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«VOLUME 2005 NUMBER 4 EDITORIAL OFFICE: The Utah Law Review is published at the University of Utah, S.J. Quinney College of Law, by the Utah Law ...»

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EDITORIAL OFFICE: The Utah Law Review is published at the University of Utah,

S.J. Quinney College of Law, by the Utah Law Review Society. Periodicals

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COPYRIGHT: © 2005 by the Utah Law Review Society. Printed Winter 2005 (ISSN 0042-1448). In addition to the rights to copy that are granted by law, the owner of the copyright of each article published in this issue, except as expressly otherwise noted, grants permission for copies of that article to be provided that the author and journal are identified, that proper notice of copyright is affixed to each copy of the article, and that copies are distributed at or below cost.

CITATIONS: Citations in the Utah Law Review conform to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (18th ed. 2005) unless otherwise noted.

AARON, RICHARD I. (1966), Professor ofLaw. A.B., 1959, Harvard Univ.;J.D., 1962, Univ. of Wisconsin.

ADLER, ROBERT W. (1994), James I. Farr Professor of Law. B.A., 1977, Johns Hopkins Univ.; J.D., 1980, Georgetown Univ.

AGUILAR, JR., REYES (1992), Associate Dean for Admission and Financial Aid. B.A., 1988, Texas A&M Univ.; J.D., 1992, Univ. of Utah.

ANDERSON, JENSIE L. (1999), Clinical Professor of Law. B.F.A., 1985, J.D., 1993, Univ. of Utah.

ANGHIE, ANTONY T. (1995), Samuel D. Thurman Professor of Law. B.A., 1986, LL.B., 1987, Monash Univ., Melbourne, Australia; S.J.D., 1995, Harvard Univ.

BENNETT, WALLACE R. (1953), Professor of Law Emeritus. B.A., 1948, M.S., 1950, J.D., 1953, Univ. of Utah; LL.M., 1957, Harvard Univ.; LL.M. (Trade Regulations), 1963, New York Univ.

CASSELL, Paul G. (1991), Professor of Law and U.S. District Court Judge. B.A., 1981, J.D., 1984, Stanford Univ.

DICKEY, BARBARAJ. (1999), Associate Dean for Student Affairs. B.A., 1975, M.A., 1980, J.D., 1987, Univ. of Utah.

DYER, BOYD KIMBALL (1971), Professor of Law. B.A., 1962, Stanford Univ.; LL.B., 1968, Harvard Univ.

ERICKSON, KRISTIN E. (1998), Associate Dean for Legal Career Services. B.A., 1983, Univ. of Minnesota; M.A., 1985, Univ. of Chicago; J.D., 1988, Univ. of Michigan.

ERTMAN, MARTHA (2002), Professor of Law. B.A., 1985, Wellesley College; J.D., 1990, Northwestern Univ.

FlRMAGE, EDWIN B. (1966), Samuel D. Thurman Professor of Law Emeritus and Professor of Law. B.S., 1960, M.S., 1962, Brigham Young Univ.; J.D., 1963, LL.M., 1964, S.J.D., 1964, Univ. of Chicago.

FLORES, ROBERTL. (1990), Professor of Law. B.A., 1978, J.D., 1987, Univ. of Utah.

FLYNN, JOHN J. (1963), Hugh B. Brown Professor of Law Emeritus. B.S., 1958, Boston College; LL.B., 1961, Georgetown Univ.; S.J.D., 1967, Univ. of Michigan.

FRANCIS, LESLIE PICKERING (1982), Alfred C. Emery Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy. B.A., 1967, Wellesley College; Ph.D., 1974, Univ. of Michigan;

J.D., 1981, Univ. of Utah.

GEORGE, ERIKA (2003), Associate Professor of Law. B.A., 1992, Univ. of Chicago;

M.A., 1993, Univ. of Chicago; J.D., 1996, Harvard Univ.

GREENE, HILLARY (2005), Associate Professor of Law. B.A., 1990, Yale College;

J.D., 1997, Yale Univ.

GREENWOOD, DANIEL J.H. (1991), S.J. Quinney Professor of Law. A.B., 1979, Harvard Univ.; J.D., 1984, Yale Univ.

HILL, DAVID S. (2003), Clinical Associate Professor of Law. B.S., 1991, Univ. of Utah; B.A., 1992, Univ. of Utah; J.D., 2001, Univ. of Utah.

