«Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter Entomofauna ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR ENTOMOLOGIE Band 35, Heft 9: 169-176 ISSN 0250-4413 ...»
© Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at
ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR ENTOMOLOGIE
Band 35, Heft 9: 169-176 ISSN 0250-4413 Ansfelden, 2. Januar 2014
Host Plants of the Newly Invasive Mealybug Species,
Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in
Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran
M. FALLAHZADEH, R. ABDIMALEKI & N. SAGHAEIAbstract The present study was conducted to determine the host plant range of Phenacoccus solenopsis TINSLEY 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Hormozgan province southern Iran during years 2010-2012. A total of 43 plant species belonging to 20 plant families including field crops, vegetables, ornamentals, weeds, bushes and trees were collected and identified. Among them, 9 species were represented new host plant records. Most P.
solenopsis hosts belonging to families Solanaceae, Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae, accounting for 48 % of the reported host plants.
Key words: Solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, Host range, Iran.
Zusammenfassung Vorliegende Arbeit behandelt das Spektrum der Futterpflanzen von Phenacoccus solenopsis TINSLEY 1898 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), studiert in der südiranischen Provoinz Hormozgan in den Jahren 2010-2012. 43 Pflanzenarten aus 20 Familien, darunter für den Menschen wichtige Nahrungspflanzen, konnten festgestellt werden, darunter 9 bisher unbekannte Wirtspflanzen.
© Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at Introduction The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was originally described based on specimens from New Mexico and U.S.A (TINSLEY 1898).
It is now found in numerous regions and countries (BEN-DOV et al. 2012). This species will be referred to as the cotton field mealybug, although its host range is diverse and attacks numerous agricultural crops, weeds, ornamentals and medicinal plants (ABBAS et al. 2005, HODGSON et al. 2008, ARIF et al. 2009; WANG et al. 2010, SING et al. 2012). In Asia, this pest also has been reported to be present in Pakistan (ABBAS et al. 2005), India (YOUSUF et al. 2007), Thailand and Taiwan (HODGSON et al. 2008), China (WANG et al.
2009, 2010) and Indonesia (MUNIAPPAN et al. 2011) and causes economic damage in cotton field crops in Pakistan and India (NAGRARE et al. 2009). P. solenopsis is a serious pest which occurs ubiquitously in the Hormozgan province in south of Iran and it was collected for the first time on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae), on 1st Jan, 2009 in Bandar Abbas (located at 27°12'32"N, 56°17'27.6"E) (MOGHADDAM & BAGHERI 2010).
The solenopsis mealybug is now widely distributed throughout the cotton growing areas of the province. Our knowledge of the host range of P. solenopsis in Iran is rudimentary.
Here, we present results of three years studies that contribute to the knowledge of the host plant range of P. solenopsis in Hormozgan southern Iran and provide 9 new host records.
Materials and methods
Surveys for host plants of P. solenopsis were conducted in cultivated and non-cultivated plants in different area of Hormozgan province, Iran, from 2010 to 2012. Hormozgan province is like a strap from the North West to the South East and is located on the northern part of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea between 25° 30' and 28° 53' North (Latitude) and 52° 44' to 59° 16' East (Longitude) and dominates the Strait of Hormuz.
High temperature, low precipitation, and the extension of semi-arid and arid climate are among the climatic characteristics of this province. Consequently, the agriculture of the region is affected by the imposed climatic conditions. During sampling, host plants of P.
solenopsis were examined, and later categorized for infestation levels as described in ARIF et al. (2009).
Results and discussion
A total of 43 plant species from 20 families were recorded to be host of P. solenopsis in Hormozgan province southern Iran (Table 1). The family Solanaceae recorded the highest numbers of host plants followed by Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae, respectively.
The following division of total host can be made: Amaranthaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Apocynaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Asclepiadace 2.32 % (1 species), Asteraceae 6.98 % (3 species), Chenopodiaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Convolvulaceae 4.67 % (2 species), Cucurbitaceae 11.64 % (5 species), Euphorbiaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Lamiaceae 4.67 % (2 species), Malvaceae 16.28 % (7 species), Meliaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Mimosaceae © Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at 2.32 % (1 species), Moraceae 6.97 % (3 species), Pedaliaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Poaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Sapindaceae 2.32 % (1 species), Solanaceae 20.94 % (9 species), Rhamnaceae 2.32 % (1 species) and Verbenaceae 2.32 % (1 species). The solenopsis mealybug was found on 7 plant species Abelmoschus esculentus, Gossypium, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae); Sesamum orientale (Pedaliaceae) and Cestrum nocturnum, Solamum melongena, Solamum nigrum, (Solanaceae) with high level of infection.
