and orthographic activation in a sublexical task for the nonword vish ………………………….…………………………………………...…… 24 FIGURE 3. Example scoring for nonword string repetition …………..………………. 45 FIGURE 4. Totals for each group at each string length and orthogonally varied density level on the nonword repetition task …………………………………………....……… 52 FIGURE 5. Number of nonwords correct for each group at each orthogonally varied density level on the nonword spelling task ……………………….….………………… 55 FIGURE 6. Adapted from Seidenberg & McClelland (1989), triangle model of reading and Grainger & Ferrand (1996), bimodal interactive activation model ………………... 67

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TABLE 1. Effects of phonological neighborhood density …………………………….

. 22 TABLE 2. Behavioral data for participants …………...………………………………. 37 TABLE 3. Phases of the experiment with instructions, stimuli, and subject action …... 42 TABLE 4. Number of nonwords in each block of the Production Phase …………...… 44 TABLE 5. Differences between performance on the nonword spelling task for each orthogonally varied condition ………………………………………………………….. 56 TABLE 6. Multiple regression analysis for language factor effects on performance on the nonword repetition task at each orthogonally varied neighborhood density condition, including regression coefficients (B and β ) and evaluators of the fit of the model ( R, R 2, and F)……………………………………………………………………...…... 60 TABLE 7. Multiple regression analysis for language factor effects on performance on the nonword spelling task at each orthogonally varied neighborhood density condition, including regression coefficients (B and β ) and evaluators of the fit of the model ( R, R 2, and F)……………………………………………….….………….……...….... 61 TABLE 8. Multiple regression analysis for literacy factor effects on performance on the nonword spelling task at each orthogonally varied neighborhood density condition, including regression coefficients (B and β ) and evaluators of the fit of the model ( R, R 2, and F)……………………………………………….….………….……...….... 62 TABLE 9. Multiple regression analysis for literacy factor effects on performance on the nonword spelling task at each orthogonally varied neighborhood density condition, including regression coefficients (B and β ) and evaluators of the fit of the model ( R, R 2, and F)……………………………………………….….………….……...….... 63

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