«Coriandrum sativum Linn. Review Padmaa M Paarakh* * Department of Pharmacognosy, The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 078, Karnataka, India ...»
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh
Coriandrum sativum Linn.-- Review
Padmaa M Paarakh*
* Department of Pharmacognosy, The Oxford College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 078,
Coriandrum sativum Linn (Dhanyaka; Apiaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout
India and popular in various Indigenous System of Medicine like Ayurveda, and Siddha. In the
Traditional System of Medicine, the fruits are used as astringent, aromatic, anthelmintic, emollient, anti-inflammatory, stomachic, carminative, antibilious, digestive, appetizer, constipating, diuretic, antipyretic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, anodyne, dyspepsia etc. The present review is therefore an effort to give a detailed literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Coriandrum sativum.
Key words: Coriandrum sativum, dhanyaka, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, review.
Correspondence Author Dr. Padmaa M Paarakh Department of Pharmacognosy The Oxford College of Pharmacy J P Nagar, I.Phase Bangalore 560 078 email@example.com Mobile: 09880681532 Introduction Coriandrum sativum Linn is an aromatic herbaceous annual herb distributed and cultivated all over India1, 2. In the traditional system of medicine, the fruits are used as astringent, aromatic, anthelmintic, emollient, anti-inflammatory, stomachic, carminative, antibilious, digestive, appetizer, constipating, diuretic, antipyretic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, anodyne, dyspepsia3 etc. The aim of present review is to highlight the traditional uses, pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation carried out on the plant so that more pharmacological studies could be conducted to investigate the unexploited potential.
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh Plant Profile Coriandrum sativum Linn (Apiaceae) commonly known as Dhanyaka, is an aromatic herb, is extensively grown in India. It is cultivated in all states and is an important subsidiary crop in black cotton soils of Deccan, South India and North India4,5,6.
Taxonomical/ Scientific Classification7 Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Angiosperm Division: Eudicot Class: Asterid Order: Apiales Family: Apiaceae Genus: Coriandrum Species: sativum Classical Names7 Dhanyaka, Dhanaka, Dhana, Kunati, Chhattra, Dhaneya, Kustumburu, Kotimira.
Botanical Description Annual herb about 30-90 cm tall. Leaves: pinnately or ternately decompound, lower ones long petioled and upper ones short petioled. Flower: small, white or pinkish purple in compound terminal umbels. Fruit: yellowish brown globose, 4-5 mm in diameter, ribbed, separating into two halves. Seeds: compressed8,9,10,11.
Climate, Soil and Propagation It is generally cultivated on black soil and rich silt loam, seeds are grown in cold season and in Western region in monsoon. Germination starts after 10 to 25 days after sowing the fruits halves and the plant is ready for harvest within 3-4 months time12,13. The in vitro developed coriander flowers on SH medium using different concentration of NAA and GA3 were of high genetic purity14,15.
Pharmacognostical Studies Macroscopical Characteristics Fruit: They are small subglobose, glabrous, schizocarp, about 5 mm in diameter, splitting into two hemispherical mericarps. Each mericarp has 5 wavy, rather inconspicuous, primary ridges alternating with 4 more prominent secondary ridges. Seed is convexo-concave, about thrice as broad as thick; odor: aromatic; taste: spicy16,17.
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh Microscopical and Powder Characteristics Transverse section of fruit shows pericarp with outer epidermis having slightly thickened wall with stomata and prisms of calcium oxalate. Outer layer of mesocarp is parenchymatous with inner cells in wavy longitudinal rows. Middle layer of mesocarp is sclerenchymatous forming thick layer of fusiform, pitted cells, layers often crossing at right angles with definite longitudinal strands in the secondary ridges. Inner cells of mesocarp are large, hexagonal with thin lignified walls. Inner epidermis of very narrow thin-walled cells with slightly sinuous anticlinal wall showing paraquetry arrangement; two or rarely more normal vittae occurring on commissural side of each mesocarp containing volatile oil. Endosperm is composed of thick walled cellulosic parenchyma containing fixed oil, numerous aleurone grains, and micro-rosettes of calcium oxalate. Carpophore consists of fibers surrounded by spiral vessels18,19.
