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©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at



Band 28, Heft 25: 321-356 ISSN 0250-4413 Ansfelden, 30. November 2007

The Subfamilies Eulophinae, Entedoninae and Tetrastichinae

in Iran, with description of new species

(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)



This paper reflects the current degree of research of Eulophidae and their hosts in Iran.

A list of the species from Iran belonging to the subfamilies Eulophinae, Entedoninae and Tetrastichinae is presented. In the present work 47 species from 22 genera are recorded from Iran. Two species (Cirrospilus scapus sp. nov. and Aprostocetus persicus sp. nov.) are described as new. A list of 45 host-parasitoid associations in Iran and keys to Iranian species of three genera (Cirrospilus, Diglyphus and Aprostocetus) are included.

Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel zeigt den derzeitigen Untersuchungsstand an eulophiden Wespen und ihrer Wirte im Iran. Eine Liste der für den Iran festgestellten Arten der Unterfamilien Eulophinae, Entedoninae und Tetrastichinae wird präsentiert. Mit vorliegender Arbeit werden 47 Arten in 22 Gattungen aus dem Iran nachgewiesen. Zwei neue Arten (Cirrospilus scapus sp. nov. und Aprostocetus persicus sp. nov.) werden beschrieben. Eine Liste von 45 Wirts- und Parasitoid-Beziehungen im Iran und ein Schlüssel für 3 Gattungen (Cirrospilus, Diglyphus und Aprostocetus) sind in der Arbeit enthalten.

©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at Introduction Only few papers dealing with Iranian Eulophidae have so far been published. The first reported Eulophidae from Iran was Tetrastichus epilachnae (GIRARD, 1896) (KIRYUKHIN 1948; HERTING 1973). Different authors (including present author Z.A. YEFREMOVA) have mentioned about 33 species from 20 genera of Eulophidae from Iran until now. The subfamily Eulophinae was represented in Iran with 11 species in 6 genera: Cirrospilus variegatus (MASI, 1907) (HESAMI, YEFREMOVA & SEYEDEBRAHIMI 2007), C. vittatus WALKER, 1838, Dichatomus acerinus FÖRSTER, 1878 (OILB 1971), Diglyphus crassinervis ERDÖS, 1958, D. isaea (WALKER, 1838), D. scapus YEFREMOVA, 2006 (HESAMI et al. 2006), Hemiptarsensis wailesellae S. NOVICKY, 2003 (ZAHIRI, MOHARRAMIPOUR & TALEBI 2003), H. zilahisabessi ERDÖS, 2005 (TALEBI et al. 2005; ASADI et al. 2006), Pnigalio pectinicornis (LINNAEUS, 1758) (HAESELBARTH 1989), Sympiesis gordius (WALKER,

1839) and S. sericeicornis (NEES, 1834) (HAESELBARTH 1985), the subfamily Entedoninae with 6 species in 4 genera: Closterocerus aratus (WALKER, 1838) (OILB 1971), C. formosus WESTWOOD, 1833 (OILB 1971; HESAMI et al. 2006), Derostenus persicus GUMOVSKY, 2003 (GUMOVSKY 2003), Entedon biroi ERDÖS, 1944 (GUMOVSKY 1999), E. ergias WALKER, 1839 (ASKEW & BOU„EK 1968; HERTING 1973; BOU„EK 1977; TRJAPITZIN 1978), Pediobius illustris (WATERSTON, 1915) (BOU„EK & ASKEW, 1968; WATERSTON

1915) and the subfamily Tetrastichinae with 16 species in 10 genera: Aprostocetus beyazus DOGANLAR, 1992 (DOGANLAR 1992), A. lachares (WALKER, 1839), A. neglectus (DOMENICHINI, 1957) (DOMENICHINI 1964; GRAHAM 1987), A. zosimus (WALKER, 1839), Baryscapus evonymellae (BOUCHÉ, 1834) (GRAHAM 1991), B. pallidae GRAHAM, 1991 (GRAHAM 1991), Chouioia cunea YANG, 1989 (REZAEI, MOHARRAMIPOR & TALEBI 2003), Leptocybe invasa FISHER & LASALLE, 2004 (MENDEL et al. 2004), Melittobia acasta (WALKER, 1839) (THOMPSON 1955), Minotetrastichus platenellus (MERCET, 1922) (HAESELBARTH 1983), Oomyzus brevistigma (GAHAN, 1936) (AZMAYESH-FARD & ESMAILI 1981;