The host plant list of P. solenopsis in Pakistan was prepared by ARIF et al. (2009), and then additional researches were conducted in other parts of the world and so far 192 species belonging to 55 families have been recorded (BEN-DAV et al. 2012). During the course of the 3-year study period, 43 plant species from 20 families were recorded to be host of P. solenopsis in Hormozgan province southern Iran. The total number of host plant species being 201 species belonging to 56 families, as a result of present study one family (Sapindaceae) and 9 species, (Amaranthus retroflexus L.; Ipomoea tricolor CAV.;
Abutilon fruticosum GUILL & PERR.; Abutilon hirtum (LAM.) SWEET; Malva neglecta WALLR.; Acacia nilotica (L.) WILLD. EX DELILE; Ficus religiosa L.; Dodonaea viscosa (L.) JACQ. and Petunia integrifolia (HOOK.) SCHINZ & THELL. were added.
There have recently been much agricultural trade between Iran and Pakistan and also other Asian countries. Thus the accidental introduction of P. solenopsis has already been expected (MOGHADDAM & BAGHERI 2010), so; quarantine issues are a major concern for this mealybug.
The authors are indebted to DR. AMIR BORJIAN (Department of Botany, Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, IRAN) for invaluable help with the project. The research was supported by Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Iran.
ABBAS G., ARIF M.J. & S. SAEED (2005): Systematic status of a new species of the genus Phenacoccus COCKERELL (Pseudococcidae), a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Pakistan. – Pakistan Entomologist 27 (1): 83-84.
ARIF M.I., RAFIQ M. & A. GHAFFAR (2009): Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. – International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 11: 163-167.
BEN-DOV Y., MILLER D.R. & G.A.P. GIBSON (2012): ScaleNet: Available on-line at:
http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm. Accessed: 2 February 2012.
HODGSON C.J., ABBAS G., ARIF M.J., SAEED S. & H. KARAR (2008): Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. – Zootaxa 1913: 1-35.
© Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at
MOGHADDAM M. & A. N. BAGHERI (2010): A new record of mealybug pest in the south of Iran, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). – Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30 (1): 67-69.
MUNIAPPAN R., SHEPARD B.M., WATSON G.W., CARNER G.R., RAUF A., SARTIAMI D., HIDAYAT P., AFUN J.V.K., GOERGEN G. & A. K.M. ZIAUR RAHMAN (2011): New Records of Invasive Insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) in Southeast Asia and West Africa. – Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology 26 (4):167-174.
NAGRARE V.S., KRANTHI S., BIRADAR V.K., ZADE N.N., SANGODE V., KAKDE G., SHUKLA R.M., SHIVARE D., KHADI B.M. & K.R. KRANTHI (2009): Widespread infestation of the
exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (TINSLEY) (Hemiptera:
Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. – Bulletin of Entomological Research 99 (5): 537SINGH S., SHARMA R., KUMAR R., GUPTA V.K. & V.K. DILAWARI (2012): Molecular typing of mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis populations from different hosts and locations in Punjab. – India Journal of Environmental Biology 33: 539-543.
TINSLEY J.D. (1898): An ants’-nest coccid from New Mexico. – Canadian Entomologist 30:
WANG Y., WATSON G.W. & R. ZHANG (2010): The potential distribution of an invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and its threat to cotton in Asia. – Agricultural and Forest Entomology 12 (4): 403-416.
WANG Y.P., WU S.A. & R.Z. ZHANG (2009): Pest risk analysis of a new invasive pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis, to China. – Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 46 (1): 101-106.
YOUSUF M., TAYYIB M. & S. SHAZIA (2007): Mealybug problem on cotton in Pakistan. – Pakistan Entomologist 24: 49-50.
Dr. Majid FALLAHZADEH Department of Entomology Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University Jahrom, Iran P. O. Box: 74135-355 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Roohafza ABDIMALEKI Department of Entomology Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University Jahrom, Iran E-mail: email@example.com Dr. Nazila SAGHAEI Department of Entomology Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University Marvdasht, Iran E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at Table 1: Host plants of Phenacoccus solenopsis with its infestation levels in Hormozgan Province, Iran.1
Druck, Eigentümer, Herausgeber, Verleger und für den Inhalt verantwortlich:
Maximilian SCHWARZ, Konsulent f. Wissenschaft der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung, Eibenweg 6, A-4052 Ansfelden, E-Mail: email@example.com.
Redaktion: Erich DILLER, ZSM, Münchhausenstraße 21, D-81247 München;
Roland GERSTMEIER, Lehrstuhl f. Tierökologie, H.-C.-v.-Carlowitz-Pl. 2, D-85350 Freising Fritz GUSENLEITNER, Lungitzerstr. 51, A-4222 St. Georgen/Gusen;
Wolfgang SPEIDEL, MWM, Tengstraße 33, D-80796 München;
Thomas WITT, Tengstraße 33, D-80796 München.
Adresse: Entomofauna, Redaktion und Schriftentausch c/o Museum Witt, Tengstr. 33, 80796 München, Deutschland, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Entomofauna, Redaktion c/o Fritz Gusenleitner, Lungitzerstr. 51, 4222 St. Georgen/Gusen, Austria, E-Mail: email@example.com