The powder microscopy of fruit powder shows epidermal cells of pericarp with prisms of calcium oxalate, masses of sclerenchymatous cells, large tubular hexagonal sclerenchymatous cells of endocarp, thick walled polygonal parenchymatous cells of endosperm containing fixed oil, aleurone grains and micro-rosettes of calcium oxalate20.
Physical constants of the fruit21 are given in the Table No.1
Important Marketed Formulations2,22 Dhanyapachaka kvatha churna, Dhanyakadi hima, Changeri ghrita, Dhanyagokshuranka ghrita, Jeerakadi modaka, Nagaradi kvatha, Bhaskara lavan churna and Guduchyadigana kvatha churna.
Doses2 Fruit powder: 3-5 gm.
Cold infusion: 50 –100 ml.
Oil: 1-3 drops.
3,22,23,24 Traditional Uses Plant parts used: whole plant, fruit.
Fruit: Aromatic, astringent, emollient, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, stomachic, carminative, antibilious, digestive, appetizer, constipating, diuretic, antipyretic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, tonic, expectorant, anodyne, useful in burning sensation, cough, bronchitis, sore throat, common catarrh, vomiting, dyspepsia, anorexia, colic, flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, chronic conjunctivitis, headache, epitasis, erysipelas, strangury, dropsy, chronic ulcers, carbuncles, scrofula, helminthiasis, hemorrhoids, intermittent fever, hyper dyspepsia, gout, rheumatism and giddiness.
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh Seed oil: Flatulent colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.
Leaves: Aromatic, astringent, analgesic, carminative, antibilious, anti-inflammatory, styptic, useful in halitosis, throat disorder, epistaxis, bleeding from gums, chronic conjunctivitis,erythema, hiccough, inflammation, suppuration, hemorrhoids, jaundice and odontalgia.
Ayurvedic Properties2 Rasa: Katu, Tikta Guna: Laghu, Snigdha Veerya: Ushna Vipaka: Madhura Doshaghnata: Tridoshashamaka Rogaghnata: Shirahshoola, Shotha, Visarpa, Gandamala, Mukhapaka, Kantharoga, Raktapitta, Nasagataraktasrava, Nterabhishyanda, Bhrama, Aruchi, Chhardi, Gulma, Arsha, Krimi, Kasa, Shwasa.
Karma: Deepana, Rochana, Shothahara, Shoolahara, Mastishkabalya, Trishnanigrahana, Pachana, Grahi, Hridya, Sheetaprashamana.
Phytochemical Studies Very little phytochemical work has been carried out with the plant Coriandrum sativum. The structures of the compound isolated from the plant are given as Fig No. 1.
Seed: β-sitosterol, D-mannitol,flavonoid glycoside25, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, umbelliferone, scopoletin26, coriandrinonediol27, palmitic, petroselinic, oleic, linolenic acid, lauric, myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic acids29, quercetin-3-O-caffeyl glycoside, kaempferol-3glucoside, octadecenoic acid30.
Seed oil: α-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, 1, 8-cineole, linalool, borneol, β-caryophyllene, citronellol, geraniol, thymol, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene oxide, elemol, methyl heptenone26, petroselinic acid29.
Leaves: Nonane, C9-16 alkenals, C7-17 alkanals, C10-12 primary alkenols, alkanols29, oxalic acid, vitamin C, carotene, calcium22.
Fruit: Gnaphaloside A, gnaphaloside B, quercetin, isorhamnetin, rutin, luteolin28.
Essential oil: Linalol, furfural, geraniol27,31.