HOLBROOK, JAMES R. (2003), Clinical Professor of Law. B.A., 1966, Grinnell College; M.A., 1968, Indiana Univ.; J.D., 1974, Univ. of Utah.

KEITER, ROBERT B. (1993), Wallace Stegner Professor of Law and Director of the Wallace Stegner Center for Land, Resources, and the Environment. B.A., 1968, Washington Univ.; J.D., 1972 Northwestern Univ.

KESSLER, LAURA T. (2001), Associate Professor of Law. B.A., 1988, George Washington Univ.; J.D., 1993, Univ. of Maryland; LL.M., 1999, Columbia Univ.

KOGAN, TERRY S. (1984), Professor of Law. B.A., 1971, Columbia College; B. Phil., 1973, Oxford Univ.; J.D., 1976, Yale Univ.

LOCKHART, WILLIAMJ. (1964), Professor of Law. B.A., 1955, J.D., 1961, Univ. of Minnesota.

LUNA, ERIK (2000), Hugh B. Brown Professor of Law. B.S., 1993, Southern Cal.;

J.D., 1996, Stanford Univ.

LUND, THOMAS (1978), Professor of Law. B.A., 1964, Harvard Univ.; LL.B., 1967, Columbia Univ.; Ph.D., 1978, Oxford Univ.

MARTINEZ, JOHN (1984), Professor of Law. B.A., 1973, Occidental College; J.D., 1976, Columbia Univ.

MATHESON, JR., ScorrM. (1985), Dean and Professor of Law. A.B., 1975, Stanford Univ.; M.A., Oxford Univ.; J.D., 1980, Yale Univ.

MCCONNELL, MICHAEL W. (1997), Presidential Professor of Law and U.S. Court of Appeals Judge. B.A., 1976, Michigan State Univ.; J.D., 1979, Univ. of Chicago.

MCCORMACK, WAYNE (1978), Professor of Law. B.A., 1966, Stanford Univ.; J.D., 1969, Univ. of Texas.

McLAUGHLIN, NANCY ASSAF (2000), Professor of Law. B.S., 1987, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst; J.D., 1990, Univ. of Virginia.

McLEESE, KAREN L. (1969), Director, Alumni Relations and Annual Giving. B.S., 1967, Univ. of Utah.

MEDWED, DANIEL S. (2004), Associate Professor of Law. B.A., 1991, Yale; J.D., 1995, Harvard Univ.

MITCHELL, BONNIE L. (1987), Clinical Professor of Law. B.A., 1981, J.D., 1984, Univ. of Utah.

MORRIS, JOHN K. (1979), General Counsel and Professor of Law. B.A., 1966, Univ.

of California at Los Angeles; J.D., 1969, Univ. of California at Berkeley.

POULTER, SUSAN R. (1990), Professor of Law Emerita. B.S., 1965, Ph.D., 1969, Univ. of California at Berkeley; J.D., 1983, Univ. of Utah.

REUSCH, RITA T. (1986), Director, S.J. Quinney Law Library and Computing Services and Professor of Law. B.A., 1972, Univ. of Minnesota; J.D., 1975, Univ. of Idaho; M.L.L., 1978, Univ. of Washington.

RICHARDS, WILLIAM R. (1996), Clinical Professor of Law. B.A., 1981, J.D., 1984, Univ. of Utah.

RISTROPH, ALICE (2005), Associate Professor of Law. A.B., 1996, Harvard College;

A.M., 1999, Harvard Univ.; J.D., 2001, Harvard Univ.; Ph.D., 2004, Harvard Univ.; LL.M., 2005, Columbia Univ.

SCHMID, ROBERT L. (1954), Professor Emeritus of Law. J.D., 1954, Univ. of Utah;

M.L.L., 1956, Univ. of Washington.

SKIBINE, ALEXANDER TAL~CHIEF(1989), S.J. Quinney Professor of Law. B.A. 1973, Tufts Univ.; J.D., 1976, Northwestern Univ.

SMITH, LINDAF. (1984), Professor of Law. B.A., 1973, Ohio State Univ.; J.D., 1976, Yale Univ.

SMITH, WYNNE E. (2001), Executive Director of Development & Alumni Relations.

B.A., 1986, Utah State Univ.

SPURGEON, EDWARD D. (1980-93, 2003), Clinical Professor of Law. A.B., 1961, Princeton Univ.; LL.B., 1964, Stanford Univ.; LL.M., 1968, New York Univ.

