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«Edited by DARjA zAvIRšEK bIRgIT ROMMELSPACHER SILvIA STAub-bERNASCONI Faculty of Social Work, university of Ljubljana, 2010 Editors Darja Zaviršek, ...»

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ETHICAL DILEMMAS

IN SOCIAL WORK

International Perspective

Edited by

DARjA zAvIRšEK

bIRgIT ROMMELSPACHER

SILvIA STAub-bERNASCONI

Faculty of Social Work, university of Ljubljana, 2010

Editors

Darja Zaviršek, Birgit Rommelspacher, Silvia Staub-Bernasconi

Title

ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN SOCIAL WORK: International Perspective

Published by

Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana, 2010 Scientific reviewers Prof. Marian Barnes, Ph.D, University of Brighton, UK.

Prof. Shimon E. Spiro, Ph.D, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Proof reading Michael C. Jumič Graphic design and layout Dražena Perić Print Birografika BORI d. o. o.

Copies 800 Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2010 CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 364-78:174(082) ETHICAL dilemmas in social work : international perspective/ edited by Darja Zaviršek, Birgit Rommelspacher, Silvia Staub-Bernasconi.

- Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Work, 2010 ISBN 978-961-6569-32-3

1. Zaviršek, Darja Contents List of the contributors v Introduction 1 Part I – Ethical conflicts and their philosophical implications 1 Human rights – Facing Dilemmas between Universalism and Pluralism/Contextualism 9 Silvia M. Staub-Bernasconi 2 Justice versus Care – A Dilemma of Ethics 25 Ruth Grossmanss 3 Ethical Learning and Ethical Deliberation in Social Work:

Remembering some Aspects of the Pragmatist Approach of Social Ethics 39 Maria Maiss Part II – Social work in transformation: challenges to ethical discourses 4 Ethics in Social Work between Secularism and Re-Christianization 65 Birgit Rommelspacher 5 The Right of Work: The Ethics of Disability and the New Ethical Dilemmas 79 Darja Zaviršek 6 Pursuing a Vision for Social Justice: Ethical Dilemmas and Critical Imperatives in the South African Context 97 Linda Harms Smith Part III – Perspectives in teaching, practice and research 7 From Professional Ethics to Ethics in Professional Life:

Reflections on Learning and Teaching in Social Work 119 Sarah Banks 8 Moral Dilemmas in a South African Blended Learning Ethics Course 133 Vivienne Bozalek 9 Language and Human Rights in International Organizations:

Why Does the IASSW Have Japanese as an Official Language? 153 Tatsuru Akimoto 10 Ethics in/after Social

–  –  –

Prof. Silvia Staub-Bernasconi, PhD, is the Director of the Master of Social Work Programme “Social Work as Human Rights Profession” in Berlin. Her areas of interest include social work as a discipline and profession, social work and human rights, the transnationalisation of social work, the theory of social problems, and the contribution of women to the discipline and profession of social work. Her recent publications include: Soziale Arbeit als Handlungswissenschaft [Social Work as Action Science] (2nd edition 2010); Der Professionalisierungsdiskurs zur Sozialen Arbeit im deutschsprachigen Kontext im Spiegel internationaler Ausbildungsstandard, in: Becker-Lenz, R. et al. (Eds.), Professionalität und Professionalisierung in der Sozialen Arbeit (2009, Wiesbaden: VS, 21Soziale Arbeit und Menschenrechte, Widersprüche 107, 9-32 (2008); Systemtheorien im Vergleich – Was leisten Systemtheorien für die Soziale Arbeit? Versuch eines (2005, Wiesbaden: Dialogs, VS. Co-editor with S. Hollstein-Brinkmann).

staubernasco@bluewin.ch Birgit Rommelspacher, PhD, is a psychologist and professor of ethnic and feminist studies at the Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences Berlin.

