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«A Dissertation by ERIC JOHN BARTELINK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements ...»

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RESOURCE INTENSIFICATION IN PRE-CONTACT CENTRAL CALIFORNIA:

A BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON DIET AND HEALTH

PATTERNS AMONG HUNTER-GATHERERS FROM THE LOWER

SACRAMENTO VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO BAY

A Dissertation

by

ERIC JOHN BARTELINK

Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

May 2006 Major Subject: Anthropology

RESOURCE INTENSIFICATION IN PRE-CONTACT CENTRAL CALIFORNIA:

A BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON DIET AND HEALTH

PATTERNS AMONG HUNTER-GATHERERS FROM THE LOWER

SACRAMENTO VALLEY AND SAN FRANCISCO BAY

A Dissertation by

ERIC JOHN BARTELINK

Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Approved by Chair of Committee: Lori E. Wright Committee Members: Sheela Athreya Ethan L. Grossman Alston V. Thoms May 2006 Major Subject: Anthropology iii

ABSTRACT

Resource Intensification in Pre-Contact Central California: A Bioarchaeological Perspective on Diet and Health Patterns Among Hunter-Gatherers from the Lower Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay. (May 2006) Eric John Bartelink, B.S., Central Michigan University;

M.A., California State University, Chico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Lori Wright In this study, I use bioarchaeological data derived from human burials to evaluate subsistence change in mid-to-late Holocene central California (circa 4950-200 B.P.).

Previous investigations in the region have proposed two competing models to account for changes in subsistence patterns. The seasonal stress hypothesis argues that the increased reliance on acorns and small seeds during the late Holocene led to improved health status, since these resources could be stored and used as a “buffer” against seasonal food shortages. In contrast, resource intensification models predict temporal declines in health during the late Holocene, as measured by a declinein dietary quality and health status, increased population crowding, and greater levels of sedentism. I test the hypothesis that health status, as measured by childhood stress and disease indicators, declined during the late Holocene in central California.

I analyzed 511 human skeletons from ten archaeological sites in the Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay area to investigate temporal and spatial variability in diet

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patterns using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Indicators of health status show significant temporal and regional variation. In the Valley, tibial periosteal reactions, porotic hyperostosis, and enamel hypoplasias significantly increased through time, implying a decline in health status. In the Bay, health indicators show little temporal variability. However, inter-regional comparisons indicate a higher prevalence of stress and disease indicators among Bay Area skeletons than in the Valley skeletal series. The stable isotope data from human bone collagen and apatite also indicate significant interregional differences in prehistoric diets between the Bay and the Valley. In the Bay, diets shifted from high trophic level marine foods to a more terrestrially focused diet over time. In the Valley, there are no significant dietary trends observed in the data.

Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss are significantly more prevalent in the Valley than in the Bay, and closely match the isotopic findings. The paleopathological findings provide support for late Holocene resource intensification models posited for the Valley,

–  –  –

I attribute the success of this dissertation to the many mentors, colleagues, and friends who have helped me along the way. First and foremost, I would like to thank the members of my graduate committee who provided unending support throughout my education at Texas A&M. I especially want to thank Lori Wright, my dissertation advisor, who dedicated countless hours to reading and editing my papers, proposals, and dissertation chapters, often on a moment’s notice. Her advice and moral support have been invaluable and this research is greatly improved because of it. Alston Thoms graciously offered his time and perspectives, and opened my eyes to the importance of root foods in prehistory. Our long discussions on archaeological theory and huntergatherer adaptations have been an invaluable part of my education. Sheela Athreya has been a constant source of guidance and inspiration since she arrived at A&M. Her advice on statistics and other matters was crucial in completing this research. Ethan Grossman went well beyond the call of duty as my external committee member. Most of what I know about stable isotopes is the result of his teaching and mentorship. His patience and support is greatly appreciated.

I am indebted to the many professors at A&M who have enlightened my graduate experience. Sharon Gursky provided me with a wealth of advice and has helped me to become a better teacher and scholar. I would also like to extend many thanks to David Carlson for his generous assistance with statistics and other matters. It was an honor to have taken a course with D. Gentry Steele before his retirement. He has helped me in

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who have shaped my knowledge and experience through their teaching and mentorship, including Darryl de Ruiter, Michael Waters, Michael Alvard, David Carlson, Cynthia Werner, Norbert Dannhaeuser, Adel Varghese, and the late Rob Bonnichsen.

I would like to acknowledge the many organizations and individuals who made this research possible. At the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, I would like to offer a sincere thanks to Dick Hitchcock, Ann Olney, Leslie Freund, Madeleine Fang, Larri Fredericks, Midge Fox, Joan Knudsen, Victoria Bradshaw, Kent Lightfoot, and Stephen Shackley, for their tremendous assistance with the research collections. I cannot thank you enough. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Tim White, of U.C. Berkeley, for his invaluable assistance with the human skeletal collections. This research would not have been possible without his help. I would also like to acknowledge Ben Greenfield of the San Francisco Bay Estuary Institute for providing me with isotope data on native fishes from central California. I thank Dr. Andreas Kronenberg of Texas A&M who generously offered his time and advice with the FTIR machine. I would also like to extend many thanks to Randy Milliken for his assistance with the James A. Bennyhoff note collection. Finally, I would like to thank Martha Gukeisen who provided invaluable assistance with the formatting of this dissertation on a moment’s notice.

