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ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR ENTOMOLOGIE
Band 35, Heft 3: 29-48 ISSN 0250-4413 Ansfelden, 2. Januar 2014
Parasitoid fauna (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the Egyptian
clover, Trifolium alexandrinum LINNAEUS, in Egypt
N.S. GADALLAH, H.A. GHOUNIEMY, A.A. ABD-ELGAYED & H.M. MAHMOUD
A total of 23 species of Chalcidoidea in 20 genera and 5 families (Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae and Torymidae) were collected from the fields of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum LINNAEUS) in Egypt. Five species represent new records for the Egyptian fauna, Hockeria unicolor WALKER and Antrocephalus mitys (WALKER) (Chalcididae), Notoglyptus scutellaris DODD & GIRAULT and Homoporus fulviventris (WALKER) (Pteromalidae), and Eurytoma rosae NEES (Eurytomidae). A simplified key is given to identify the 20 chalcid genera and known distribution and hosts are summerized for all the collected species.
Key words: Chalcidoidea, clover fields, faunistic list, new records, Egypt.
Zusammenfassung Insgesamt konnten 23 Arten in 20 Gattungen von Chalcidoidea (Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae und Torymidae), aufgesammelt in Ägypten auf Feldern des ägyptischen Klees (Trifolium alexandrinum LINNAEUS) nachgewiesen werden. Hockeria unicolor WALKER und Antrocephalus mitys (WALKER) (Chalcididae), Notoglyptus scutellaris DODD & GIRAULT und Homoporus fulviventris (WALKER) (Pteromalidae) sowie Eurytoma rosae NEES (Eurytomidae) erwiesen sich als neu für Ägypten. Ein einfacher Schlüssel zur Trennung der 20 Chalcididen-Gattungen wird vorgestellt, für die genannten Arten wurden die bekannte Verbreitung sowie die Wirte genannt.
© Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at Introduction The Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum LINNAEUS) is one of the most important foraging crops in Egypt between November and June (TAWFIK et al. 1976). It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop in Egypt. Not only does it have a very high yield potential, but it is also one of the most palatable and nutritious forage crops.
Clover has the highest feeding value of all the common hay crops and it is grown widely throughout the world as forage for cattle as well as horses. Because clover plantations usually receive no insecticidal treatments, several insect pests damage this crop in different seasons. These pests are attacked by many natural enemies. Determining the natural enemies is considered to be the first step towards success in biological and IPM programs. Wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea are among the beneficial insects that play an effective role in biological control programs. Despite their importance in almost all agro-ecosystems, their diversity has not yet been fully studied in clover fields around the world or in Egypt. Previous studies of insects associated with clover fields in Egypt indicated the presence of large numbers of insect species belonging to 50 families from 7 Orders (TAWFIK et al. 1976), among which 12 parasitoid species were recorded, 10 Ichneumonoidea (6 ichneumonidae and 4 braconids) and two Chalcidoidea (2 Pteromalidae). The present study contributes to the knowledge of the chalcidoid parasitoids associated with clover (Trifolium alexandrinum LINNAEUS) in Egypt.
Material and methods Regular surveys of chalcid wasps were undertaken during 2009-2011 in clover fields (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) in various localities of Egypt. Sampling was done by means of net sweeping and Malaise traps. Some of the collected specimens were mounted on card points, whereas others were slide mounted in Hoyer’s (ROSEN & De BACH 1979).
Family-level identifications of the collected specimens were made with the help of NOYES & VALENTINE (1989) and NOYES (2011). MASI (1930), BOU EK (1951), HABU (1960), HUSAIN & AGARWAL (1981, 1982) and NARENDRAN (1984, 1985) were used to identify Chalcididae, whereas GRAHAM (1987, 1991), REINA & La SALLE (2003) and YEFREMOVA & YEGORENKOVA (2009) were used for Eulophidae, GRAHAM (1969) and BOU EK & RASPLUS (1991) for Pteromalidae, LOTFALIZADEH et al. (2006) for Eurytoma rosae; and MASI (1935) for Podagrion klugianum. Identification of some species was confirmed by comparing specimens with original descriptions or with identified specimens deposited in different Egyptian collections (see below list of depositories).
Features in parentheses in the key represent features of the taxon that are not contrasted in the other part of the couplet.
Drawings were made using a camera lucida attached to an Olympus stereo-microscope (SZX9).
General distribution and host records of the listed species are based mainly on NOYES (2011) and YU et al. (2012). Some of the recorded parasitoid species were reared out from the larvae or the pupae of their hosts.
Previous records in Egypt are based on various available publications. Families as well as species names within genera are arranged alphabetically. New distribution records for Egypt are marked with an asterisk.
