FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 11 |

«LEGAL NOTICE This report has been produced as part of the TOURISMlink project (funded by the European Commission DG Enterprise ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

The European Tourism Market,

its structure and the role of ICTs

The European Tourism Market,

its structure and the role of ICTs

TOURISMlink Consortium

Report for Work Package 1


This report has been produced as part of the TOURISMlink project (www.tourismlink.eu)

funded by the European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry. The contents of this

publication do not necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the European Commission.


Rodolfo Baggio (Bocconi University, Milan, Italy)


 Sonia Bilbao (Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Bilbao, Spain)  Xema Carbó (Dome Consulting, Palma de Mallorca, Spain)  Paolina Marone (ECTAA, European Travel Agents’ and Tour Operators’ Association, Brussels, Belgium)  Patricia Miralles (Instituto Technologico Hotelero, Madrid, Spain)  Sofía Reino (CICTOURGUNE, Centre for Cooperative Research in Tourism, Bilbao, Spain)  Isabel Sobrino (HOTREC, The umbrella association of Hotels, Restaurants and Cafés in Europe, Brussels, Belgium)

Citation for this document:

TOURISMlink (2012). The European Tourism Market, its structure and the role of ICTs.

Brussels: The TOURISMlink Consortium. Available online at: www.tourismlink.eu.

Executive summary Tourism is a key sector of the European economy. It generates more than 5% of the EU GDP, with about 1,8 million enterprises employing around 5,2% of the total labor force. It comprises a wide variety of products and destinations involving many different stakeholders, both public and private. The tourism industry has been increasingly becoming an informationbased industry, and is particularly relying on technology supporting information and communication (ICTs). As a consequence, the eTourism market is continuing to grow and represents already an important component in the global tourism market, counting, in Europe, for around 36% of all sales in the travel industry.

Modern technologies, however, pose significant challenges to tourism businesses seeking to embrace them. The lack of agreed technical standards, together with high implementation costs (in terms of monetary and human resources), represents a barrier for the adoption of these instruments, in particular by small enterprises.

TOURISMlink (a project financed by the DG Enterprise and Industry of the European Commission) is a large-scale demonstration action with the objective to modernize the tourism value chain and offer small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism sector a better position in the global tourism market. Its goal is to facilitate and accelerate the digital connection between smaller local service providers in the broader tourism industry (hospitality, tourism, culture and leisure), and with larger travel agents, tour operators and distributors.

This will allow tourism enterprises to improve their competitiveness and respond better and quicker to the evolving market needs of more tailor-made, personalized tourism products.

This report analyzes and presents an updated analysis the European Tourism market and its structure, with the aim of identifying the needs of the sector and of showing to which extent the EU is moving towards new markets or segments and the influence that this may have when considering new ICT tools. Special attention will be given to the adoption of information and communication technology by tourism enterprises and the current use of ICT along the whole value chains, consolidating the industry’s requirements unveiled by literature studies and through a survey conducted in the field. It highlights the main competitiveness factors and the role of ICTs in responding to change in tourism demand, and as a driver for growth. The elements and issues discussed in the report form the basis for the next activities in the TOURISMlink project.

A number of crucial factors have been identified:

 European tourism SMEs face a strong competition. For them it is important to differentiate their products from the large industry players by concentrating on niches and creating offers with a specific value to the customer. In this context good cooperation between tourism operators becomes crucial. ICTs can play a key role in building trustworthy and reliable relationships among business partners and in providing them with flexible and dynamic tools to cope with the highly dynamic market challenges.

 Despite the relevance of ICTs for the whole industry, there is still a low level of adoption, mainly due to the characteristics of the European tourism enterprises and their limited size.

 Confirming and extending many studies on the issue, a field survey conducted specifically for this project has acknowledged the main barriers in ICTs adoption by tourism SMEs highlighting in particular: the implementation costs (both monetary & organizational); the difficulties faced in fostering collaboration and cooperation within the industry; the problems encountered in achieving a good interoperability of the ICT systems in-company and between-companies and the substantial lack of agreed technical standards for data representation and exchange.

