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«GROUNDINGS ANCIENTS Volume 2, April 2014 EDITORIAL BOARD Ian McIver, Editor-in-Chief (Glasgow) Alasdair Neilson, ...»

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GROUNDINGS ANCIENTS

Volume 2, April 2014

www.groundings-ancients.co.uk

EDITORIAL BOARD

Ian McIver, Editor-in-Chief (Glasgow)

Alasdair Neilson, Managing Editor (Aberdeen)

Ilian Mitev, Production Editor (Glasgow)

Jennifer Bates (Edinburgh)

Hazel Blair (St Andrews)

Molly Farrell (Glasgow)

Genevieve Hull (Edinburgh)

Marcus Jack (Glasgow)

Benedict Jones-Williams (Aberdeen)

Emma Lawson (Edinburgh)

Malina McLennan (St Andrews) Zoë Rierson (St Andrews) Hamish Roberts (Aberdeen) Linus Siöland (Glasgow) Emily Thorburn (Aberdeen)

ACADEMIC ADVISORY BOARD

Dr Claire Duncanson (Edinburgh) Dr David Farrier (Edinburgh) Professor Karin Friedrich (Aberdeen) Dr Catherine Jones (Aberdeen) Dr Kelly Kollman (Glasgow) Dr Stephen Marritt (Glasgow) Dr Robert Mason (Edinburgh) Professor Elizabeth Moignard (Glasgow) Dr Christopher Ogden (St Andrews) Dr Bernhard Struck (St Andrews) Dr Rebecca Sweetman (St Andrews) i

FRONT COVER

Mark McCahill Ilian Mitev Crests reproduced with the permission of the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and St. Andrews TEXT © The contributors

WITH FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM

University of Aberdeen University of Edinburgh University of Glasgow University of St. Andrews

WITH THANKS TO

Mark McCahill Jocelyn Spottiswoode

PRINTED BY

J. Thomson Colour Printers, Glasgow

PUBLISHED BY

Glasgow University Dialectic Society 32 University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8LX, in conjunction with the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh and St Andrews ii

CONTENTS

Editorial v ‗Semper Eadem‘, Always the Same? The invention of Princess 1 Elizabeth‘s identity (1533-1558) (St Andrews) Simeon Burke Competing interpretations of the land: presenting multi-experiential 17 archaeology (Glasgow) Lauren Davidson Modernist experiments and the British Empire: radical aesthetics in 31 fictional writing and their relationship to ideologies of identity within the Empire (Edinburgh) Yasemin Hacioglu ‗Ennobling Interchange‘: self-analysis in response to nature in 44 Wordsworth‘s The Two-Part Prelude (Aberdeen) Andrew Haddon Toward an anti-Zionist Jewish identity (Edinburgh) 55 Scarlet Harris Liminal spaces, liminal stories: occluding the individual in Seamus 68 Deane‘s Reading in the Dark (Aberdeen) Alexander Jones iii Vassals or Vikings?: Orkney‘s identity in the changing Norwegian 79 world, (1151-1206) (St Andrews) Stephanie Kirby Competition and tradition: Carolingian political rituals, 751-800 95 (Glasgow) Ian McIver Rome: an instance of ‗identity dynamics‘ through the application of 114 the logos (λόγος)to the landscape (Aberdeen) Nicolas Paul

–  –  –

Presumptively deserving of protection: cushioning the nexus between 139 EU asylum and irregular immigration policies (Edinburgh) Katharine Weatherhead Masculinity and monasticism: an exploration of the ways in which 155 traditional hegemonic masculinity was reconciled with the challenges of monasticism (Glasgow) Deborah White iv

EDITORIAL

This, the second volume of Groundings Ancients, has seen a fledgling academic journal maintain its commitment to quality. The range of submissions this year, across the arts, humanities and social sciences, show a breadth of thought, interest, and intellectual rigour that illustrates the corresponding qualities of the respective authors, editors and institutions. It has also been the year that the position of Managing Editor left Glasgow and started its journey around the other ancient universities of Scotland, finding a home this year in Aberdeen.

The culmination of the work you see before you has been no small task. Its success has been reliant on a combination of enthusiasm and dedication from numerous individuals. Particular thanks are due to Professor Margaret Ross, Vice Principal at the University of Aberdeen; Professor Dorothy Miell, Vice Principal at the University of Edinburgh; Professor Frank Coton, Vice Principal at the University of Glasgow, and Dr Gurchathen Sanghera, Pro Dean of Arts & Divinity at the University of St Andrews.