Her research focuses on right wing extremism, gender and anti-Islamic racism, anti-Semitism and intercultural social work. Her recent publications include: Anerkennung und Ausgrenzung. Deutschland als multikulturelle Gesellschaft (2002, Frankfurt: Campus); “Der Hass hat uns geeint“ Junge Rechtsextreme und ihr Ausstieg aus der Szene (2006, Frankfurt: Campus); Transculturality, in: Kim, H. S., Kollak, I. (Eds.), Nursing Theories: Conceptual and Philosophical Foundations (2nd edition 2005, New York: Springer Publisher); Interkulturelle Perspektiven für das Sozial- und Gesundheitswesen (2008, Mabuse Verlag. Co-editor with Ingrid Kollak); Hegemonial Femininity, in: Grižnic M., Reitsamer R. (Eds.), New Feminism: Worlds of Feminism, Queer and Networking Conditions (2008, Wien: Löcker, 192-200).

b.rommelspacher@web.de vi Ethical Dilemmas in Social Work: International Perspective Darja Zaviršek, PhD, is a sociologist and professor of social work. She established and is Chair of the Department for Research of Social Justice and Inclusion at the Faculty of Social Work, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana.

She was the leader of the international project for the establishment of the first European doctoral studies in social work, Indosow – International Doctoral Studies in Social Work (2005-2009). She is an honorary professor at the Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences Berlin and has established the Eastern European Sub-Regional Association of the Eastern European Schools of Social Work as part of the IASSW. She writes on gender, disability, ethnicity, the history of social work and social parenthood. Her recent publications include: Sustainable Development in Social Work: The Case of a Regional Network in the Balkans, (2005, Sweden: University of Stockholm. Co-editor with Sven Hessle); History of Social Work: Between Social Movements and Political Systems (2006, Ljubljana. Co-editor with Vesna Leskošek); Women and Citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe (2006, London: Ashgate. Co-editor with Jasmina Lukić and Joanna Regulska); Ethnicity in Eastern Europe: A Challenge for Social Work Education (2007, Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Work. Co-editor with Jelka Zorn, Liljana Rihter, and Simona Znidarec Demsar); Critical Edge Issues in Social Work and Social Policy (2009, Indosow. Co-editor with Shula Ramon). darja.zavirsek@fsd.





uni-lj.si

Contributors

Tatsuru Akimoto, PhD, DSW, is a Professor in the Department of Social Welfare, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Japan Women’s University in Kanagawa, and Vice President of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and President of the Asian and Pacific Association for Social Work Education (APASWE). He has written widely on the areas of labour and work both in the United States and Japan and about international social work, and was the editor of Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider’s Account of Life in a Japanese Auto Factory (New York: Pantheon Books) and Shrinkage of Urban Slums in Asia and Their Employment Aspects (Bangkok: ILO). Professor Akimoto has a degree in Labour Law from Tokyo Metropolitan University, an MSW from Wayne State University, and an ADSW from the city University of New York. tatsru.akimoto@nifty.com.

–  –  –

lan); Ethics, Accountability and the Social Professions (2004, Palgrave Macmillan).

She has also been the editor of several books: Teaching Practical Ethics for the Social Professions (2003, FESET); Ethical Issues in Youth Work (1999, Routledge).

Her most recent book is Ethics in Professional Life: Virtues for Health and Social Care (2008, Palgrave Macmillan. Co-author with Ann Gallagher). She qualified as a social worker in the mid-1980s and has worked as a community development officer at the School of Applied Social Sciences, Durham University.

s.j.banks@durham.ac.uk Vivienne Bozalek, PhD, is the Director of Teaching and Learning, University of the Western Cape (1 April 2008). Her previous position was Chairperson of the Department of Social Work, University of Western Cape, South Africa.

She holds a PhD from Utrecht University. Her areas of research and expertise include: e-learning and innovative pedagogical approaches in Higher Education; qualitative and feminist research methodologies; family studies; service users and welfare policy; post-structural, social justice and ethics of care perspectives. She is involved in numerous inter-institutional projects in teaching and learning and has been recognised as one of the academics at UWC who has pioneered e-learning in the academy. She received the Vice Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in 2007, and is also involved in the Standards Generating Body for Social Work in South Africa and in benchmarking the new Bachelor of Social Work curriculum in South African Higher Education Institutions. vbozalek@gmail.com Ruth Großmaß, PhD, is Professor of Ethics and Social Philosophy at the Alice Salomon Hochschule (Alice Salomon University of Applied Science Berlin).