 Standards in ICTs have become an indefeasible element for companies that want to take advantage from modern eTourism technologies by fostering technological interoperability. Nonetheless, nowadays there exist too many conflicting approaches, deployment costs can be very high, and there is a certain lack of flexibility for many solutions. Interoperable standardized systems are considered a crucial element also due to the strong tendency of tourists and travelers towards a request for immediate answers to their changing wishes or needs, and their high level of device indifference that is more and more evident when considering the growing usage patterns of mobile and wireless devices for accessing the Internet for searching information, book travels or compose personalized packages.

 The report closes with a description of the changes and implementations that will be made to an existing technological platform (Travel Open Apps) to integrate the findings of this study (from a functional point of view), and presents a preliminary sketch of possible business usage scenarios along with some initial considerations on possible advantages, issues and criticalities (SWOT analysis).

Table of contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Objective and structure of the report

2 European tourism

2.1 Tourism demand for Europe

2.1.1 Europe and Emerging Markets

2.2 European Tourism supply structure

2.2.1 Focus: tourism SMEs companies

2.2.2 Focus on rural accommodation

2.2.3 Focus on the European transportation system

2.3 Remarks on the structure of European tourism and its competitiveness................ 33 2.3.1 A reflection on competitiveness

3 ICTs and the European tourism players

3.1 ICTs adoption

3.1.1 Focus: ICTs adoption in three countries

3.2 ICT infrastructure in Europe

3.3 European eTourism market

3.4 Global distribution systems

3.5 ICTs in the transportation sector

3.6 Main barriers for ICTs adoption

3.6.1 A survey on ICT adoption issues in EU

4 Interoperability and standards in eTourism

4.1 eBusiness standards for SMEs

4.1.1 Web Services Standards

4.2 Data Organization

4.2.1 Ontologies/ Relational Databases

4.2.2 Terminology

4.3 Interoperability

4.3.1 Interoperability Levels

4.3.2 Why Interoperability?

4.3.3 Approaches towards ICT Interoperability

4.3.4 Barriers or difficulties to interoperability

4.3.5 Existing specifications for interoperability

4.3.6 Application program interfaces in the tourism sector

4.3.7 Cloud computing

4.4 Remarks on tourism standards and interoperability

5 A business scenario for the TOURISMlink platform

5.1 Travel Open Apps

5.2 Success factors

5.3 Technical aspects

5.3.1 Standardization

5.3.2 Openness

5.3.3 SaaS (Software as a Service)

5.3.4 SOA Architecture design

5.3.5 Business and market aspects

5.3.6 Managerial aspects

5.3.7 Usability factors

5.3.8 Usefulness factors

5.3.9 Data security

5.3.10 Education

5.4 The overall scenario: a schematic view

5.4.1 A preliminary SWOT analysis

6 Appendix: Survey questionnaire

7 References

Figures Figure 2.1 International tourist arrivals (Source: UNWTO, 2011)

Figure 2.2 Evolution of international tourism market share (Source: UNWTO, 2011).

........... 13 Figure 2.3 International tourist arrivals variations 2006-2009 (Source: UNWTO, 2011)........ 14 Figure 2.4 Origin areas for European tourism (Source: EUROSTAT, 2009)

Figure 2.5 Variations in overnight stays shares for selected countries (NB: scale for China is on the right; Source: EUROSTAT, 2009)

Figure 2.6 Variations in overnight stays for selected countries (Source: EUROSTAT, 2009).

.. 16 Figure 2.7 Average seasonality in Europe (Source: EUROSTAT, 2009)

Figure 2.8 European tourism subsectors (Source: EUROSTAT, 2009)

Figure 2.9 Distribution of accommodation sector by company size (Source: EUROSTAT, 2009)

Figure 2.10 Room share of integrated hotel chains (Source: Sistema Turismo Italia, 2011).