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List of depositories
ASUC............Ain Shams University collection AUC...............Al Azhar University collection CUC...............Cairo University collection ESEC.............Entomological Society of Egypt collection MAC..............Ministry of Agriculture collection HC.................Hager collection (Last authoress)
Key to chalcid genera collected from Egyptian clover fields
1 Tarsi 4-segmented (Fig. 1); fore tibial spur straight and simple; funicle with 2-4 segments (Fig. 2) [Eulophidae]
- Tarsi (at least hind tarsus) 5-segmented (Fig. 3); fore tibial spur curved apically and bifid; funicle with 5 or more segments (Fig. 4)
2 Fore wing with submarginal vein not broken proximal to marginal vein and usually equal to or longer than marginal vein (Fig. 5); postmarginal vein nearly always present (Fig. 5)
- Fore wing with submarginal vein broken proximal to marginal and usually shorter than marginal vein (Fig. 6); postmarginal vein nearly always absent or only slightly developed (Fig. 6)
3 Female flagellum with 2 funicular segments, male with 2 or 3 unbranched funicular segments; scutellum with 2 dorsal grooves (Fig. 7)
- Female flagellum with 3 or -4 funicular segments, male with 4 or-5 branches (Fig. 8); scutellum without dorsal grooves
4 Notauli incomplete (Fig. 9); metasoma often petiolate; axilla rounded anteriorly, rarely produced
- Notauli complete (Fig. 10); axilla angulate and produced anteriorly to differentiate a scapula on the mesoscutum
5 Malar sulcus straight (Fig. 11)
- Malar sulcus curved (Fig. 12); (mesoscutum with indistinct median line; body black with greenish to bluish hue)
6 Funicular segments not longer than broad, first funicular segment subquadrate or transverse (Fig. 13); metasoma in dorsal view ovate
- Funicular segments longer than broad (Fig. 14); metasoma in dorsal view pointed apically
7 Hind femur swollen, less than three times as long as broad; hind tibia curved (Fig. 15); body dark without metallic lustere [Chalcididae]
- Hind femur not swollen, more than three times as long as broad; hind tibia straight;
head and mesosoma often metallic
8 Metasoma sessile, petiole very short and indistinct; head without horns
- Metasoma distinctly petiolate; head with a pair of horns (Fig. 16)....... Dirhinus DALMAN © Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at 9 Antennal sockets more or less away from clypeus; apex of hind tibia obliquely truncate with distinct apical spur and prolonged ventral spine; hind femur irregularly toothed ventrally (Fig. 15); legs often with colour pattern (Fig. 15); (metasoma with 7 visible tergites)
- Antennal sockets more or less close to clypeus; apex of hind tibia not obliquely truncate, with two apical spurs and without prolonged spine; hind femur with a comb of regular teeth on 1-3 broad lobes ventrally (Fig. 17)
10 Face with a strong horseshoe-like carina extending from above middle ocellus along inner orbits of eyes (Fig. 18)
- Face without carina as described above (frons usually concave above antennal sockets when seen in lateral aspect; fore wing as in Fig. 19)................Hockeria WALKER 11 Pronotum in dorsal view large, quadrate to subrectangular and at least two-thirds as long as mesoscutum; antenna with no more than 6 funicular segments; head and dorsum of mesosoma with numerous piliferous punctures which often give rise to umblicate sculpturing; body usually not metallic [Eurytomidae].......... Eurytoma ILLIGER
- Pronotum in dorsal view transverse, less than half length of mesoscutum; head and mesoscutum usually reticulate; body usually metallic green or blue
12 Head with an occipital carina (sometimes thin or fine); hind coxa usually elongate, subtriangular in cross-section and broadly attached to mesosoma; fore wing with long marginal and short stigmal veins and uncus hardly separated from welldeveloped postmarginal vein; ovipositor long and well-exserted (Fig. 20) [Torymidae]
- Head without occipital carina or, if present, then hind coxa usually subcircular in cross-section and narrowly attached to mesosoma; fore wing venation not as above;
ovipositor hardly exerted [Pteromalidae]
13 Antennae touching lower edge of head below apical margin of clypeus, situated on facial lobes which project slightly beyond level of clypeus; antenna without anelli, with 7 funicular segments between pedicel and clava
- Antennae at least slightly separated from lower edge of head; antenna with 2 or 3 anelli and 5 or -6 funicular segments between pedicel and clava
14 Notauli complete, reaching posterior margin of mesoscutum
- Notauli incomplete, not reaching posterior margin of mesoscutum or meeting posteriorly
15 Clypeus with distinctly asymmetric teeth; scutellum without median fovea
- Clypeus truncate; scutellum with median fovea and separated from mesoscutum by a broad curved depression (Fig. 21); (first metasomal tergite occupying most or entire metasoma)
16 Metasoma distinctly petiolate (Fig. 22), and distinctly sculptured dorsally or if petiole almost smooth, then distinctly elongate
- Metasoma sessile, or with transverse, very short petiole, its dorsal surface without distinct sculpturing
17 Marginal vein widened distally, hardly longer than submarginal vein (Fig. 23);
pronotum mostly carinate; (first metasomal tergite moderately elongate)
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- Marginal vein slender not thickened (Fig. 24); pronotum distinctly margined, rarely carinate (first and second metasomal tergites large, hind margin of first tergite broadly emarginated; mesosoma convex; petiole longer than propodeum, with dorsal surface densely reticulate; pronotum relatively long)........... Sphegigaster SPINOLA 18 Antennal clava distinctly acuminate or with a narrow apical specula (Fig. 25);
