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«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Shalaby, Ibrahim Mahmond, 1924Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © ...»

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Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Shalaby, Ibrahim Mahmond, 1924Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 30-Apr-2016 01:39:27 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/284932 This dissertation has been microfilmed exactly as received 67-11,958 SHALABY, Ibrahim Mahmond, 1924THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN CULTURAL RENEWAL



University of Arizona, Ph.D., 1967 Education, theory and practice University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan




by y Ibrahim M. Shalaby A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of


In the Graduate College




I hereby recommend that this dissertation prepared under my direction by Ibrahim M. Shalaby entitled THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL IN CULTURAL RENEWAL AND


be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement of the degree of Ph. D.

John H. Chilcott March 20, 1967 Dissertation Director Date After inspection of the dissertation, the following members of the Final Examination Committee concur in its approval and

recommend its acceptance:*

To / •0LI "A^i-Og'JL9J2- *This approval and acceptance is contingent on the candidate's adequate performance and defense of this dissertation at the final oral examination. The inclusion of this sheet bound into the library copy of the dissertation is evidence of satisfactory performance at the final examination.


This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgement of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the major department or the Dean of the Graduate College when in his judgment the proposed use of the material is in the in­ terests of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.

–  –  –

The author wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. John H.

Chilcott, major advisor, for his wonderful guidance, patience and en­ couragement, without which this work could not have been completed;

Dr. Herbert Wilson, the head of the Social Foundations of Education Division, who was kind enough to guide the research while the major advisor was on leave in Peru; Dr. Thomas F. Saunders, advisor of the minor specialty, philosophy, for his careful and critical reading which improved the work greatly; and to Dr. Victor H. Kelley, Dr. Jed A. Cooper, and Dr. Stanley Ivie, for their careful reading, helpful suggestions, and sincere guidance of the research.

Thanks also are due to Mr. Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam for his kind permission to carry out the investi­ gation, and to Muslim school personnel, parents, and students for their sincere cooperation.

The author also wishes to thank the United Arab Republic government, U.A. R. - U.S.A. Exchange Commission, and Al-Azhar University, Cairo, for making the study of the author in the United States possible.

Thanks are also due to Miss Dorothy Gardiner, the author's wife, Elham, and the author's daughter, Amira, for their sincere

–  –  –

go to the rest of the author's family for their patience and support of the author during his study in the United States.

Thanks are also due to Mrs. Alice Schoenberger for her patience

–  –  –

Methodology The study utilized two major methods of collecting data: library research and field study which included non-participant observation; in­ formal and formal interviews with the Muslim leader, school personnel, parents, and students; and aspiration inventory administered to students.

Five weeks were spent in the Muslim schools in Chicago, Detroit, Washington, and Atlanta.

Findings and Conclusions The Muslim school attempts to aid its students to attain freedom, signifying a rejection of the white man's culture, separation, independ­ ent economy, and unity of the black man. The Muslim school stresses the values of education, self-respect, hard work, thrift, and group solidarity.

–  –  –

the white man, other Negroes, other minority groups, and themselves.

The Muslim school teaches the same curriculum as that of the public schools. In addition, the Muslim curriculum includes the religious teachings of the Nation of Islam, Arabic language, and special emphasis upon the history of the black man. Girls' classes and boys' classes are taught separately. The Muslim curriculum does not include the fine arts, music and athletics in order to remove from the Muslim students the stigma of the traditional Negro stereotype as an entertainer.

The Muslim school is attempting to establish a rigid moral code for its students. In order to insure the enforcement of the strict moral code, the Muslim school delegates the authority to any Muslim adult to punish Muslim students even by corporal punishment. This measure is intended to combat permissiveness among Muslim children.

The Muslim school is attempting to introduce to its students a new set of customs concerning food, dress, marriage, and funeral ceremonies.

The teaching of a new set of values and attitudes, new religious beliefs, a new language, history of the black man in Asia and Africa, new customs and a new way of life; and the omission of sex education, art, and music are explained as a rejection of the white man's culture. This

–  –  –

Negroes have suffered. It is a process of cultural renewal, a sub-class of cultural revitalization. It is a deliberate attempt by the Muslims to revive among themselves some selected cultural elements and some new habits different from those adopted by the white man in order to reduce stress to a minimum and to form a more satisfying culture.

The Muslim school is attempting to create a new identity for its students by removing the scars of the traditional stereotype by instilling the qualities of neatness, cleanliness, thrift, and hard work.

The school is combating cultural deprivation among its students.

It stresses the value of being black to fight affectional deprivation, teaches the history of the black man and provides black heroes to fight modelperson deprivation, stresses the value of education to fight intellectual deprivation, and provides vocational training for students to fight economic deprivation.