Pharmacological Studies Antioxidant activity Antioxidative activity of ethanol extract of C.sativum fruits showed that it has free radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical32. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of C.sativum was investigated in comparison with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid in in vitro studies. The amount of aqueous extract of C.sativum fruits and ascorbic acid needed for 50% scavenging of superoxide radicals was found to be 370 µg and 260 µg. The amount needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxide was 4500 µg (coriander) and 5000 µg (ascorbic acid). The quantity needed for 50% inhibition of hydroxyl radicals was 1250 µg (coriander) and 4500 µg (ascorbic acid).The present study revealed strong antioxidant activity of the C.sativum extract that was superior to known antioxidant ascorbic acid and indicate their intake may be beneficial as food additives33. The antiperoxidative effect of C.sativum was studied in rats administered high fat diet. Significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, free fatty acids and glutathione was observed when compared to control group whereas the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed increase34. C.sativum crude seed oils were extracted with n-hexane and the oils were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and phospholipids (PL). Crude oils and their fractions were investigated for their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable galvinoxyl radical by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and toward 1, 1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by spectrophotometric method. Coriander seed oil and its fractions exhibited the strongest RSA suggesting potent antioxidant activity35.
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh Cardiovascular activity C.sativum crude extract caused atropine sensitive stimulatory effect in isolated guinea pig ileum.
In rabbit jejunum, it evoked a similar contractile response but in presence of atropine, it exhibited relaxation against both spontaneous and high K induced contractions as well as shifted the Ca2+ concentration response curve to right, similar to verapamil. C.sativum caused fall in arterial blood pressure of anaesthetized animal and produced vasodilatation against phenylephrine and K+ induced contraction in rabbit aorta, and cardio-depressant effect in guinea pig atria. These results indicate that coriander fruit exhibit gut stimulatory, inhibitory and hypotensive effect being mediated through cholinergic and Ca2+ antagonist36.
The effect of administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, βhydroxy, β-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were significantly increased. The level of LDL, VLDL cholesterol was decreased and HDL cholesterol levels were increased. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect37. In the biphasic model of triton-induced hyperlipidemia, C. sativum at a dose of 1g/kg body weight reduced cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both synthesis and excretory phases in rats, and the results were comparable with that of Liponil, a commercially available herbal hypolipidemic drug. The results suggest that coriander decreases the uptake and enhances the breakdown of lipids which can be used as household herbal remedy with preventive and curative effect against hyperlipidemia38.
The effect of the administration of C.sativum on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats fed a high fat diet with added cholesterol. The spice had a significant hypolipidemic action. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly in the tissues of the animals of the experimental group which received coriander seeds. Significant increases in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of LDL + VLDL cholesterol decreased while that of HDL cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT, enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and the increased degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect39.
To assess the lipolysis and absorption in vivo of triacylglycerols containing petroselinoyl, diets containing 120 g seed oil triacylglycerols of C.sativum per kg diet at a level of 72 g 18:1(n-12) moieties/100 g oil were fed to a group of weaned male Wistar rats without restriction for a period of 10 wk. For comparison, groups of rats were fed similar isocaloric diets containing plant oil triacylglycerols with various levels of oleoyl [18:1(n-9)] moieties, e.g., high oleic sunflower seed oil [75 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g oil], olive oil [(66 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g oil], medium oleic rapeseed oil [54 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g oil] and conventional high linoleic sunflower seed oil [25 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g oil]. All diets were supplemented with 20 g corn oil/kg diet. Consumption of coriander oil, compared with the other oils, led to significantly greater liver weights. No significant differences were observed among the groups fed various levels of oleic acid in body weight, the weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen or testes, lipid content of heart, or total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations of blood plasma. Ingestion of coriander oil led to incorporation of 18:1(n-12) into heart, liver and blood lipids and to a significant reduction in the concentration of arachidonic acid in the lipids of heart, liver and blood with a concomitant increase in the concentration of linoleic acid compared with results for the other groups40.
Pharmacologyonline 3: 561-573 (2009) Newsletter Padmaa M Paarakh Antidiuretic activity C.sativum crude extract at doses of 1- 10 mg/ml produced diuresis in rats36.In another study, the acute diuretic activity of continuous intravenous infusion of an aqueous extract of the seed of C.sativum in rats was evaluated. Crude extract of C.sativum increase diuresis, excretion of electrolytes and glomerular filtration rate in a dose –dependent manner in comparison of furosemide suggesting diuretic activity of the plant41.