occipital carina absent
- Antennal clava not acuminate apically
19 Postmarginal vein about as long as or slightly shorter than submarginal vein (Fig.
26); outer margin of wing not fringed
- Postmarginal vein at least 1.2 times as long as submarginal vein (Fig. 27); outer margin of wing fringed
*Antrocephalus mitys (WALKER 1846) M a t e r i a l e x a m i n e d : 1&, Fayoum, v.2009 (HC).
P r e v i o u s E g y p t i a n r e c o r d s : New record for Egypt.
S p e c i e s r e c o g n i t i o n : see HUSAIN & AGARWAL (1982, as Antrocephalus vitatus HUSAIN & AGARWAL 1982).
D i s t r i b u t i o n : Cosmopolitan.
H o s t r e c o r d s : NOYES (2011) cited 5 species of Lepidoptera belonging to the families Pyralidae and Yponomeutidae.
Brachymeria minuta (LINNÉ 1767) M a t e r i a l e x a m i n e d : A very large numer of specimens were examined from different Egyptian localities all the year round: Gabal Asfar, 11.i.1952; Imbaba, 13.ii.1952; Abu Qir,
21.iv.1952; Khatatba, 7.viii.1953; Maadi, 8.x.1953; Komombo, 29.i.1954; Marsa Matruh,
28.ix.1954; Kerdasa, 23.vi.1976; Rosetta, 30.iii.1969 (ASUC); Abu Gabal, 19.iii.1950 (CUC); Massarah, 24.iv.1914; Massarah, 2.v.1914; Matarriyah, 25.vi.1914; Shah el-Elbi,
6.iv.1915; Giza, 10.ix.1916; Marg, 8.iv.1917; Roda, 24.viii.1913; Ezbet el-Nakhl,
3.vi.1917; Matariah, ii.1927; Turah, v.1927; Ismailia, vii.1927; Cairo, 1.ix.1927; Abbassiah,
16.ix.1916 (ESEC); Ismailia, 20.I.1927; Alexandria, 13.vii.1924; Kafr Hakim, 26.xi.1924;
Abu Rawash, 10.xii.1924; Bahariah Oasis, 20-25.iii.1925; Wadi Ibtadi, 29.iv.1925;
Badrashein, 15.viii.1925; Mansura, 2.ix.1925; Hadra, 6.ix.1925; Kerdasa, 9.ix.1925; Kafr Hakim, 13.xi.1925; Mansura, 21.x.1925; Kerdasa, 24.x.1925; Pyramids, 17.xi.1929;
Helwan, 27.v.1930; Nahia, 22.vi.1930; Helwan, 4.xi.1930; Kafr Hakim, 5.v.1932;
Warraqel-Badr, 13.v.1932; Saff, 25.viii.1932; Magadlah, 27.viii.1932; Berak el-Khiam,
30.ix.1932; Helwan, 29.x.1932; Magadlah, 16.xi.1932; Helwan, 3.xii.1932; Wadi Hoff,
3.vi.1934 (MAC); 1&, Fayoum, 17.ix.2010; 1&, Fayoum, 1.xii.2010 (Present study, CUC).
© Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.zobodat.at P r e v i o u s E g y p t i a n r e c o r d s : Cairo (Maadi, Massara, Matarieh), Alexandria (MASI 1930), Assiut (BOU EK 1956).
S p e c i e s r e c o g n i t i o n : see MASI (1930), BOU EK (1956), HABU (1960).
D i s t r i b u t i o n : Australia, Oriental and Palaearctic regions.
H o s t r e c o r d s : NOYES (2011) cited 33 species belonging to 15 families in 4 Orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera). In the present study it was reared from the larva of white cabbage worm Pieirs rapae LATREILLE (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).
Dirhinus excavatus DALMAN 1818 M a t e r i a l e x a m i n e d : large number of specimens were examined: Pyramids,
27.vii.1931; Abu Rawash, 23.vii.1931; Kerdasa, 9.ix.1934; Benha, 25.xi.1934 (AC); Kom Osheim, 6.v.1955 (ASUC); Wadi Rashid, 5.ix.1927 (ESEC); Giza, 16.v.1925; Giza,
20.vii.1925; Cairo, 1.viii.1925; Kafr Hakim, 13.vii.1930; Warraq, 23.vi.1932; Kerdasa,
7.xii.1932 (MAC); 1&, Fayoum, v.2009; 1(, Ebshway, vi.2009; 2&&, Ebshway, v.2010 (Present study, CUC).