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MERGING AND DIVERGING
THE CHRONICLER'S INTEGRATION OF MATERIAL FROM
KINGS, ISAIAH, AND JEREMIAH IN THE NARRATIVES OF
HEZEKIAH AND THE FALL OF JUDAH
A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of PhD
University of St Andrews
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MERGING AND DIVERGINGThe Chronicler’s Integration of Material from Kings, Isaiah, and Jeremiah in the Narratives of Hezekiah and the Fall of Judah A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Divinity In fulfilment of the requirements For the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
AMBER WARHURSTSt Mary’s College University of St Andrews St Andrews, Scotland March 2011 ii
I, Amber Warhurst, hereby certify that this thesis, which is approximately 73,000 words in length, has been written by me, that it is the record of work carried out by me, and that it has not been submitted in any previous application for a higher degree.
Date Signature of Candidate I was admitted as a research student in September, 2005 and as a candidate for the degree of PhD in August, 2006; the higher study for which this is a record was carried out in the University of St Andrews between 2005 and 2010.
Date Signature of Candidate I hereby certify that the candidate has fulfilled the conditions of the Resolution and Regulations appropriate for the degree of PhD in the University of St Andrews and that the candidate is qualified to submit this thesis in application for that degree.
2010 Signature of Supervisor
In submitting this thesis to the University of St Andrews we understand that we are giving permission for it to be made available for use in accordance with the regulations of the University Library for the time being in force, subject to any copyright vested in the work not being affected thereby. We also understand that the title and the
will be published, and that a copy of the work may be made and supplied to any bona fide library or research worker, that my thesis will be electronically accessible for personal or research use unless exempt by award of an embargo as requested below, and that the library has the right to migrate my thesis into new electronic forms as required to ensure continued access to the thesis. We have obtained any third-party copyright permissions that may be required in order to allow such access and migration, or have requested the appropriate embargo below.
The following is an agreed request by candidate and supervisor regarding the
electronic publication of this thesis:
Access to all of printed copy but embargo of all of electronic publication of thesis for a period of 2 years on the following ground: publication would preclude future publication.
Date 19 May 2011 Signature of Candidate
St Andrews, Scotland has provided an ideal setting for the research and writing of this thesis, primarily because of the many communities which have nurtured me academically, relationally, and spiritually during the process.
The staff and faculty of St Mary‟s College have greatly influenced the scope of this project as well as my perspectives on pedagogy and issues related to my discipline. I am grateful for the organization of seminars, teaching and tutoring opportunities, availability of the faculty for formal and informal consultation, efficiency of the administrative staff, and generous provision of study space, library acquisitions, and research support which have made this time in my life enjoyable as well as academically constructive.
Principally, this thesis has benefited from the gracious supervision of several remarkable scholars. Prof Christopher Seitz provided the impetus to come to the University of St Andrews and nurtured this project through his own insight and enthusiasm for the subject. Dr Mark Elliot and Prof Kristin De Troyer offered their expertise, suggestions, and encouragement at crucial points in my research. Above all, I am grateful for Dr Nathan MacDonald who faithfully supervised the project through to its completion, offering indispensable support and insight at every turn. I am deeply honoured to be his pupil.
During this time in St Andrews, the students and families connected to St Mary‟s College and All Saints Episcopal Church have been a remarkable source of joy and companionship. These friendships will, no doubt, be for life. I am especially thankful for the camaraderie of my fellow Old Testament/Hebrew Bible colleagues, above all, Daniel Driver and Tim Stone who have been generous sounding boards and sharpening stones. This experience would have been greatly impoverished without the prayer support and companionship of Mariam Kamell and Gisela Kreglinger as we journeyed together in the PhD.
I am indebted to the many people who have read this thesis and have contributed their critical feedback in order to encourage me toward more careful scholarship and clearer communication: Marcia Hornok, Esther Hayden, Dr Ingrid Hjelm, Dr Bill Tooman, Dr John Jarick, and Dr Paul Warhurst.
Were it not for the encouragement of my dear friends at the former Salt Lake Theological Seminary, I would not have undertaken or completed this project. They cheered me on, prayed for me, discussed my work with me, flew me home, and supported me financially. Of that community, Tom McClenahan deserves particular mention for his friendship and mentorship.
My family has unconditionally loved me, financially supported me, agreed against their will to let me live so far away, and feigned interest in my research. Most of all, they have nurtured my love for Biblical Studies through their own faith and dedication to Scripture.
vi The gestation of this thesis has been accompanied by two pregnancies. Though they are not aware of how rich they have made my life, I am thankful for my children who have brought levity, balance, and patience to this research experience. Thank you, Ruby Joy, for making me smile multiple times each day and for being such a good sleeper and letting me work. Thank you, Margot Grace for giving me something to look forward to and for staying inside until after this thesis was submitted!
