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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Brooks, Katherine Elizabeth Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Views on Collecting: Multiple Meanings and Perspectives

Surrounding Lower Colorado River Yuman Women's Beaded

Capes

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Brooks, Katherine Elizabeth

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 29-Apr-2016 23:52:54 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/338705

VIEWS ON COLLECTING: MULTIPLE MEANINGS AND PERSPECTIVES

SURROUNDING LOWER COLORADO RIVER YUMAN WOMEN’S

BEADED CAPES

by Katherine Elizabeth Brooks __________________________

Copyright © Katherine Elizabeth Brooks 2014 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF AMERICAN INDIAN STUDIES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Katherine Elizabeth Brooks, titled Views on Collecting: Multiple Meanings and Perspectives Surrounding Lower Colorado River Yuman Women’s Beaded Capes, and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Date: November 21, 2014 _______________________________________________________________________

Dr. Richard W. Stoffle Date: November 21, 2014 _______________________________________________________________________

Dr. Ronald L. Trosper Date: November 21, 2014 _______________________________________________________________________

Dr. Maria Nieves Zedeño Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: November 21, 2014 Dissertation Director: Dr. Richard W. Stoffle

–  –  –

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that an accurate acknowledgement of the source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

–  –  –

The completion of this dissertation would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of my professors, family, colleagues, and friends. I have had so many wonderful people guiding me along the way, without their advice I would not have made it this far. I wish to extend my deepest thanks and appreciation to my mentor and dissertation chair, Dr. Richard W. Stoffle, who has encouraged me throughout my studies, stood by me during my doctoral comprehensive exams, supported me through my candidacy, and advised me in making difficult decisions relating to my work, career, and academic matters. The guidance that my dissertation committee members have provided deserves my deepest gratitude. My gratitude extends to Dr. Ronald L. Trosper who has provided me with insight and support throughout my graduate career at the University of Arizona. Finally, my thanks is given to Dr. Maria Nieves Zedeño who has offered guidance over the years, and so willingly stepped up to assist in my hour of need.

This research began with the help of Dr. Nancy J. Parezo and Dr. Candace Green at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. Without the dedication and expertise of Dr. Green and Dr. Parezo I would never have accomplished a project of this magnitude, nor acquired the skills to complete such a task. Many thanks to all of the librarians, archivists, and curators who have so kindly welcomed me into their museum collections; assisted me in finding the materials that I needed; responded to my numerous collections inquiries; and tracked down the whereabouts of elusive beaded items within their museums. I would also like to extend my deepest thanks to the Arizona State Museum, The Arizona Historical Society, National Anthropological Archives, The Museum of Northern Arizona, The Heard Museum, The School of American Research Museum, The Maxwell Museum, The Autry, The Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, Bancroft library, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian, The Denver Art Museum, The Denver Museum of Natural Science, The American Museum of Natural History, The Harvard Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, The Chicago Field Museum, The San Diego Museum of Man, The San Diego Historical Society, and San Bernardino County Museum.





The research and knowledge presented by this dissertation would not have been possible without the help of the Fort Mojave Tribe and Fort Yuma Quechan Tribe. Thank you for helping me to understand the significance that beaded capes hold, and for allowing me to share in the rich, meaningful, cultural traditions that continue to flourish today. I am so fortunate to have been able to get to know expert beadworkers, artisans, and members belonging to such wonderful communities. I would like to thank Joe Scerato, Kim Cameron, Isadora Bricker Evanston, Aida Evanston, Roxanne Hunter, Rachel Andrews, Yolanda Hart Stevens, and many others. Also, I wish to extend my deepest thanks to the Fort Mojave Cultural Department, and the Fort Yuma Quechan Tribe.

–  –  –

LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………….…... 7

Abstract

………………………………………………………………………... 8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...……………………………………………....... 9 1.1: Purpose and Scope of Study ………………………………………………… 11 1.2: Dissertation Outline …………………………………………………………. 15

CHAPTER 2: BACKGROUND ON LOWER COLORADO RIVER YUMAN

SOCIETIES ………………………………...……………………………….…........ 19 2.1: Lower Colorado River Yuman Origins...…………………………...……….. 19 2.2: Cultural Practices ….……………………..………….……………….……..... 21 2.3: Early Spanish Ethnography and Observations ………….………...……….… 24 2.4: Euro-American Ethnography and Observations...…………………………… 28 2.5: Anthropologists and Ethnographers in the 19th and 20th Centuries ………...... 31 CHAPTER 3: MATERIAL CULTURE AND IDENTITY..…….………….….….... 34 3.1: Ethnic Identity Displayed Through Material Culture ……...………………... 34 3.2: The Introduction of the Glass Beaded Cape ….………………………....….. 36 3.3: Function, Style, and Technology Behind Beaded Capes..……….…...……... 40 3.4: Becoming Visual Symbols of Ethnic Identity.....……...………………......… 45 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION ……………........... 50 4.1: Interviews with Contemporary River Yuman Beadworkers ………………… 53