My time spent at Texas A&M would have been far less meaningful without the friendship and support of my fellow graduate students and colleagues. I have shared many interesting experiences and adventures with Jason Wiersema, Maria Parks, Cassady Yoder, Eleanor Dahlin, Andy Scherer, Tony Okonski, Victoria Springer,

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Minjares, and Vlad Vladimirov. Thanks to all who helped me adjust to life in Texas.

You are my lifetime friends and colleagues.

My experiences working in New York City will also never be forgotten. Special thanks to Amy Zelson Mundorff, Gaille MacKinnon, Tymor Swartz, Jeanette Fridie, Ben Figuera, Giovanna Vidoli, and the many others who I had the pleasure of working with.

This research was supported by dissertation fieldwork grants from the Wenner

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Abstract

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION

Research Design

Organization of the Dissertation

II CENTRAL CALIFORNIA ARCHAEOLOGY

Paleoenvironment and Physiography

Central Valley

San Francisco Bay Area

Ethnographic Setting

Central California Archaeology

Archaeological Site Background

Summary

III THEORETICAL ORIENTATION

Archaeological Applications of Human Behavioral Ecology...............43 Population Pressure, Sedentism, and Territoriality

Resource Intensification Models and Central California Prehistory.....55 Sexual Division of Labor

Resource Intensification and Skeletal Health in Prehistoric California

Theoretical Expectations

Summary

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Sex and Age Estimation

Skeletal Samples

Burial Seriation

Summary

V PALEODIETARY RECONSTRUCTION

Stable Isotope Analysis

Archaeological Applications

Materials and Methods

Parameters of Prehistoric Diet in Central California

Evaluation of Sample Quality

Paleodietary Interpretation

Summary

VI DENTAL PATHOLOGY

Literature Review

Methods and Materials

Results

Summary

VII PERIOSTEAL REACTIONS

Literature Review

Methods

Results

Temporal Comparisons

Regional Comparisons

Sex Comparisons

Summary

VIII STATURE

Literature Review

Methods

Results

Summary

IX POROTIC HYPEROSTOSIS

–  –  –

Results

Summary

X ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA

Literature Review

Methods

Results

Summary

XI SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

Dietary Trends

Dental Disease

Health Trends

Summary

Limitations of the Present Study

Implication for Future Research

REFERENCES CITED

APPENDIX A.

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2.1. Map of central California showing the locations of archaeological sites from the lower Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay Area.

4.1 Scheme B1 and Scheme D..

C and δ15N values for economically important plants in δ 5.1.

central California

δ13C and δ15N “meat” values for economically important 5.2.

animal resources in central California

5.3. Reconstructed carbon and nitrogen dietary signatures for economically important food resources in prehistoric central California

5.4. Plot of the relationship between the C/N ratio and % collagen yield in prehistoric human bone samples from central California

5.5. Plot of the relationship between the C/P and CI in prehistoric human bone apatite samples from central California

Plot of the relationship between the C/P and apatite δ13C in 5.6.

prehistoric human bone samples from central California.

Plot of the relationship between the CI and apatite δ13C in 5.7.

prehistoric human bone samples from central California.

Plot of the relationship between the δ13C and δ15N in prehistoric 5.8.

human bone collagen samples from prehistoric central California

Plot of the relationship between the δ13C and δ15N in prehistoric 5.9.

human bone collagen from the Sacramento Valley.

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5.11. Plot of the relationship between the δ13C and collagen-apatite spacing δ13C in prehistoric human bone samples from the Sacramento Valley.

5.12. Plot of the relationship between the δ13C and collagen-apatite spacing δ13C in prehistoric human bone in San Francisco Bay..............172

6.1. Caries prevalence by age category and by sex.

6.2. Relative proportion (%) of pulp-exposed teeth caused by caries versus attrition by region and time period

6.3. Caries prevalence in the Sacramento Valley sample by sex and time period

6.4. Prevalence of AMTL in the Sacramento Valley sample

6.5. Caries prevalence in the San Francisco Bay sample by sex and time period

6.6. Prevalence of AMTL in the San Francisco Bay sample.

7.1. Prevalence of tibial periosteal reactions by age class.

7.2. Prevalence of tibial periosteal reactions by region and time period for right tibiae

8.1. Comparison of male and female femoral length through time in the Sacramento Valley.

8.2. Comparison of male and female femoral length through time in San Francisco Bay.

8.3. Regional comparison of femoral length in Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay males

8.4. Regional comparison of femoral length in Sacramento Valley and San Francisco Bay females

9.1. Distribution of cribra orbitalia in the Sacramento Valley sample

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9.3. Distribution of cribra orbitalia in the San Francisco Bay sample

9.4. Distribution of porotic hyperostosis in the San Francisco Bay sample

9.5. Distribution of cribra orbitalia (all levels of severity) in prehistoric central California by region.

9.6. Distribution of porotic hyperostosis (all levels of severity) in prehistoric central California by region.

10.1. Comparison of the distribution of enamel hypoplasia of central incisors in prehistoric central California.

10.2. Comparison of the distribution of enamel hypoplasia of canines in prehistoric central California

–  –  –

3.1. Post-Encounter Return Rates for Various Terrestrial Plant and Animal Resources from the Western United States.

4.1. Age and Sex Distribution of the Skeletal Samples by Region and Time Period.

4.2. Central California Chronology

4.3. Distribution of Skeletal Samples by Region and Time Period............... 119

5.1. Names and Stable Isotope Values of Economically Important Plants Resources in Central California

5.2. Names and Stable Isotope Values of Economically Important Animal Resources in Central California.



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