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Australian Gambling Statistics
1984–85 to 2009–10
Australian Gambling Statistics
Released December 2012
Prepared by the Government Statistician, Queensland Treasury and Trade.
The cooperation of all Australian state and territory governments is gratefully acknowledged.
While great care has been taken in the preparation of this publication and each Australian state and territory has been asked to verify its own data in detail, it is nevertheless necessary to caution users concerning the complete accuracy of all data.
No warranty is given as to the correctness or completeness of the information in this publication.
The State of Queensland and each Australian state and territory expressly disclaim all and any liability (including all liability from or attributable to any negligent or wrongful act or omission) to any persons whatsoever in respect of anything done or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance, whether in whole or in part, upon any of the material in this publication.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ Australian Gambling Statistics, 28th Edition © The State of Queensland (Queensland Treasury and Trade) (2012) For more information about the Australian Gambling Statistics including requests for further uses of the material in
this publication, please contact Queensland Treasury and Trade’s Government Statistician:
Phone: 07 3035 6418 Email: email@example.com Facsimile:07 3227 7437 Office: Level 8, 33 Charlotte Street, Brisbane QLD 4000 Postal: PO Box 15037, City East QLD 4002 Website: www.oesr.qld.gov.au
CONTENTSPART 1: EXPLANATORY NOTES
1.2 Scope of the publication
1.5 Overview of gambling data
1.6 Notes on data specific to each state and territory
1.6.1 New South Wales
1.6.4 South Australia
1.6.5 Western Australia
1.6.7 Australian Capital Territory
1.6.8 Northern Territory
1.7 Cautionary note
PART 2: LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Summary Tables
2.2 Tables by State
2.3 Tables by Gambling Products
Australian Gambling Statistics 1984–85 to 2009–10, 28th Edition iii
1.1 Introduction Australian Gambling Statistics is the official collection of Australian data on legalised regulated gambling for which accurate figures are available. The Australian Gambling Statistics publication is produced by the Government Statistician (GS) in cooperation with all state and territory governments.
GS is a part of Queensland Treasury and Trade and is the principal demographic and social statistics research agency for the Queensland Government.
1.2 Scope of the publication The 28th edition of Australian Gambling Statistics updates data for the financial years 1984−85 to 2009−10. The publication comprises statistics on turnover, expenditure and government revenue from gambling activities conducted in the Australian states and territories. It is important to note that the statistics for each individual state or territory include turnover and expenditure generated by overseas and interstate visitors as well as that generated by residents of that state or territory.
All dollar figures are in nominal terms except where a table is denoted as being in real terms. See Glossary item ‘CPI deflator’ for an explanation of how real dollar figures are calculated for the purpose of this publication.
1.3 Background The development of a database of statistics on gambling on a national basis was formally proposed at the June 1983 Conference of Government Racing Officials held in Darwin. The Conference agreed to draw attention to the relative absence of reliable economic and social data on gambling, and resolved that this information be collected, collated and shared on a national basis.
Led by the existing statistical collections of the (then) Tasmanian Racing and Gaming Commission, it was recommended that the racing and gaming administrations of other state and territory governments develop their own statistical base to assist in the development of a national gambling statistical record.
At the September 1983 Racing and Gaming Ministers’ Conference held in Melbourne, it was resolved:
That the Conference approve the establishment of a National Statistical Data Bank and each state and territory agree to submit all available racing and gaming statistics in a consistent format to the Tasmanian Racing and Gaming Commission for collation and analysis. A report is to be presented detailing the data to each Minister. A review of the effectiveness of this service will be undertaken at the next Racing and Gaming Ministers’ Conference.
In line with the conference resolution the Commission, with the assistance of a firm of economic consultants, extracted from published records a significant quantity of data relating to gambling turnover in each state and territory since 1972. This information was circulated to each state and territory for the purposes of correction and the addition of data that were not readily obtainable from available sources.
The first consolidation and assessment of these data was produced for the Racing and Gaming Ministers’ Conference in late 1984. At the Commission’s request, it was subsequently approved that the report be made publicly available. The Tasmanian Gaming Commission continued to produce annual statistics until 2004, when the Government Statistician (formerly Office of Economic and Statistical Research), within Queensland Treasury and Trade (formerly Queensland Treasury) was endorsed by jurisdictional CEOs to produce the publication on an ongoing basis.
Australian Gambling Statistics 1984–85 to 2009–10, 28th Edition This page has been left intentionally blank Australian Gambling Statistics 1984–85 to 2009–10, 28th Edition iv 1.4 Glossary Bookmakers off-course: These figures relate to the amount wagered via off-course bookmakers. In Tasmania it represents the figure for sports betting or amounts wagered on events other than horse racing or greyhound racing.
Bookmakers on-course: These figures relate to the amount wagered via bookmakers at the race track on both horse and greyhound racing. A player can wager any amount above a set minimum and will receive the bookmaker’s odds at the time of making the wager. Those odds stand, irrespective of whether the bookmaker alters the odds at a later time. Bookmakers are licensed in each jurisdiction.
Casino gaming: The various figures reported under this heading represent wagers at casinos and include wagers on table games, gaming machines and keno systems.
Casino turnover: The casino turnover figure is actually a combination of handle and turnover.