In keeping with Volume 1, each university has chosen their own theme, providing the successful authors an opportunity to display their academic skills on a variety of topics. The themes are: Aberdeen – Landscape and Language; Edinburgh – Foreign and Familiar; Glasgow – Competition and Tradition, and St Andrews – Identity and Transformation.

The existence of this journal and the student articles within it reinforces Scotland‘s place as one of the educational power-houses of the world, ensuring that Groundings Ancients will be a beacon of academic excellence for years to come.

–  –  –

v vi ‗Semper Eadem‘, Always the Same? The invention of Princess Elizabeth‘s identity (1533-1558) Simeon Burke.

In assessing the link between Queen Elizabeth I‘s pre-accession identity and her personality as Queen Regnant, historians have often perpetuated the myth of a continuously stable and unchanging monarch. This article will review the myth that Elizabeth lived by her motto of Semper Eadem (Lat. ‗Always the Same‘) by critically revisiting some of the primary sources which discuss Elizabeth‘s youth.





The bulk of the article will then turn to examining three instances of Elizabeth‘s policy-making as Queen Regnant, attempting to trace the links between the identity of Elizabeth as young Princess and mature monarch: the Elizabethan Settlement (1558-59), the Anjou Marriage (1579-81) and the late succession crisis (1587-1603). It will be argued that Elizabeth‘s pre-accession and monarchical experience were both characterised not so much by stability and fixed principles, as by a remarkable penchant for prioritising personal survival and political expedience.

Throughout her reign, Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) maintained that she lived her life by the motto of Semper Eadem (Lat. ‗Always the Same‘). 1 Often invoked by Elizabeth‘s historiographers, this adage is taken as proof that the queen retained a consistent core of convictions throughout her reign and maintained a stable identity.2 Nevertheless, the extent to which Elizabeth developed throughout and SIMEON R. BURKE is a fourth year student in Modern History and New Testament Studies at the University of St Andrews, set to graduate in June 2014. His interest in the pre-accession identity of Elizabeth I stems from a year-long module he is currently undertaking in Elizabethan Studies, in addition to the fascinating areas of intersection he observes between the life of Elizabeth and his studies on the historical life of Jesus Christ. He hopes to pursue postgraduate study in Biblical Studies at a university in the UK.

Examples include S. Doran, ‗Elizabeth I's religion: the evidence of her letters‘, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 51 (2000), 720; Elizabeth I: Collected Works (CW) (eds.) L.S. Marcus, J.

Mueller, and M.B. Rose (Chicago, 2000), 283. For the origins, meaning and early modern conceptions of this motto see R.H. Wells, ‗Semper Eadem: Spenser's ‗Legend of Constancie‘, The Modern Language Review, 73, No. 2 (1978), 250-255.

2 Doran, ‗Religion‘, 720, for example concludes her article by writing that ‗in matters of religion,

her motto was a guiding principle‘.

before her reign has recently come under closer scrutiny. 3 This article is concerned with precisely the extent to which a link can be drawn between Elizabeth‘s early years (1533-1558) and her policy as Queen Regnant, a question which touches closely on the construction and self-fashioning of an ostensibly unchanging monarch. An initial sketch of the records of her early years will demonstrate the intriguing problems and myths associated with Elizabeth‘s preaccession experience and identity. Moving into the main discussion, three instances of Elizabeth‘s policy as queen will be examined to determine the influence of her youth on the construction of her later identity: the early Elizabeth Settlement (1559), the Anjou Marriage Project (1579-81) and the late Succession Question (1587-1603). Through approaching the records of Elizabeth‘s upbringing critically, it will be demonstrated that while her early Christian Humanist upbringing, however difficult to determine precisely, was a vague guiding principle, Elizabeth‘s pre and post-accession character was characterised by a similar propensity to prioritise political expedience, compromise and survival in her decision-making.

THE SOURCES FOR ELIZABETH‘S EARLY YEARS

Of the works composed by the young Elizabeth, her letters perhaps present the clearest view into her education and its impact on her later life. Of particular note is Elizabeth‘s letter in captivity to Mary I, on 16 th March 1554, in which the young princess adeptly implements her early rhetorical education through an adapted quote from the classical Greek author Isocrates, in his discourse To Nicocles. 4 Elizabeth opens her plea, written the day before she was sent to the Tower for suspected involvement in the 1554 Wyatt Rebellion against Mary, by reminding her sister of her promise to ‗not condemn without answer and due proof‘, introducing the classical concept of honour and monarchical oath-keeping found in Isocrates‘ words, ‗a king‘s word was more than another man‘s oath‘. 5 Elizabeth‘s S. Frye, Elizabeth I: The Competition for Representation (New York, 1993); P. Collinson, ‗Windows in a woman‘s soul: questions about the religion of Queen Elizabeth I‘ in his Elizabethan Essays (London, 1994), 87-118.

