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«RAFT Materials • Memo (example) • Graphic Organizer Description RAFT is an acronym used to describe four critical ingredients of writing.  ...»

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RAFT

Materials

• Memo (example)

• Graphic Organizer

Description

RAFT is an acronym used to describe four critical ingredients of writing.

 Role of the writer

 Audience for writing

 Format the writing will take

 Topic covered in the writing

RAFT writing provides support in several critical areas of strategic reading and writing.

It provides a method for students to think critically and creatively about the content they

have studied.

Step-by-Step

1. Explain the RAFT strategy to the participants.

2. Share the writing example.

3. Have participants practice creating a writing prompt using the RAFT graphic organizer.

4. If time permits, use the prompt to develop a piece of writing.

5. To close, tell participants that as an extension students can change either the role, audience, or format to create a new piece of writing.

CONTENT STANDARD 3.0 WRITING

Course Level Expectations

• CLE 3002.3.1, CLE 3005.3.1 Write in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes and audiences.

• CLE 3001.3.1, CLE 3003.3.1 Write in a variety of modes, with particular emphasis on persuasion, for a variety of purposes and audiences.

State Performance Indicators

• SPI 3001.3.9, SPI 3002.3.10, 3003.3.12 Identify a statement that reveals the writer’s attitude.

• SPI 3001.3.10, SPI 3002.3.11, 3003.3.13 Identify the targeted audience for a selected passage.

• SPI 3001.3.11, SPI 3002.3.12 Determine the writer’s purpose in a writing sample (e.g., narration, description, persuasion, exposition, creative expression).

• SPI 3003.3.11 Determine the writer’s purpose in a writing sample.

Materials needed:

• Pencil and paper

• Examples of student writing using a RAFT strategy.

Assessment Activity Title: RAFT: Role, Audience, Format, Topic

Description of Activity:

1. Students will create a writing prompt using RAFT.

2. Students will complete a writing sample using the RAFT prompt.

Assignment Extensions:

Using the same basic prompt, students will change either role, audience, or format to create a new piece of writing.

Example:

Role William Dollar Audience U.S. Mint/Bureau of Engraving Format Memorandum Topic Plead for Time Off TO: Personnel Director FROM: William Dollar DATE: April xx, 19xx RE: Request for Vacation My name is Dollar, Bill Dollar. I've been on the job for the last twelve months without a break, and I am writing to request a two-week vacation. In considering my request, I think it's essential that you understand exactly how much work we dollar bills have to do during our time of service for the United States Treasury. One-dollar bills are the more prevalent, most used, and most abused of all the paper currency. Our life expectancy is only about 18 months. By comparison, the average $100 bill has been in circulation around nine years!

My journey through the many hands that hold me begins after I leave the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and get sent out to a Federal Reserve Bank. I was shipped to Richmond, Virginia, although I could have been sent to any one of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks located throughout the country. While it's nice to travel and see the country, that first trip involves being bundled in currency "bricks" and chunked into armored trucks...no daylight or sunshine for us there! Then we get sent to regular banks when they need to increase the cash they have on hand for their customers. So while it seems like our job is pretty easy to start with, let me assure you it gets much worse from there.

In my case, I went out of our bank with a whole lot of other bills to become part of the day-laborer payroll of a construction company. It turns out there's a lot of house-building going on in the fast-growing Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and a lot of temporary help is hired on that has to be paid at the end of each day. I was paid out to a guy who'd been hauling sand all day to the cement mixers. On his way home, he stopped by the Better Burger place for a buffalo burger and fries, and I ended up going into the cash register there. When they were closing up that evening, the manager divided up tip money among the wait staff, and I was off again.

I went into this very nice woman's purse, but I didn't stay there long. In fact, I didn't stay any place too long; I was in and out of cash registers, fed into soft drink machines, passed back and forth between husbands and wives and kids, folded into swans and other strange shapes at late-night dinner tables, crumpled up and wadded into jeans pockets, and even

washed a few times in laundromats.

But I know how crucial we are: employers use us to pay their workers, and the workers use us to buy food and medicines and clothes and gas, and then we're used to pay the people who work in the grocery and drug stores, the malls, and the gas stations. Then those people use us all over again to pay not only for goods but also for services like haircuts and car washes.

It is true that in some ways my life is easier than it was for dollar bills that came before me, because people use checks, credit cards, debit cards, and other electronic transfers more and more all the time. But there will always be a need for good old hard cash like me. It's just that I'm awfully tired from all my travels, and I may only have another year at the most left in me before I'm recalled, retired, and shredded into thousands of tiny pieces. I'd like to have time to recover from all this wear and tear so that I can keep on circulating until I'm in no condition to continue. Will you consider my request?





The drafting of this sample RAFT paper was made possible in part thanks to visits to the following two websites:

• The U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing

• Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta's Dollars & Cents: Fundamental Facts About Money

Your examples:

–  –  –

Materials

• Paper bags with source strips

• Graphic organizer Description Grab bags are a hands-on approach that can be used to address many skills (author’s purpose, inferences, main idea, organizational patterns, etc.). In this activity using grab bags, we will be identifying sources as primary or secondary.

Step-by-Step

1. Explain to the participant that the CLE includes tertiary sources; however, the SPI only asks that students be able to identify whether a source is a primary or secondary source.

2. Discuss the differences in primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, giving examples.

3. Have participants find a partner (any way you choose).

4. Give out the bags with source strips.

5. Hand out the graphic organizer.

6. Participants will take one strip from the bag, read it, and decide where it goes on the graphic organizer.

7. Explain that participants will need to write the number of the passage and identify the source as primary or secondary.