DREISTADT & DAHLSTEN 1991), O. gallerucae (FONSCOLOMBE, 1832) (AZMAYESH-FARD & ESMAILI 1981; DREISTADT & DAHLSTEN 1991; DOMENICHINI 1964; OILB 1971; BOUEK 1977; KOSTJUKOV 1978), O. incertus (RATZEBURG, 1844) (DOMENICHINI 1964; MONADJEMI 1975; KOSTJUKOV 1978; KAMALI, SOLEIMAN-NEJADIAN & BISHOP 1978; GRAHAM 1991), Pronotalia orobanchiae GRAHAM, 1991 (GRAHAM 1991), Sigmophora brevicornis (PANZER, 1804) (HESAMI et al. 2006) and Tetrastichus epilachnae (GIARD, 1896) (HERTING 1973).

This paper provides a list of eulophids from Iran belonging to the subfamilies Eulophinae, Entedoninae and Tetrastichinae. The text is arranged as follows: A brief generic and specific diagnosis (or full morphological description) and information of the known distribution and hosts (mentioned are only main hosts of the parasitoids). Additional comments are given where necessary. The present paper also provides keys to the Iranian species of three genera (Cirrospilus, Diglyphus and Aprostocetus) including the new species, described from Iran by the authors. These genera contain numerous species widely spread in the world.

–  –  –

The paper is based on eulophid specimens, collected in Iran by many different collectors from different parts of Iran, and sent to Insect Taxonomy Research Department, Teh©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at ran. Some specimens of this paper were collected by the authors during the period 1990In total, 720 specimens are dealt with. Many species were collected directly from their hosts in the field or reared from hosts. Some species were obtained by sweeping over vegetation. The specimens were collected by different methods: Rearing from hosts = 621 specimens (86.25%) and sweeping by net = 99 specimens (13.75%).

The material is deposited in the Zoological Institution of Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (ZISP), Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum of Plant Pests and Diseases Institute, Tehran (HMIM) and the Natural History Museum, London (BMNH). The taxonomic arrangement of BOU„EK (1988) for subfamilies is followed in this paper. The morphological terminology follows GRAHAM (1987, 1991) and GIBSON (1997). Synonyms, combinations and misspelling (= "Combinations") are according NOYES (2006).

The abbreviations used in the text are as follows: F1 = first segment of antennal funicle, F2 = second segment, F3 = third segment, F4 = fourth segment, C1-C3 = claval segments, SMV = submarginal vein, MV = marginal vein, PMV = postmarginal vein, SV = stigmal vein. Sculpture terminology follows EADY (1968) and HARRIS (1979). Absolute measurements in millimetres (mm) are used for body and forewing length of specimens. For other dimensions measurements are given in :m.

–  –  –

Submarginal vein smoothly joining the parastigma, postmarginal vein as long as stigmal vein or longer, submarginal vein with many (3 or more) setae; antenna of male may have branches; axillae weakly advanced; the presence two or more pairs of setae on the scutellum. Funicle with 2, 3 or 4 segments; male funicle often with long branches.

The Eulophinae are solitary or gregarious ectoparasitoids of the larvae of leaf-miners, or galls. Many species are facultative or obligate hyperparasitoids.

Genus Aulogymnus FÖRSTER

Aulogymnus FÖRSTER, 1851: 24. Type species: Aulogymnus aceris FÖRSTER, 1851 by monotypy.

Diagnosis: Scutellum convex, with longitudinal grooves distinct or not distinct; axillae slightly advanced; the stigmal vein is distinctly produced beyond the uncus.

