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«Marc van der Meer Arbeitsbereich I / Nr. 18 Mannheim 1997 ISSN 0948-0072 Arbeitspapiere Marc van der Meer Trade Union Development in Spain Past ...»

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Working papers

Trade Union Development in Spain

Past Legacies and Current Trends

Marc van der Meer

Arbeitsbereich I / Nr. 18

Mannheim 1997

ISSN 0948-0072

Arbeitspapiere

Marc van der Meer

Trade Union Development in Spain

Past Legacies and Current Trends

Marc van der Meer:

Trade Union Development in Spain : Past Legacies and Current

Trends.

Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung (MZES).

Mannheim, 1997 ( revised version).

(Arbeitspapiere Arbeitsbereich I / 18) ISSN 0948-0072 Deckblattlayout: Uwe Freund Nicht im Buchhandel erhältlich

Schutzgebühr: DM 5,-Bezug:

Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung (MZES), Postfach, 68131 Mannheim

Redaktionelle Notiz:

Marc van der Meer studierte Volkswirtschaft und Soziologie an den Universitäten Tilburg, Amsterdam und Madrid; er ist Forscher an der "Amsterdam School for Social Science Research" der Universität von Amsterdam, wo er zur Zeit seine Doktorarbeit (Ph.D.) über die holländischen und spanischen Baubranchen abschließt.

Das Arbeitspapier ist ein Teilergebnis des internationalen Forschungsprojektes "The Development of Trade Unions in Western Europe", das vom Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung (MZES) koordiniert und unterstützt wurde.

Editorial Note:

Marc van der Meer studied economics and sociology in Tilburg, Amsterdam and Madrid;

he is currently researcher at the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research of the University of Amsterdam, finishing his Ph.D. thesis on the Dutch and Spanish building industries.

This working paper is part of the results from the international project on "The Development of Trade Unions in Western Europe (DUES)", which was coordinated and supported by the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES).

Contents Abbreviations

Introduction

I. A historical overview of labour relations in Spain

II. Union Development and Union Movements

III. Trade Union Structure

IV. Union Membership and Density

V. Works council elections

VI. Interpretation and explanation of union strength.

Bibliography

Abstract This paper provides an overview over the historical development of the Spanish labour movement from 1870 to 1995. The Appendix presents comprehensive data on union membership, density rates, works council elections, and mobilising capacities of Spanish unions. The rise of union organisation in Spain was hesitant and uneven. Under the long Franc-Dictatorship free trade unions were suppressed, though since the 1950s semiclandestine trade unions emerged on a local or regional basis, partly in fusion with works councils. Since 1975 a new and complex pattern of trade union organisation emerged, fostered by the democratic legislation. The paper provides union membership data from 1981 until 1995 which recently became available from CC.OO, UGT, ELA.STV, USO and CSI-CSIF. The author also develops a hurdle model to enhance the theoretical debate on the current situation of the Spanish union movement. The model helps to understand the current low - though increasing - membership record of Spanish unions, given the structural dilemma they face in the labour market.

Zusammenfassung Dieses Arbeitspapier gibt einen Überblick über die historische Entwicklung der Arbeiterbewegung in Spanien von 1870 bis 1995. Im Anhang werden umfassende Daten zur Mitglieder- und Organisationsgradentwicklung, den Betriebsratswahlen und den Mobilisierungskapazitäten der spanischen Gewerkschaften zugänglich gemacht. Der Weg der Gewerkschaftsbewegung in Spanien war zögerlich und ungleichmäßig. Unter der Diktatur Francos wurden freie Gewerkschaften unterdrücktt, jedoch entstanden seit den 50er Jahren halb im Verborgenen Arbeiterorganisationen auf lokaler oder regionaler Ebene, die teilweise in den Betriebsräten aufgingen. Seit 1975 entstand eine neue, jedoch auch komplexere Gewerkschaftsstruktur, die durch die demokratische Gesetzgebung unterstützt wurde. Das Arbeitspapier dokumentiert im besonderen neue Mitgliedsdaten von 1981 bis 1995, die für CC.OO, UGT, ELA.STV, USO und CSI-CSIF zugänglich wurden. Der Autor entwickelt ein Stufenmodell zur theoretischen Auseinandersetzung mit der gegenwärtigen Lage der spanischen Gewerkschaftsbewegung. Das Modell trägt zum Verständnis der gegenwärtigen niedrigen, jedoch steigenden Mitgliedschaftsmobilisierung der spanischen Gewerkschaften bei, die vor einem strukturellen Dilemma auf dem Arbeitsmarkt stehen.