–  –  –

Course Level Expectations

• CLE 3001.4.4, CLE 3002.4.4, CLE 3003.4.6, CLE 3005.4.4 Write an extended research paper using primary and secondary sources, technology, and graphics as appropriate.

State Performance Indicators

• SPI 3001.4.2, SPI 3002.4.2, SPI 3003.4.2 Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.

Materials needed:

• Bags of Source Cards

• Graphic Organizer Assessment Activity Title: Grab Bag Sources

Description of Activity:

1. Distribute bags of sources and graphic organizers to small groups.

2. Draw a source from bag.

3. Complete the graphic organizer.

Assignment Extensions:

Write a research paper using primary and secondary sources.

Sources for Research Project on Homeless

1. A report from the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: “Drifting Apart:

New Findings on Growing Income Disparities Between the Rich, the Poor, and the Middle Class,” 1990

–  –  –

3. A book entitled The Undeserving Poor: From the War on Poverty to the War on Welfare by Michael Katz, 1989, published by Pocket in New York

4. An article entitled “The Culture of Poverty” by Brad Smith in April 2008 issue of On Understanding Poverty: Perspectives from the Social Sciences.

5. An interview on March 24, 2008 with Dr. Leo Webster, a sociology professor who teaches a course that explores the homeless problem

6. A book by Karl Marx entitled Capital: A critique of Political Economy, 1887, published by Prentice in Boston.

7. Statistics on the number of homeless in Tennessee in 2007 from the State Census Office http://www.statecensus.tn.html

–  –  –

9. An

Abstract

written by a student at the University of Tennessee on the homeless population in Tennessee

10. Information about the homeless from the World Book encyclopedia, 2007, vol. 2 Chelsea New York Note: 2, 7, 8 are primary; 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 are secondary; and 9, 10 are tertiary

–  –  –

Materials

• Laminated source cards Description Validity of Sources is a way of manipulating sources for evaluation. It gives students a visual for identifying primary and secondary sources and determining which sources are valid and which ones are not.

Step-by-Step

1. You may need to discuss how to tell the validity of sources. I like to remember CARS.

 Credibility—trustworthy source, author’s credentials, organizational support  Accuracy—up to date, factual, detailed, exact  Reasonableness—fair, objective, absence of fallacies or slanted tone  Support—listed sources, contact information

2. Tell the participants to pretend they are doing research on Pearl Harbor. They have found several sources. With a partner, they are to decide which ones are valid and which ones are not.

3. Pairs are to line up the cards according to the validity of the source.

4. Let each pair share its first three and its last three.

5. Discuss. Make sure to identify the sources as primary and secondary.

–  –  –

Course Level Expectations

• CLE 3001.4.3, CLE 3002.4.3, CLE 3003.4.3, CLE 3005.4.3 Make distinctions about the credibility, reliability, consistency, strengths, and limitations of resources, including information gathered from Websites.

State Performance Indicators

• SPI 3001.4.3, SPI 3002.4.3, SPI 3003.4.3 Evaluate the reliability and credibility of sources for use in research.

Materials needed:

• Envelopes containing laminated copies of Reliability Source Cards Assessment Activity Title: Pearl Harbor Validity Continuum

Description of Activity:

1. Distribute the cards, one set per group.

2. Set up activity by discussing various types of resources.

3. Ask groups to arrange cards in order from most valid to least valid.

4. Students will discuss the rationale behind their choices.

5. Have groups share top three sources and bottom three sources with the whole class.

Assignment Extensions:

Have students bring information (works cited) about the sources they have used for research and place them on a similar continuum.

–  –  –

Materials Computer Paper plates with pictures Description Paper plate writing is a collaborative writing approach. Collaborative writing can lead to projects that are richer and more complex than those produced by individuals.

Step-by-Step

1. Open a new MS Word document and type a description of the picture you have been given.

2. Turn your picture over, so no one will be able to see it. The next person must be able to visualize your picture from the description you have written.

3. Move to the computer on your right and read the description and begin a story from the description of the picture. Establish a setting and create characters. Stop when time is called.

4. Move to the next computer and read the story and continue by adding conflict.

(Stop at the end of the sentence.)

5. Move to the next computer and add dialogue and transitional devices. (Stop at the end of the word you are writing.)

6. Move to the next computer and write a conclusion.

6. Move to the next computer and revise for vivid words, combine sentences to vary sentence types, and edit for grammar, usage, and mechanics. (Students would have only one or two things to do to improve the story.)

7. Return to original computer and read the story about your picture.

8. Tell participants that they might want to put students in groups (those who have taken part in the specific stories) and let them look at the pictures, read the stories, and choose the best story to share with the whole class.

CONTENT STANDARD 3.0 WRITING

Course Level Expectations

• CLE 3001.3.3,CLE 3002.3.3,CLE 3003.3.3,CLE 3005.3.3 Organize ideas into an essay with a thesis statement in the introduction, well-constructed paragraphs, a conclusion, and transition sentences that connect paragraphs into a coherent whole.

• CLE 3001.3.4, CLE 3002.3.4, CLE 3003.3.4, CLE 3005.3.4 Revise documents to develop or support ideas more clearly, address potential objections, ensure effective transition between paragraphs, and correct errors in logic.

State Performance Indicators

• SPI 3001.3.1, SPI 3002.3.1 Proofread a passage for correct punctuation, mechanics, and usage.

• SPI 3001.3.3, SPI 3002.3.3 Choose the transitional device that appropriately connects sentences or paragraphs within a writing sample.

• SPI 3001.3.4, SPI 3002.3.3, SPI 3003.3.4 Select the most vivid and compelling word to strengthen a description.



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