Biology: Parasitoid in galls of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera) (ASKEW 1959, 1961).

Distribution: Holarctic, Australia.

Identification of species see: ASKEW & BOU„EK (1968) and TRJAPITZIN (1978).

Aulogymnus gallarum (LINNAEUS, 1761) Combinations and synonyms. Ichneumon gallarum LINNAEUS, 1761: Aulogymnus gallarum (L.), Chalcis gallarum (L.), Cyniphoctonus gallarum (L.), Cynips gallarum (L.), Cynipsichneumon gallarum (L.), Cynipsillum gallarum (L.), Diplolepis gallarum (L.), Olinx gallarum (L.), Olinx pulchra (M.), Olinx rotundiventris THOMSON, 1878, Olynx gallarum pulchra MAYR, 1877, Olynx pulchra M., Pteromalus gallarum (L.).

Material examined: 1 &, 1 %, Iran, Ghazvin, August 1999, leg. ARBAB (ZISP).

Biology: Parasitoid of Adleria sp., Andricus sp., Biorhiza sp., Cynips sp. (Hymenoptera, ©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at Cynipidae) (ASKEW 1959, 1961).

Distribution: Palearctic (Europe). This is a new record for the fauna of Iran.

–  –  –

Cirrospilus WESTWOOD, 1832: 128. Type species: Gyrolasella elegantissimus WESTWOOD, 1832, by original designation and monotypy.

Diagnosis: Two-segmented funicle in both sexes. Notauli complete and above scutoscutellar suture; scutellum relatively flat, with two sublateral grooves, though grooves often difficult to see due changes in colour pattern, stigma rounded, with uncus at apex.

SMV with 3 or more setae, PMV present. Colour of body variable.

Biology: Ectoparasitoid of Agromyza sp. and Phytomyza sp. (Diptera, Agromyzidae) and genera of Lepidoptera (Phyllonorycter sp., Phyllocnistis sp., Tischeria sp., Leucoptera sp. and Stigmella sp.) or hyperparasitoid of Hymenoptera (ASKEW & BOU„EK 1968; TRJAPITZIN 1978).

Distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Identification: Keys to species of Cirrospilus have been provided by ASKEW (1968) for the fauna of Britain, BOU„EK (1959) and GRAHAM (1959) for that of Europe, TRJAPITZIN (1978) for Russia, KAMIJO (1992) for Japanese species, STOROZHEVA, KOSTJUKOV & YEFREMOVA (1995) for species of the Far East of Russia, and ZHU et al. (2002) gave a key to Chinese species. Iranian species identification is possible with the present key to 7 species of this genus.

–  –  –

©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at Cirrospilus ingenuus GAHAN, 1932 Combinations and synonyms. Cirrospilus ingenuus GAHAN, 1932: Cirrospilus quadristriatus (S. R. & R.), Scotolinx quadristriata SUBBA RAO & RAMAMANI, 1966.

Material examined: 2 &&, Iran, Bushehr, Faryab, ex larvae Phyllocnistis citrella STAINTON (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), 10 September 2004, leg. SADEGHI (HMIM); 2 &&, Baluchestan, Iranshahr, ex larvae Phyllocnistis citrella STAINTON, August 2002, leg. MOTAMEDINIA (ZISP).

Biology: Larval parasitoid of Phyllonorycter sp., Phyllocnistis citrella STAINTON (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) (THOMPSOM 1955; BARROGA 1969; MORAKOTE & UJIYE 1992).

Distribution: Oriental region and Australia. New to Iran.

Cirrospilus lyncus WALKER, 1838 Combinations. Cirrospilus lyncus WALKER, 1838: Atoposomoidea unifasciata (F.), Cirrospilus caudatulus THOMSON, 1878, Cirrospilus (Atoposomoidea) lyncus W., Cirrospilus unifasciatus (F.), Eulophus unifasciatus FÖRSTER, 1841.