Abbreviations ANPE: Asociación Nacional de Profesionales de la Enseñanza, National Association of Professionels in Education.

BEL: Boletín de Estadísticas Laborales, Bulletin of Labour Statistics CC.OO: Comisiones Obreras, Workers' Commissions CEOE: Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales, Spanish Confederation of Employers' Organizations CEPYME: Confederación Española de Pequeña y Mediana Empresa, Spanish Confederation of Small and Mediumsized Enterprises.

CES: Consejo Económico y Social, Economic and Social Council CIG: Confederación Intersindical Gallega, Galician Interunion Confederation CIS: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas: Center for Social Reserach CNT: Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, National Confederation of Labour CONC: Comisiones Obreras Nacional de Cataluña, National Workers' Commissions of Catalonia.





COS: Co-ordinadora de Organizaciones Sindicales, Co-ordination of Trade Union Organizations CGT: Confederación General del Trabajo, General Confederation of Labour CGTU: Confederación General de Trabajo Unitaria, General Unitarian Confederation of Labour CSI-CSIF: Confederación de Sindicatos Independientes; Confederación de Sindicatos Independientes de Funcionarios, Confederation of Independent Trade Unions; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Public Servants.

CXTG: Confederación General de Trabajadores Gallegos, General Confederation of Galician Workers EBCC: Estructura, Biografia y Conciencia de Clase; Structure, biography and class conciousness EIRR: European Industrial Relations Review ELA.STV: Euzko Languillen Alkartasuna. Sindicato de Trabajadores Vascos, Trade Union of Basque Workers EPA: Enquesta de Población Activa, Survey of Active Labour Force ETUC: European Trade Union Congress FAI: Federación Anarquista Ibérica, Iberian Anarchist Federation FNTT: Federación Nacional de los Trabajadores de la Tierra, National Federation of Agrarian Workers FRE: Federación Obrera Regional Española, Spanish Regional Workers' Federation FTN: Fomento de Trabajo Nacional, Promotion of National Labour FTRE: Federación de Trabajadores de la Región Española, Workers' Federation of the Spanish Region.

ICFTU: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions INEM: Instituto National del Empleo, National Institute for Employment INI: Instituto National de Industria, National Institute for Industry Insalud: Instituto National de Salud, National Health Institute INTG: Intersindical Nacional de Trabajadores Gallegos, Nationalist Trade Union of Galician Workers IU: Izquierda Unida, United Left JONS: Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Socialista, Boards of the National Socialist Offensive LAB: Langille Abertzale Batzordeak, Basque Workers' Assembly MTSS: Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Ministry of Labour and Social Security, since 1996 Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OSE: Organización Sindical Española, Spanish Syndical Organization PCE: Partido Comunista Española, Spanish Communist Party PSOE: Partido Socialista Obrero Español, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party.

PP: Partido Popular, People’s Party SATSE: Sindicato de Enfermería, Trade Union of Nurses SEMAF: Sindicato Español de Maquinistas y Ayudantes Ferrovarias, Spanish Trade Union of Rail Drivers and Helpers SEMS: Sindicato de Medicos, Trade Union of Doctors SOC: Solidaridad de Obreros Catalanes, Solidarity of Catalan Workers SOC: Sindicato de Obreros de Campo, Trade Union of Agrarian Labourers SU: Sindicato Unitario, Unitarian Trade Union SUP: Sindicato Unificado de Policía, United Trade Union of the Police UCD: Unión de Centro Democrático, Central Democratic Union UGT: Unión General de Trabajadores, General Workers' Confederation USO: Unión Sindical Obrera, Workers' Union Introduction This paper provides an overview of Spanish trade union development, giving special attention to questions of organization and membership evolution.1 Deep regional, ideological and political cleavages have marked Spanish unionism, but also the economic structure has led to the weak level of organization. Spanish trade unionism until the civil war (1936-1939) was characterized by fragile organization, deep ideological divisions whether should be relied on moderate institutional participation or on revolutionary strategies of direct action. The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and the following authoritarian Franco-dictatorship (1939-1975) made the development of Spanish trade unions unlike other European countries. During the state-corporatist period free trade unions were suppressed, though in the 1950s and 1960s semi-clandestine trade union organizations emerged on a local or regional basis, partly in combination with works councils.