CW, 41 5 Isocrates, Discourses, translated by T. Norlin (Cambridge: MA, 1928); Elizabeth to Mary I, 16

–  –  –

early exposure to classical rhetoric, under the tutelage of William Grindal and then Roger Ascham, afforded her the ability to associate and manipulate the connection between word, identity, oath and virtue in ways that would benefit her throughout her life.6 Elizabeth‘s multilingual Book of Devotions – assembled in 1578 or 15797 – has been the subject of more varying evaluations, particularly regarding its value as a window into her soul or religious identity. 8 Although early Revisionist scholars detected a pious Elizabeth, more recently Patrick Collinson has questioned the historical value of these writings on the grounds that the Devotions were a fashion accessory probably composed by members of Elizabeth‘s house.9 For evidence of the obvious lack of correspondence between Elizabeth‘s outward conformity and private radicalism, one can compare the staunchly evangelical10 concepts of unmerited grace in her translation of Marie Angeloume‘s ‗Le Miroir de L‘Âme Pécheresse‘, with her persistent decision to attend Catholic mass. 11 All of this raises the question of whether the young princess‘ religious experience was genuine, or perhaps better put, whether it could, in the face of great pressure from her Catholic sister, remain entirely consistent. As will be seen below, outward conformity in behaviour that differed with private beliefs would be a continuing theme throughout Elizabeth‘s life as monarch. At this early stage, it was probably motivated by self-protection and fear of reprisal from her sister due to her defiance.

Frye, Elizabeth I, 4-5 notes that in her letters to James, Elizabeth uses this same rhetorical concept of oath-keeping. See 11-13 for further detail of this.

Their original date of composition remains a mystery. See M. Perry, Elizabeth I: The Word of a Prince: A Life from Contemporary Documents (London, 1999), 183.

8 Elizabeth I, A Book of Devotions Composed by Her Majesty Elizabeth with translation by Rev.

Adam Fox (London, 1920).

W. Haugaard ‗Elizabeth Tudor‘s book of devotions: a neglected clue to the queen‘s life and character‘ Sixteenth Century Journal 12 (1981), 79-105; Collinson, ‗Windows‘, 87-118.

10 By this sticky term is meant the growing idea among sixteenth century reformers that the gospel (evangel) meant the good news of Christ‘s death which offered unearned salvation for sinners. See Haugaard above 89.

11 M. de Navarre, ‗Le Miroir de L‘Âme Pécheresse (1544)‘ in (eds.) J. Mueller and J. Scodel, Elizabeth I: Translations, 1544-1589 (Chicago, 2009), 25-128. In defence of her consistency, Elizabeth did exhibit a fierce hostility to the Catholic Eucharistic doctrine of transubstantiation, even being credited with a short poem defending her belief in Christ‘s presence in the elements of the Lord‘s Supper. See 7-8 below and Doran, ‗Religion‘, 711.

More voluminous is the category of sources written about Elizabeth. Martyrologist John Foxe, for example, emphasises Elizabeth‘s impressive feats of learning in the

first edition of his Actes and Monumentes (1563):

what tong is it that her grace knoweth not? What language she cannot speake? What liberal arte or science, shee hath not learned? 12 Recent scholarship has, however, questioned Foxe‘s agenda and characterisation of Elizabeth‘s pre-accession identity and religious policy as queen. Foxe tempers his praise for Elizabeth‘s learning by ascribing it as one of the ‗giftes of God‘, a rare case of providence in which the grace of Elizabeth‘s earthly and heavenly teachers prevailed over the ‗natural infirmitie of that sexe‘. 13 Exploiting the common, earlymodern trope of God‘s providential care for the monarch, which carried with it the concomitant duty of the recipient to aid the church, Foxe reminds Elizabeth that the ecclesiastical establishment required her efforts to push through the reformation, and that, as yet, she had failed to fulfil this responsibility. 14 Later editions of Foxe‘s work have highlighted that the author‘s narrative better represents the subversive attempt of an impatient radical to subtly challenge Elizabeth on church reform, than an adoring account of her sufferings as princess.15 In contrast to Foxe, Elizabeth‘s former tutor Roger Ascham saw no need J. Foxe, ‗Acts and Monuments (1563 edition)‘, The Acts and Monuments Online.

[Sheffield 2011] Available:

http://www.johnfoxe.org/index.php?realm=text&gototype=modern&edition=1563&pageid=17 90 [Accessed 18.3.14] Ibid.



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