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«Titel der Masterarbeit „Projeto Brasil Potência: Brazil and the contest for global power since 1946“ Verfasser Edgar Federzoni dos Santos ...»

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MASTERARBEIT

Titel der Masterarbeit

„Projeto Brasil Potência: Brazil and the contest for

global power since 1946“

Verfasser

Edgar Federzoni dos Santos

angestrebter akademischer Grad

Master (MA)

Wien, 2013

Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: A 067 805

Studienrichtung lt. Studienblatt: Individuelles Masterstudium:

Global Studies – a European Perspective

Betreuerin / Betreuer: Doz. Dr. Johann Wimmer

MASTERARBEIT / MASTER THESIS

Titel der Masterarbeit /Title of the master thesis Projeto Brasil Potência: Brazil and the contest for global power since 1946 Verfasser /Author Edgar Federzoni dos Santos angestrebter akademischer Grad / acadamic degree aspired Master (MA) Wien, 2013 Studienkennzahl : A 067 805

Studienrichtung: Individuelles Masterstudium:

Global Studies – a European Perspective Betreuer/Supervisor: Doz. Dr. Johann Wimmer

ABSTRACT

This thesis seeks to better understand endogenous specificities and peculiarities of the Brazilian foreign policy on the pursuit of international power. It is remarkable that the country does not afford the traditional means, namely military puissance and economic strength, at the expected level to claim being an international influential in the modern Western world. Such a fact poses myriad problems to several of the relevant approaches in International Relations, Economics and Globalization theories, be they classic or contemporary. Brazil can hence be seen as an anomalous case of emergent power, even different from the other BRIC countries, which conversely possess salient continuous growth, sophisticated military apparatuses, and even nuclear weapons.

Brazil has been trying throughout the entire republican history to channel its given natural richness, relevant population and territorial sizes into exerting more power and having active voice in international decision-making. Nonetheless, it was only after the World War II that the country initiated comprehensive political strategies to engage in a state-led modernization process, aiming at world noteworthiness. Thus this work draws upon Brazil and the contest for global power, comparing the milestones from 1946 to 1991 and from 1992 to 2010. The second period marks a turning point when the country actually reaches many of its goals. At last, the purpose is to trace and identify the sources of effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the policies established on the course of time.

In sum, the ultimate conclusion which I dedicate to conceive in this thesis is the gauging of eventual presence of elements from the Brazilian history that contribute to the knowledge of powerbuilding. In other words, the questions herein posed are whether or not Brazil holds new sources of capabilities in international relations, and, if so, how they impact global order.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Diese Arbeit untersucht die endogenen Charakteristika und Besonderheiten brasilianischer Außenpolitik beim Streben nach internationaler Macht. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass der Staat nicht den traditionellen Weg, d.h. militärische Macht und ökonomische Stärke, verfolgt um einen Platz zu beanspruchen als international einflussreiche Größe in der modernen westlichen Welt. Diese Tatsache stellt viele der gängigen Ansätze der Internationalen Beziehungen, VWL und Globalisierungstheorien, egal ob klassisch oder zeitgenössisch, vor vielfältige Probleme. Brasilien kann folglich als Anomalie einer aufsteigenden Macht gesehen werden, die sich von anderen BRIC Staaten mit ihrem hohem Wirtschaftswachstum, fortgeschrittenen Militärapparaten und sogar Nuklearbewaffnung unterscheidet.

Brasilien versuchte während der gesamten Zeit als Republik die natürlichen Reichtümer (wie Bevölkerungsstärke und Landesgröße) zur Ausübung von Macht und Einfluss in internationalen Entscheidungen zu nutzen. Trotzdem gelang es dem Land erst nach dem 2. Weltkrieg politische Strategien zu entwickeln die zu einem staatlich gelenktem Modernisierungsprozess führten, welcher darauf gerichtet war die internationale Bedeutung Brasiliens zu erhöhen. Dem folgend wird die vorliegende Arbeit Brasiliens Wettbewerb um globale Macht nachzeichnen und die historisch signifikanten Perioden von 1946-1991 und 1992-2010 vergleichen. Die zweite Phase markiert dabei den Wendepunkt an dem das Land zum ersten Mal etliche die angestrebten Ziele erreicht. Die Arbeit wird Brasiliens gewählten politischen Strategien auf ihre Effektivität, bzw. Ineffektivität analysieren und durch die Zeit verfolgen.

Zusammenfassend ist diese Arbeit bemüht die historischen Elemente der Machtsteigerung Brasiliens zu untersuchen, um so einen akademischen Beitrag zur Erforschung der Frage der Machtgenerierung in den Internationalen Beziehungen zu leisten. In anderen Worten stellt diese Arbeit die Frage ob Brasilien neue Formen der Einflussmöglichkeit in ihren internationalen Beziehungen entfaltet und falls dies zutrifft, welchen Einfluss diese auf die bestehende Weltordnung nehmen.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1. CHAPTER 1

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Background

1.3. Considerations on the Brazilian economic process of modernization





1.4. Brazilian state-directed development

1.5. Brazilian development and state power mutual impacts

1.6. Conclusion

2. CHAPTER 2

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Historical background and the Itamaraty’s approach