In the transition to democracy in the immediate post-Franco period, union membership soared and a new legal statute of free worker representation through unions and councils was achieved. In the early 1980s the major trade unions were able to strengthen their position due to the practice of social concertation. According to survey research, union support declined after a membership peak in 1978.

Spanish unions were divided by ideological and political alignments, and there were persistent regional variations and differences between large and small companies. However, in recent years a rapprochement of the main union movements occured after the social concertation subsided at a time of massive and persistent unemployment and efforts to flexibilize labor law. As will be seen, trade union density is still low, but has changed in composition and has risen considerably since the early and especially the mid-1980s.

The paper has three aims. First an overview of the historical development of Spanish union strength will be given, with as far as possible, attention to union density developments, workplace coverage, cohesion of the labour movement, mobilizing capacities and institutional participation. Secondly, existing figures on dues paying membership will be provided. In contrast to other Western European countries, these data are only partly available, nevertheless a new, recently available time series will be provided for UGT and CC.OO for regions and federations for the period 1981-1994 (see Appendix). In addition, as far as possible new data will be given for the unions USO, CSI-CSIF and ELA.STV. Thirdly, an interpretation and explanation of the current trade union strength will be proposed.

I. A historical overview of labour relations in Spain

1. Early Labour Relations until 1936 Spanish trade unionism in its formative period is characterised by deep political and ideological divisions, fragile organization, sustained regional differences and a conflict between enduring ideology of revolutionary action and reformist practice. Until the Civil War (1936-39), Spanish worker organizations were divided along two major cleavages, regional variation existed between urban-industrial and rural-agricultural areas, and ideological variation between anarchist and 1 This paper is part of a research project on the "Development of Trade Unions in Western Europe" (DUES) at the University of Mannheim, co-ordinated by Bernhard Ebbinghaus and Jelle Visser (forthcoming). The research on Spain is part of a study programme on interest formation, collective bargaining, and wage setting, with respect to job creation and skill formation in the Netherlands and Spain, which is currently conducted by the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research at the University of Amsterdam. Research for this study began in Amsterdam, whereas most of the fieldwork was conducted in Spring 1995 during a stay at the Fundación Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones in Madrid. The author is indepted to the Juan March Institute for its hospitality, to Joost Heys for help with data selection and to Javier Astudillo, Katrin Burgess, Justin Byrne, Bernhard Ebbinghaus, Joaquin Fernández Castro, Carlos Prieto, Andrew Richards and Jelle Visser for their comments on an earlier draft of this working paper. The paper, however, is under the sole responsibility of the author.

socialist orientations. The process of industrialization was spreading hesitantly and unevenly across the country. A labour proletariat emerged, mainly in the Catalan cities where textile manufacturing emerged since 1825, in the Basque steal and iron industries and in the Asturian mines in the second half of the 19th century. Around 1900 the extractive industries, textiles and railways accounted for just 25% of the industrial sector, which was dominated by arts, craft and building trades organized in small and medium-sized workshops (Castillo, 1990). In 1900, only 14% of the economically active population were employed in industry; almost 70% worked in agriculture, which was partly dominated by latifundia in the Andalusian and Castilian areas, where the agrarian question still dominated the public debate (Beligno, 1986). Illiteracy and poverty were widespread and hampered both the development of durable trade union organizations and a larger electoral turnout for the left.

Moreover, economic development was slow due to the lack of an efficient transport infrastructure, the extreme climate and different soil characteristics on the Iberian Peninsula. In 1920 the employment share of industry had risen to 21%, in 1940 to 25%, albeit agriculture remained the largest sector (56% in 1920 and 51% in 1940) (Mitchell 1980: table C1, p. 169).



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