Material examined: 2 &&, Iran, Mazandaran, Amol, 3 November 1997, leg. EBRAHIMI;

3 &&, 1 %, Iran, Sari, ex larvae Phyllocnistis citrella STAINTON (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), 17 September 2004, leg. SADEGHI (1 & HMIM).

Biology: Larval parasitoid of Phyllonorycter sp., Phyllocnistis citrella STAINTON (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), Tischeria sp. (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae) (ASKEW & BOU„EK 1968; SHENG & WANG 1992, 1993).

Distribution: Oriental region and Palearctic. This is a new record for the fauna of Iran.

Cirrospilus scapus YEFREMOVA sp. nov. (Figs 1-4)

Holotype: &, Azarbaijan-e Gharbi, Uromia, ex larvae of Liriomyza congesta (Diptera, Agromyzidae), 11 April 1995, leg. JAFARZADEH (ZISP).

Paratypes: 3 &&, 2 %% with the same label data as holotype (Zoological Institution of Russian Academy of Science, Russia; Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum of Plant Pests and Diseases Institute, Iran). One female paratype on slide.

Diagnosis: Female: propodeum smooth, without median carina; PMV slightly shorter than SV; gaster 1.78 times as long as broad. Male: scape swollen, funicle 2-segmented, clava 3-segmented. Body entire yellowish golden.

Description: & (Figs 1, 3, 4): Body length 1.50 mm. Forewing length 1.09 mm.

Body yellowish golden. Gaster with pale yellow stripe on 2, 3 tergites. Eye white.

Ocelli yellow. Face yellowish golden. Antennal funicle yellow, scape white. Tegulae pale yellow. Colour of venation yellow. Legs pale yellow, except hind yellow golden proximal part of femora.

Head wider than high. Head height 17, head breadth 15, length of head 6. Face aluteceous. Distance between eyes 6. Eyes with setae. Eye height 7, breadth 5. Malar sulcus slightly curved. Ocellar line present and distinct. Clypeal suture laterally present. Toruli placed slightly below the lower margin of eye. Antenna (Fig. 1) with scape (10.3 x 2.3 :m), pedicel short (2.5), one anellus. Funicle with two segments (F1 2.6, F2 2.5), clava 3segmented (10.3 x 3.3 :m). First segment 1.04 times as long as pedicel.

Mesosoma (Fig. 3) (27 x 13 :m). Pronotum (6 x 10.2 :m) conical, aluteceous. Mesoscutum (9 x 11 :m), mid lobe of mesoscutum with 3 pairs of long setae, notauli complete to anterior margin of axilla. Mesoscutum aluteceous, scapulae slightly reticulate. Axillae ©Entomofauna Ansfelden/Austria; download unter www.biologiezentrum.at aluteceous and placed slightly above scuto-scutellar line. Scutellum (7.2 x 7 :m) shorter than mesoscutum, smooth, with submedian grooves (distance between grooves 4.1 :m), and two pairs of setae (anterior setae as long as posterior). Dorsellum triangular, smooth.

Propodeum smooth in median part and without median carina (Fig. 3), callus slightly reticulate with three long setae arranged densely into one row. Short posterior plicae present.

Fore wings (Fig. 4) (46 x 17 :m), 2.7 times as long as broad. Speculum absent. Costal cell with four setae. SMV with 5 setae. Relative measurements: SMV : MV : PMV: SV = 14.3 : 24.5 : 4.6 : 6.5. Cubital line of hair slightly curved. Hind wing rounded.

Metasoma. Gaster (29x14 :m), 1.78 times as long as broad. Petiole very short, smooth, transverse. Cercal setae five. Laterotergites invisible. Sheaths of ovipositor slightly extended with many trichoid setae.

Figs 1-4. Cirrospilus scapus YEFREMOVA sp. nov. & holotype and % paratype: 1. right antenna, female; 2. right antenna, male; 3. mesosoma and metasoma, dorsal view, female;

4. left forewing, female.

% (Fig. 2): Length 1.15 mm.

Body colour the same as female but antenna with yellow swollen scape and pale yellow funicle and clava.

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