2.3. Case studies 2.3.1. United Nations and multilateral relations

2.3.2. Relations between Brazil and the United States

2.3.3. Relations between Brazil and Latin America

2.3.4. Relations between Brazil and Germany

2.4. Conclusion

3. CHAPTER 3

3.1. Introduction

3.2. New clothing for some old ideas

3.3. Institutions

3.4. Hegemony

3.5. New strategies for a new era

CONCLUSION

4.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

–  –  –

Global governance has been mushrooming into one of the most common terms in current economic and political debates. Along with it comes the equally cliché term BRIC, which is composed of countries purportedly predestined to be among the major players of new international order, if not already. Brazil is among these select few. More than ever, large territory and population lead to greater economic and political clout, and thus, countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China have momentum to consolidate their ability to influence the international system. This chapter seeks to focus on the Brazilian development by analyzing how the state has interacted with other agents to make its voice heard internationally. However, to understand the current tools that Brazil has to continue in this direction, it is required to first look at its history as far back as post-World War II. Over the period studied between the 1940s and the 1980s, Brazil had, for the first time, begun a public national(istic) plan to develop itself into a powerhouse. The results and side effects of the policies of this time span will vigorously influence the current Brazilian project to become a global player. In sum, the questions to be answered in this chapter are the following: Has the state-directed economic development from the 1940s to the 1980s created new sources of power? How has this policy contributed to Brazil’s role as an international actor?

This thesis seeks to better understand endogenous specificities and peculiarities of the Brazilian foreign policy on the pursuit of international power. It is remarkable that the country does not afford the traditional means, namely military puissance and economic strength, at the expected level to claim being an international influential in the modern Western world. Such a fact poses myriad problems to several of the relevant approaches in International Relations, Economics and Globalization theories, be they classic or contemporary. Brazil can hence be seen as an anomalous case of emergent power, even different from the other BRIC countries, which conversely possess salient continuous growth, sophisticated military apparatuses, and even nuclear weapons.

–  –  –

richness, relevant population and territorial sizes into exerting more power and having active voice in international decision-making. Nonetheless, it was only after the World War II that the country initiated comprehensive political strategies to engage in a state-led modernization process, aiming at world noteworthiness. Thus this work draws upon Brazil and the contest for global power, comparing the milestones from 1946 to 1991 and from 1992 to 2010. The second period marks a turning point when the country actually reaches many of its goals. At last, the purpose is to trace and identify the sources of effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the policies established on the course of time.

In sum, the ultimate conclusion which I dedicate to conceive in this thesis is the gauging of eventual presence of elements from the Brazilian history that contribute to the knowledge of power-building. In other words, the questions herein posed are whether or not Brazil holds new sources of capabilities in international relations, and, if so, how they impact global order.

Over the last two decades or so, a wave of optimism flooded Brazilian scholarship, public opinion and politics. Economic and political stabilities, strong economic growth, and honorific foreign titles, such as being a BRIC country, resulted in several pieces of research discussing how the Global South would overthrow the traditional powers in the near future. Many other works drew upon interconnectedness among these select few emergent countries. Often, works were conducted to assess the rise of China and the demise of the United States as we know it today.

Nevertheless, very little research was conducted aiming to understand what “overthrow” means or what the path is that our “autonomy” pursuit has been taking and to think critically whether the current situation in Brazil is exactly the way it is being largely put by many scholars or if Brazil is not so much overcoming the status quo as one may think. It is then important to create new knowledge on Brazilian impact in the world and on the suitability of its choices toward being a powerhouse.

–  –  –

Historical economic development from 1946 to the 1980s. The strategies and policies established in this period tell us much about Brazilian understanding on what should be pivotal for development and international recognition. This first chapter will explain the paths towards power backed on economics and steered by the hands of the state; 2) Multi and bilateral relations with Brazil during the Cold War Period. The second chapter will deal with a different front, namely direct international politics. Commercial, technical, cultural and political agreements have served many purposes, amongst which the escalation of power and autonomy that the Brazilian state believed have the right to have before a very unbalanced and unpleasant international decision-making; 3) Comparison with the post Cold War era. This last chapter will present the same layers of a state previously studied (economics, politics and international relations), but showing their fundamental operating and philosophical changes after 1991. It will be important to understand remarkable lurches and alterations on the pattern of effectiveness of Brazilian power politics. Therefore, the third chapter will pave the way for the conclusion of this thesis, which seeks to identify the contributions Brazil posed on the knowledge of power development beyond prediction of mainstream theories. Provided that each chapter will discuss different areas of knowledge, they will have their own specific methodology described in the respective introductory sections.

–  –  –

When one studies social sciences, analyzes current international conjunctures or simply reads newspapers, it is noticeable that the international system environment looks different from the one of some decades ago. If on the one hand this statement does not constitute itself in a valid argument because history is always an endless changing process, on the other hand, such changes are never entirely by accident. Many recent studies point to the fact that there is a shift of the center of power from the US, Europe and Japan towards former peripheral countries and mainly towards the BRICs1. If seen separately, some countries possess classic attributes that explain, at least in part, their growing importance. No one must be a specialist to conclude that the Chinese economic development has taken it to a different stage of importance in the last two decades. Also the size and technology of its Armed Forces catch the eyes of any traditional international relations analyst; technological islands of excellence and nuclear weapons coupled with fast economic growth make the Indian case not so different from the one of China; and Russia is not a young player in this game either. Russia has played an important role since the 17th century under the imperial expansion of Tsar Peter, the Great and, across the ages, the only period it had its global prominence drastically diminished was right after the collapse of the USSR. More recently in its economic recovery linked to its oil resources and its remaining nuclear weapons arsenals, Russia has been put back in an impacting position; However, Brazil is a case apart. Obviously the aforementioned factors are not the only ones posing a shift; it has also to do with other internal factors, historical reasons and with specific internal phenomena occurring within these classic powerhouses. Nevertheless the economic and military aspects are present, at

–  –  –

attention to this.

To the eyes of traditional or even conservative thoughts, Brazil has an anomalous shape.



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