For several years she practised counselling at Bielefeld University Counselling Service and engaged in counselling research. Aside from this, her research interests are in the areas of feminist theory (long-time experienced cooperation with a colleague at the institute of educational science, University of Bielefeld), social and practical philosophy and ethics of social work. Her main publications include: Leitbilder, Vexierbilder und Bildstörungen (1996, Campus. Coauthor with C. Schmerl); Identität und Ausgrenzung, Zeitschrift für Genozidforschung (2000); Psychische Krise und Sozialer Raum (2000, DGVT); Die Bedeutung der Care-Ethik für die Soziale Arbeit, in: Soziale Arbeit und Ethik im 21. Jahrhundert (2006); Psychosoziale Beratung im Spiegel soziologischer Theorien, Zeitschrift für Soziologie (2006); Zur Geschichte des Geschlechterverhältnisses in der Sozialen Arbeit, SozialeArbeit (2008); Therapeutische Beziehungen: Distante Nähe, in: Handbuch persönliche Beziehungen (2009). grossmass@ash-berlin.eu Lynne M. Healy, MSW, PhD, is Professor and Director of the Center for International Social Work Studies at the University of Connecticut School of Social Work. She teaches social work management, international social work, viii Ethical Dilemmas in Social Work: International Perspective and social policy, and previously taught courses in social work ethics. She serves on the editorial board of numerous journals, including Administration in Social Work and Ethics and Social Welfare. Among her publications are two recent books: International Social Work and Enhancing Social Work Management: Best Practice from the UK and USA. Dr. Healy has been extensively involved in national and international professional organisations, including the U.S. National Association of Social Workers, the Council on Social Work Education, and the International Association of Schools of Social Work. Lynne.healy@gmail.com Maria Maiss, PhD, studied philosophy, pedagogy and special needs teaching and therapeutic pedagogics at the University of Vienna. She works as a lecturer in theories of social work, social philosophy and ethics at the University of Applied Studies St. Pölten, Austria, and is a post-doctoral Research Fellow at the Ilse Arlt Institute on Social Inclusion Research in St. Pölten.

She is currently working on the scientific re-edition and dissemination of the work of Ilse Arlt (the Austrian pioneer of science-oriented Social Work) and preparing a first edition of her autobiography, and is also involved with the scientific processing and digitalisation of the extensive legacy of the Arlt School. maria.maiss@fhstp.ac.at Linda Harms Smith, received a BA in Social Work at the University of Stellenbosch (1980); a Masters with distinction in Social Science at Rhodes University (1990); and a BA (Hons.) in Psychology from UNISA (2000). As a practicing social worker she worked in the fields of community work and social action; child protection team management; child, family and relationship counselling; and organisational management. She started lecturing social work at the University of the Witwatersrand in 2000. Her areas of special focus are social justice and human rights; radical social work; community work; post-colonial and critical discourse for social work; clinical practice with children and families; and Freirian critical pedagogy. She is currently working on her PhD in the field of critical social work education. Linda.

Smith@wits.ac.za

–  –  –

Antić, M.G., Hlebec, V., Pušnik, M. (Eds.), No conflict: Of Cultures, Sexes, Generations (2009, Ljubljana: Pedagoška fakulteta. Co-author with Roman Kuhar) (in Slovene language); Female Same-sex Families in the Dialectics of Marginality and Conformity, Journal of Lesbian Studies (2010). Ana.sobocan@fsd.uni-lj.si

Introduction

Ethical issues and dilemmas are being increasingly discussed in social work theory and practice, in policy decisions and research. There are several reasons for such a strong interest in ethical debates in the current social sciences, including social work: the growing gap between rich and poor in the industrialised countries as well as the gaps between different regions and continents;

conflicts between cultures, traditions and different religions in a highly interconnected globalised world; man-made environmental disasters, the unimaginable development of biotechnology and the punitive states, to name a few.

The impact of these developments on social work is quite crucial, considering both, the raise of the authoritarian state as well as a relative weakness and poverty of the state vis-à-vis an all-powerful financial market fuelled by a neoliberal thought which not only gives priority to the interests of the economy, but also legitimises social hierarchy and inequality on the basis of the ideology of meritocracy. This development is undermining the premises of democracy, which is based not only on equal political rights, but also on the concept of fair distribution of wealth and symbolic resources. Neoliberalism in social work implies an insistence that priority be given to efficiency and provides a powerful stimulus for the commodification of social work practice. Thus social workers not only have to undergo scrutiny concerning their efficiency;

they also have to accept and execute a highly discriminating social order by narrowing rules of access and by normalising and sanctioning those who supposedly do not meet societal demands and do not “fit in society”.



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