CHAPTER 5: COLLECTION-FORMATION PROCESSES: COLLECTORS AND

BEADED CAPES...…………………………………………………………….…... 58 5.1: American Indian Art and Material Culture …………………………....…….. 58 5.2: Collecting American Indian Art …………………………………….……….. 60 5.3: Collection-Formation Processes and Collecting Practices ………….……….. 62 5.4: Early River Yuman Collections: Edward Palmer, 1869 …………….……….. 66 5.5: Ethnographer: Herman Fredrik Carel ten Kate, 1883...…....……….…….….. 67 5.6: Gifting: Dr. Daniel Dorchester, 1889-1894 ….…….…………………............ 70 5.7: Museum Curator: Herbert E. Brown, 1900...……………………………….... 74 5.8: Anthropologist: Alfred L. Kroeber, 1902-1908...…………………………..... 76 5.9: Personal Collector: George Gustav Heye, 1919..……………………..…....... 83 5.10: Hired Field Collector: Edward Harvey Davis, 1923..…………………...….. 85 5.11: Tourist Acquisition: Trains, Planes, and Automobiles, 1930-1950 ………… 88 5.12: Interpreting Outsider Collecting Practices and Motivations …..……….…… 93

CHAPTER 6: HUNAKCH: RIVER YUMAN VIEWS ON THE MEANING AND

CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF BEADED CAPES ……..……….………...……. 98 6.1: Designs and Symbolism ….………………………………………….….……. 99 6.2: Past Styles as Inspiration ……………………………………………….……. 100 6.3: Hunakch as Ethnic Identifier...……………………………………..……….. 101 6.4: Learning to Produce the Cape ………………………………………………. 103 6.5: Social Norms and Cultural Regulations …………………………………….. 106 6.6: Wearing the Cape …………………………………………………………… 107 6.7: Changing Times and Styles …………………………………………………. 110

CHAPTER 7: BEADED CAPES AND IDENTITY: A TRADITION

CONTINUES …………………………………………………………………….... 116 7.1: Beaded Capes in the 21st Century …….……………………………………. 116 7.2: Explaining the Absence of Beaded Capes in Museum Collections ………... 120 7.3: Conclusion.….……………………………...……...…….………………... 125 APPENDIX A: BEADED CAPE INVENTORY …………....………………….… 130 APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS …………………..….………………. 133 APPENDIX C: PHOTOGRAPH PERMISSION FORMS ………………………... 135

APPENDIX D: INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD RESEARCH

APPROVAL FORM.………………...……………………………………….......... 138 REFERENCES ………………….……………….………………………….....….... 140

–  –  –

FIGURE 1.1: Mojave Beaded Cape …………………………………………….

….. 9 FIGURE 1.2: Map of Lower Colorado River Yuman Traditional Homelands …….. 10 FIGURE 2.1: Netted Capes Worn by Native Baja Califonios by Venegas-Burriel, 1757 ………………………………………………………………………………… 26 FIGURE 3.1: Recently Married Mojave Couple, c. 1900.……………………….... 44 FIGURE 3.2: Beaded Cape Reflecting Rock Art Designs and Ancestral Yuman Rock Art …………………………………………………………………………….. 48 FIGURE 3.3: Drawings of Rock Art Images and Corresponding Cape Designs …... 49 FIGURE 4.1: Map of River Yuman Reservation Lands ……………………………. 54 FIGURE 4.2: Pipa Aha Macav Beadworker with Researcher ………..………..…… 56 FIGURE 4.3: Interview Data …………………………………..………..……..…… 57 FIGURE 5.1: Mojave Beaded Cape, Collected by A. L. Kroeber in 1908 ……….… 81 FIGURE 6.1: Acquisition of Beadworking Skills …………………………….……. 104 FIGURE 6.2: Beadwork Sales Regarding Internal and External Consumption ……. 110 FIGURE 6.3: Beadworker with Beaded Cape..……………………….………….… 113 FIGURE 7.1: Lower Colorado River Yuman Native Royalty …………………….... 119

–  –  –

This study examines the tradition of beaded capes among the Lower Colorado River Yuman groups, with the goal of understanding the meaning and cultural significance that the capes held in the past and continue to hold for those that wear and create them today. Questions posed by this study ask how and to whom do beaded capes hold meaning; and why were the beaded capes overlooked by collectors if they are culturally significant? As a marker of River Yuman identity and artistic expertise, the lack of historic beaded capes that are held within museum collections is surprising, with only twenty-two museums across the United States and Europe housing a composite total of fifty-eight River Yuman beaded capes. This study attempts to answer the proposed questions by conducting interviews with River Yuman beadworkers and community members, regarding their perspectives on the meanings and symbolism presented by beaded capes, and the cultural significance of these items. In contrast, this study examines the views of Euro-American collectors that were collecting beaded capes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries when others were not. An understanding of outsider perspectives and motivation for collecting beaded capes is achieved through analysis of collector’s field notes, journals, and museum accession files. Combining ethnography, archival research, and museum collections-based research, this study seeks to present a more detailed understanding of the River Yuman beaded cape as a marker of gender and ethnic identity. This research addresses the existing voids in knowledge about the cultural significance that the beaded capes hold for Quechan and Pipa Aha Macav people, and introduces that information to outsiders, creating a record of the views of River Yuman community members on the contemporary meanings that the beaded capes hold.

–  –  –



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