.. 26 Figure 2.11 Distribution of hotel chains in Italy, Austria and Germany (Source: adapted form various industry sources, 2011)

Figure 2.12 : Distribution of travel agent and tour operator by company size (Source:


Figure 2.13 Main means of transport for European tourists (Source Eurostat, 2008).

........... 32 Figure 2.14 Low-cost airlines growth (Source: OAG Aviation, 2012)

Figure 2.15 Cruise market growth (Source: European Cruise Council, 2012)

Figure 2.16 Tourism destination competitiveness factors in the model by Ritchie and Crouch (2003)

Figure 2.17 Relationship between ICT infrastructure (left) and level of usage of ICTs in business (right) and the Tourism Competitiveness Index (Source: WEF, 2011).

............... 36 Figure 3.1 The EU27 ICT readiness index compared with that of the most advanced economies (ADV) (Source; World Economic Forum, 2012)

Figure 3.2 The difference (%) between EU27 ICT readiness index and that of the most advanced economies (ADV) (Source; World Economic Forum, 2012)

Figure 3.3 ICTs adoption by European SMEs: % of enterprises using online selling applications (Source: EUROSTAT, 2011)

Figure 3.4 ICTs adoption by European SMEs: % of turnover generated by using online applications (Source: EUROSTAT, 2011)

Figure 3.5 ICT Adoption by the Irish Tourism Industry

Figure 3.6 Usage of promotional channels in Italian hotels (Source: ISTAT, 2009).

.............. 45 Figure 3.7 Web 2.

0 functions used by Italian tourism industry websites (Source: MET Bocconi, 2012)

Figure 3.8 Broadband Penetration in Europe and OECD (Source: Eurostat and OECD, 2011).

47 Figure 3.9 Cost of Broadband connections

Figure 3.10 History and trend of the eTourism market in different regions (Source:

PhoCusWright, 2011)

Figure 3.11 European eTourism market shares by country (Source: PhoCusWright, 2011).

... 49 Figure 3.12 eTourism market shares by type of company (Source: PhoCusWright, 2011)..... 49 Figure 3.13 Top five European OTAS’ market share (Source: PhoCusWright, 2011).............. 50 Figure 3.14 OTA market positions in Europe (Source: PhoCusWright, 2011)

Figure 3.15 Main GDSs (Source: ETTSA, 2010)

Figure 3.16 GDSs share of global European travel market (Source: ETTSA, 2010).

.............. 52 Figure 3.17 GDSs contribution to tourism intermediaries activities

Figure 4.1 Interoperability levels

Figure 4.2 Approaches towards ICT Interoperability (Gasser and Palfrey, 2007).

................. 67 Figure 5.1 General scheme for the use of TOURISMlink/Travel Open Apps platform by participating companies

Figure 5.2 Business scenario for the use of TOURISMlink/Travel Open Apps platform.

.......... 88 Figure 5.3 A preliminary SWOT analysis for TOURISMlink


Table 2.1 Number of enterprises by subsectors (Source: Eurostat, 2009)

Table 2.2 Number of persons employed by subsectors (Source: Eurostat, 2009).

................ 21 Table 2.3 Turnover by subsectors (Source: Eurostat, 2009)

Table 3.1 ICT Adoption in Spanish Hotels (Source: Fundetec, 2009)

Table 3.2 Adoption of technologies in the Italian SMEs and in the hotel sector (Source: ISTAT, 2009)

Table 3.3 Ownership of website used for marketing or sales activities by Italian hotels (Source:

ISTAT, 2009)

Table 3.4 Issues and priorities for ICT adoption by tourism SMEs

Table 4.1 Standards Related to Web Service Standards

Table 4.2 Main tourism ontologies

Table 4.3 Data Standardisation Initiatives

Table 4.4 Main Tourism Interoperability Solutions

Table 4.5 APIs used by main online tourism operators

Table 4.6 Cloud computing software - General information

1 Introduction

This report analyzes the European Tourism market and its structure, with the aim of identifying the needs of the sector and of showing to which extent the EU is moving towards new markets or segments ant the influence that this may have on new ICT instruments.