The aims and structure of the Muslim school are intended to introduce new cultural elements and aid in identity development.

Functions of the school include propagating Muslim teachings, introducing new cultural elements, linking the Negro with a proud past, and eliminating the stigma of the traditional Negro stereotype and

–  –  –

In the fields of anthropology, sociology, and psychology, the terms culture and personality have been given numerous and frequently varying definitions. Whatever the definition, most students of human behavior agree that there are profound and complex relationships be­ tween culture, society, and personality.

It is now becoming apparent that the integration between the individual, society, and culture is so close and their interaction so continuous that the investigator who tries to work with any one of them without reference to the other two soon comes to a dead end. 1 In spite of the complex relationships between culture, personality, and society, social scientists are inclined to differentiate between them ana­ lytically for the sake of study. For example, Ely Chinoy notes that "human society cannot exist without culture, and culture exists only within society.

Ralph Linton in his book, The Tree of Culture, differentiates between society, culture and the individual. He refers to society as an ^Ralph Linton, The Cultural Background of Personality, Appleton Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1945, p. 5.

^Ely Chinoy, Society, Random House, New York, 1961, p. 20.

Ralph Linton, The Tree of Culture, Alfred A. Knopf Publishers New York, 1959, pp. 29-35.

organized group of people, and to culture as integrated learned behavior.

This learned behavior refers to the sum total of what is learned by indi­ viduals in a particular society, consciously or unconsciously, by oper­ ation or by imitation, as members of society. Tylor's definition of culture, though it is old, is still cited frequently by most sociologists and anthropologists. "Culture is, as Tylor defines it, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Culture, on the one hand, must provide the individual with know­ ledge and skills necessary to help them solve their problems and guaran­ tee their physical survival. On the other hand, the associated forms of human life provide a satisfactory social atmosphere to meet the individu­ als' psychological needs and to pave the way for developing healthy personalities. As to the individual, Ralph Linton points out that The individual is a living organism capable of independent thought, feeling, and action, but with his independence limited and all his responses profoundly modified by c g n _ tact with the society and culture in which he develops.

In addition, Gottlieb and Brookover maintain that Since nearly all human conduct is either in relation to other persons or is affected by relations with others,

–  –  –

personality is essentially a social phenomenon. As people live in groups and share common experiences, they develop common and mutually expected behavior patterns. These common aspects of the behavior of persons living in a specific society are known as culture. ^ Thus individual identity is strongly influenced by cultural factors.

Margaret Mead states that The child, from its earliest days of life, and very probably prenatally also, begins to learn this culture pattern which is exemplified by every act of those with whom it comes in contact. Technically, the word 'culture, 1 as used by anthropologists, is an abstraction which applies to the entire body of learned behaviors from the humblest and most private act -- the way in which an ox is fed, a sheep sheared, a young girl taught to handle her body modestly when she bathes, which foods may be served together, and to whom -up through the elaboration of artr, literature, music, and philosophy of which each people have been so proud.

Further, Harsh and Schrickel assert:

Culture determines in some degree not only what the individual learns but also the relative significance he attaches to the various forms of behavior he learns.

Thu&i "that which is most central or innermost in the individual is often common to the majority of those sharing the same culture, 1 1 Wilbur B. Brookover and David Gottlieb, A Sociology of Education, American Book Company, New York, 1964, p. 19.

Margaret Mead, "Cross Cultural Approach to the Study of Personality, " Psychology of Personality, J. L. McCary, (ed.), Logos Press, New York, 19567 p. Z05.

^Charles M. Harsh and H. G. Schrickel, Personality Develop­ ment and Assessment, The Ronald Press Co., New York, 1950, p. 345.

^Ibid., p. 344.

since, "the enduring moral, religious, and philosophical beliefs of a person constitute his innermost or 'true 1 self. It is in this manner that culture influences the individual's identity and shapes the individual's personality along the lines prescribed by the society in which he lives.

Since the school is a segment of the society, it contributes in part to the personality development of individuals.

–  –  –

All societies, whether primitive or advanced, perpetuate them­ selves through some process of education. Spindler points out that education is the process of transmitting culture -- "including skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values as well as specific behavioral patterns. ' The school is usually the agency of formal learning. In addition to the school some learning is directed by the family, peer groups, the church, mass media and other agencies. For example, the Manus tribe in the Admiralty Islands do not have schools, books, or teachers, yet their children l&arn the tribe's language, beliefs, customs and traditions through their parents, peer groups, and tribe community. Margaret Mead points out that "the Manus or the Arapesh or the Iatmul adults

–  –  –

^George D. Spindler, "Anthropology and Education: An Over­ view, " Education and Culture, (ed.), Holt, Rinehart and Winston, N. Y., Chicago, San Francisco, Toronto, London, 1963, p. 58.

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