Turnover is the amount wagered on a gambling activity whereas handle is a term used to describe the amount of money exchanged for gaming chips at a gaming table. It is difficult, if not impossible, to record the amount of each wager made on a table game. Therefore it is difficult to report casino turnover accurately. Hence, the only amount that can be reported for table games is handle. Readers are therefore urged to use casino turnover figures with care.
Consumer Price Index (CPI): The price index used as the deflator for conversion of current year (nominal) values to real values is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) All Groups weighted average of eight capital cities. The consumer price index is a measure of change over time in the retail price of a constant basket of goods and services which is representative of consumption patterns of employee households in metropolitan areas. This index for each year is set out in Table 1. CPI data for the period 1984−85 to 2009−10 were derived from data from Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
Table 1 Consumer prices, 1984–85 to 2009–10
Australian Gambling Statistics 1984–85 to 2009–10, 28th Edition Expenditure (gross profit): Expenditure is the net amount lost or, in other words, the amount wagered less the amount won, by people who gamble. Conversely, by definition, it is the gross profit (or gross winnings) due to the operators of each particular form of gambling.
Football Pools (Pools): The Pools is a numbers game of chance where the winning numbers are based on the results of the United Kingdom or Australian soccer matches.
Each week 38 soccer matches are selected to form a ‘match list’. Each match is assigned a number from 1 to 38. The results of the matches are then collected and ranked, with scored draws ranked highest and home score wins ranked lowest. The six highest-ranked match numbers are then used as the official results numbers for the Pools draw. There is also a supplementary number selected which is the seventh-highest-ranked match result. To play the Pools, players select six numbers from the 38.
If the selected numbers are the same as the official results numbers, the player wins one of the five prize divisions.
The Pools is administered by SA Lotteries on behalf of the Australian Soccer Pools Bloc. The bloc was formed in June 1989 by lottery jurisdictions in Australia. The purpose of the bloc is to promote the game of Soccer Pools and produce accurate and uniform prize pools and dividends for subscribers to the game.
Gambling: Gambling is the placement of a wager or bet on the outcome of a future uncertain event.
In this document, it includes lawful gaming, racing and sports betting activities. The statistics presented in this publication are for legalised regulated gambling for which accurate figures are available, and hence do not represent turnover or expenditure on all forms of gambling.
Gaming: Gaming is all legal forms of gambling other than racing and sports betting, such as lotteries, poker and gaming machines, casino gaming, football pools, interactive gaming and minor gaming (which is the collective name given to raffles, bingo, lucky envelopes and the like).
Gaming machines: All jurisdictions, except Western Australia, have a statewide gaming machine (poker machine) network operating in clubs and/or hotels. The data reported under this heading do not include gaming machine data from casinos.
Gaming machines accurately record the amount of wagers played on the machines. So turnover is an actual figure for each jurisdiction. In most jurisdictions operators must return at least 85 per cent of wagers to players as winnings, either by cash or a mixture of cash and product. Gaming machines may be linked together in order to offer major jackpots.
Government revenue: Government revenue is the revenue received by state government from gambling activities that are subject to state taxes and levies.
Household disposable income (HDI): Household gross disposable income is defined as gross household income less income tax payable, other current taxes on income, wealth etc., consumer debt interest, interest payable by unincorporated enterprises and dwellings owned by persons, net non-life insurance premiums and other current transfers payable by households.
Information on HDI by state and territory has been derived from data taken from the ABS. Data on HDI were taken from the revised ABS series on ‘Household Gross Disposable Income’, reported by state and territory in the Australian National Accounts: State Accounts for the 1989−90 to 2009−10 period only, with only the total Australian HDI published for the years prior to 1989−90. Annual HDI figures for each state and territory prior to 1989−90 have been estimated by GS by taking previously published estimates of household disposable income for the states and territories and raising these estimates to match the current Australian series in the period 1984−85 to 1988−89 (see Table 2).
When interpreting gambling figures as a proportion of HDI by state and territory, users of the data should note that such data represent expenditure within the jurisdiction concerned, and do not adjust for interstate or international gamblers. No relevant data are collected on interstate gamblers.
Australian Gambling Statistics 1984–85 to 2009–10, 28th Edition Table 2 Household disposable income, all states and territories, 1984–85 to 2009–10
Instant lottery: Instant lotteries are commonly known as ‘scratchies’, where a player scratches a coating off the ticket to identify whether the ticket is a winner. Prizes in the instant lottery are paid on a set return to player and are based on the number of tickets in a set, the cost to purchase the tickets, and a set percentage retained by the operator for costs. The operation of instant lotteries is the same as for lotteries.
Interactive gaming: Interactive gaming is defined as gambling on activities conducted via the internet. It specifically excludes wagering in the form of racing and sports betting and lotteries via the internet. Interactive gambling services provided to Australian residents by an internet casino are banned under the Commonwealth Interactive Gambling Act 2001 (IGA) which came into effect in August 2001.
Keno (clubs and hotels): A computerised keno system operates in clubs and hotels in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. In 1998−99, keno was introduced into Star City Casino (Sydney). Keno is a game where a player wagers that their chosen numbers match any of the 20 numbers randomly selected from a group of 80 numbers via a computer system or a ball draw device. In most states, keno is linked to all venues within a particular jurisdiction, enabling the operator to offer large jackpot prizes. Keno has a fixed pay scale such that the payout for each wager is established by rules and is independent of the total wagers made on the game.
Lotteries: Lotteries are conducted Australia-wide by both government and commercial operators.