TEHRANIAN, JOHN (2002), Associate Professor of Law. A.B., 1995, Harvard Univ.;

J.D., 2000, Yale Univ.

THREEDY, DEBORA L. (1986), Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Professor of Law. B.A., 1973, Beloit College; J.D., 1980, Loyola Univ. of Chicago.

UTSET, MANUEL A. (2002), Professor of Law. B.S.F.S., 1984, Georgetown Univ.;

J.D., 1987, Univ. of Michigan.

WILDERMUTH, AMY J. (2003), Associate Professor of Law, A.B., B.S., 1994, Washington Univ.; M.S., 1998, Washington Univ.; J.D., 1998, Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL.

YOUNG, MICHAEL K. (2004), President, University of Utah and Professor of Law.

B.A., 1973, Brigham Young Univ.; J.D., 1976, Harvard Univ.


DARAIS, SUZANNE (1990), Head of Information Technical Services and Adjunct, Professor of Law. B.S., 1983, Univ. of Utah; J.D., 1989, Brigham Young Univ.;

M.L.S., 1990, Univ. of Washington School of Librarianship.

LoGAN, WILLIAM (2003), Assistant Librarian and Adjunct Professor of Law. B.A., 1996, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley; J.D., 2000, Hastings; MLIS, 2002, Univ. of Washington.

STEPHENSON, LINDA (1986), Head of Information Access Services and Adjunct Professor ofLaw. M.A., 1983, Univ. ofMissouri at Columbia; J.D., 1987, Univ.

of Missouri-Kansas City.

WARTHEN, R. LEE (1985), Assistant Director, Head of Collection Building and Maintenance, and Adjunct Professor of Law. M.L.S., 1975, M.A., 1983, J.D., 1984, Brigham Young Univ.


–  –  –

"'© 2005, Robert B. Keiter. All rights reserved.

"""Wallace Stegner Professor of Law and Director, Wallace Stegner Center for Land, Resources, and the Environment, University of Utah, S.J. Quinney College of Law. Some portions of this Article appeared in different form, organization, and emphasis in my book,


(2003). Research on the Article was supported by a much-appreciated grant from the University of Utah, S.J. Quinney College of Law's Faculty Development Fund. I am indebted to Rob Fischman and Matt McKinney for their insightful and helpful comments on an earlier draft of the Article.

:f:For stylistic purposes, at the author's request, this Article does not strictly follow all of the citation rules or conventions of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation or those of the Utah lAw Review.

–  –  –

America's public lands have never been far removed from controversy or change. The federal estate, encompassing roughly 670 million acres or nearly a third of the country's land base, l has long been regarded as a literal storehouse for the nation. Awash in valuable natural resources, uncluttered open spaces, and breathtaking vistas, the public lands historically served as a catalyst for westward expansion, then as a development bank for the growing nation, and more recently as a last bastion of wilderness. Western states and communities have long looked to the public lands for their economic sustenance, whether through royalty payments, job opportunities, or as magnets for tourism. Over time, public land law and policy have evolved to accommodate the felt necessities of the day. In this process, Congress, agencies, and courts have faced an array of antagonistic interests, each intent on establishing their own agenda as the dominant model for federal resource management. Although these competing ideas and policies have waxed and waned over the years, we are once again in a period of significant turmoi1. 2 A thoughtful reexamination of the prevailing laws, institutions, and policies is overdue.

The law governing our public lands has evolved through distinctive phases as policymakers and society have redefined the value and purpose of these vital national assets. By the end of the nineteenth century, an original policy of disposal geared to promote private ownership and settlement in the unoccupied western frontier had given way to a policy of federal ownership and increasingly active management under the rubric of utilitarian conservation. A nascent preservation movement had also surfaced and steadily gained momentum during the twentieth century, converting wilderness and nature conservation into primary federal policy objectives. 3 The notion of devolved authority-given the important role of federal lands in local economic and social affairs-has also been a longstanding theme in public land policy; it holds that state and local governments are entitled to a prominent role in establishing management objectives. These basic models of public land policy have variously taken hold and receded during the past two hundred years, but the fundamental ideas have not disappeared; rather, they have periodically resurfaced in different garbs, highlighting the timeless

lRobert B. Keiter, Biodiversity Conservation and the Intermixed Ownership Problem:

From Nature Reserves to Collaborative Processes, 38 IDAHO L. REv. 301, 306 (2002).






3For more information on defining public land policy historical eras, see infra note 18 and accompanying text.

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