Above all, I am grateful to my dear and loving husband, Paul, who is the real hero of this time in my life. He never ceased to believe in me and graced me often with words of affirmation and wisdom in spite of my own self-doubts; he eagerly listened to my ideas, read my work, and dialogued with me about the details of my project. Most of all, he prayed for me and loved me without reservation; all of this while working parttime to support our family, being an exceptional husband and father, and undertaking PhD research and writing of his own. It is to him that this thesis is affectionately dedicated.
AB Anchor Bible ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary, David Noel Freedman (ed.) AJBI Annual of the Japanese Biblical Institute AJSL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures AnBib Analecta biblica. Investigationes Scientificae in Res Biblicas ATD Das Alte Testament Deutsch ATM Altes Testament und Moderne ATR Anglican Theological Review BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BAT Botschaft des Alten Testaments BBB Bonner biblische Beiträge BEATAJ Beiträge zur Erforschung des Alten Testaments und des antiken Judentums BET Beiträge zur biblischen Exegese und Theologie BETL Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium Bib Biblica BIS Biblical Interpretation Series BJRL Bulletin of the John Rylands Library BJS Brown Judaic Studies BKAT Biblischer Kommentar Altes Testament BN Biblische Notizen BO Bibliotheca orientalis BSac Bibliotheca Sacra BTB Biblical Theology Bulletin BWANT Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament BZ Biblische Zeitschrift BZAW Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly ConBOT Coniectanea Biblica Old Testament Series CSBS Canadian Society of Biblical Studies/Sociéte canadienne des Études bibliques Bulletin CTM Concordia Theological Monthly CurBS Currents in Research: Biblical Studies DBSup Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplément DSS Dead Sea Scrolls DtrH Deuteronomistic History EH Europäische Hochschulschriften ESHM European Seminar in Historical Methodology ET Eglise et Theologie EV English Version ExpTim Expository Times FAT Forschungen zum Alten Testament FOTL Forms of the Old Testament Literature FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testament FzB Forschung zur Bibel xi HAR Hebrew Annual Review HAT Handbuch zum Alten Testament HBS Herders Biblische Studien HBT Horizons in Biblical Theology HCOT Historical Commentary on the Old Testament HKAT Handkommentar zum Alten Testament HS Hebrew Studies HSM Harvard Semitic Monographs HTR Harvard Theological Review IBS Irish Biblical Studies ICC International Critical Commentary Int Interpretation JETS Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society JBL Journal of Biblical Literature JHS Journal of Hebrew Scriptures JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies JPSTC The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary JQR Jewish Quarterly Review JSP Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha JSS Journal of Semitic Studies JSOT Journal for the Study of the Old Testament JSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series JSPSup Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha: Supplement Series JTS Journal of Theological Studies KHAT Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament LHBOTS Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies (Formerly JSOTSup) LXX Septuagint MT Masoretic Text NCB The New Century Bible Commentary NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament NEB New English Bible The New Interpreter’s Bible, Leander E. Keck, et al (ed.) NIB OBO Orbis biblicus et orientalis OBT Overtures in Biblical Theology OTG Old Testament Guides OTL Old Testament Library OTS Oudtestamentische Studiën PAAJR Proceedings of the American Academy of Jewish Research PFES Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society PIA Publications of the Institute of Archaeology RB Revue Biblique Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses RHPR RSR Recherche de science religieuse RTP Revue de théologie et de philosophie SBEC Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity SBL Society of Biblical Literature SBLDS Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series SBLMS Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series SBLSP Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers SBS Stuttgarter Bibelstudien xii SBT Studies in Biblical Theology SHCANE Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East SJOT Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament SNTSMS Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series SOTSMS Society for Old Testament Study Monograph Series SR Studies in Religion SSN Studia Semitica Neerlandica STT Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia, Sarja B StTh Studia Theologica TOTC Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries TynBul Tyndale Bulletin TZ Theologische Zeitschrift USQR Union Seminary Quarterly Review VT Vetus Testamentum VTSup Supplements to Vetus Testamentum WBC Word Biblical Commentary WMANT Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament WTJ Westminster Theological Journal ZAW Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft ZTK Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche
In the late fourth century, Saint Jerome affirmed the importance of the book of Chronicles within the Hebrew Bible, stating: “Whoever claims to know Scripture without having knowledge of Chronicles, would make himself a laughingstock.” 1 Avrom Saltman, in his Introduction to Stephen Langton‟s Commentary on the Book of Chronicles, offers this rejoinder to Jerome‟s oft repeated dictum: “Anyone who claims to know Chronicles without having a thorough knowledge of Scripture would be making an even bigger fool of himself, for least of all books of the Bible can it be studied in isolation.”2 This observation stresses the importance of reading Chronicles as one voice within a collection of scriptural witnesses, a quality which is accentuated by the density of verbal, structural, and thematic overlap, including, at times, extensive and verbatim repetition, between Chronicles and other portions of the Hebrew Bible.