Therefore special attention will be given to the adoption of information and communication technology by tourism enterprises and the current use of ICT along the whole value chains.

The document is the first work package of the TOURISMlink project and will underpin all subsequent tasks in the project by better defining the issues to be addressed.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 11 |

Similar works:

«Duke Law Journal VOLUME JUNE NUMBER JUDICIAL DEFERENCE TO ADMINISTRATIVE INTERPRETATIONS OF LAWt THE HONORABLE ANTONIN SCALIA** When I was invited to speak here at Duke Law School, I had originally intended to give a talk that reflected upon the relationship among the Bork confirmation hearings, the proposed federal salary increase, capital punishment, Roe v. Wade, and Law and Astrology. I was advised, however, that the subject of this lecture series is administrative law, and so have had to...»

«Case 6:10-cv-01176-JA-DAB Document 176 Filed 01/19/12 Page 1 of 37 PageID 4423 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT MIDDLE DISTRICT OF FLORIDA ORLANDO DIVISION ASHLEY DRURY, Plaintiff, -vsCase No. 6:10-cv-1176-Orl-28DAB VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA; ROBERT PAUL TAMERIS; JECOA DUANE SIMMONS; CHRISTIAN DUARTE; and KEVIN SWEAT; Defendants. ORDER This lawsuit involves allegations of sexual intercourse between three adult males over the age of twenty-nine and a then-minor female, Plaintiff Ashley Drury, all of...»

«I N S TA L L AT I O N G U I D E Publication Date April 2015 Copyright © 1987-2015 Henry Schein, Inc. All rights reserved. Henry Schein, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrievable system, or translated into any language in any form by any means without the written permission of Henry Schein, Inc. Software License Notice Your license agreement with Henry Schein, which is included with the product, specifies the...»

«Chesapeake Amusements, Inc. v. Robert B. Riddle No. 124, September Term, 1998 HEADNOTE: CRIMINAL LAW GAMING. A dispensing machine with a video screen that displays the contents of the tickets that it dispenses and emits a musical tone that signals when a winning ticket is being dispensed is not a “slot machine,” as defined by Maryland Code (1957, 1996 Repl. Vol.), Art. 27, § 264B. IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF MARYLAND No. 124 September Term, 1998 CHESAPEAKE AMUSEMENTS, INC. v. ROBERT B....»

«The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 10 (2011) 211–225 brill.nl/lape From ICSID Annulment to Appeal Half Way Down the Slippery Slope* Christoph Schreuer Of Counsel, Wolf Theiss, Vienna, Austria Abstract Annulment under the ICSID Convention offers a limited remedy on the basis of a few carefully circumscribed grounds. Recently, losing parties have attacked awards for a wide array of reasons. Some ad hoc committees deciding these requests for annulment have taken a broad...»

«FIRST SUPPLEMENT DATED 12 JULY 2011 TO THE BASE PROSPECTUS DATED 29 JUNE 2011 NATIXIS STRUCTURED PRODUCTS LIMITED (Incorporated with limited liability in Jersey) Euro 10,000,000,000 Debt Issuance Programme This supplement (this “Supplement” or the “First Supplement”) is supplemental to, and should be read in conjunction with the Base Prospectus dated 29 June 2011, prepared in relation to the Debt Issuance Programme of NATIXIS Structured Products Limited (“NATIXIS Structured...»

«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 27.3.2013 COM(2013) 173 final 2013/0091 (COD) Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation and Training (Europol) and repealing Decisions 2009/371/JHA and 2005/681/JHA {SWD(2013) 98 final} {SWD(2013) 99 final} {SWD(2013) 100 final} EN EN EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM 1. CONTEXT OF THE PROPOSAL The European Police Office (Europol) started as an intergovernmental body regulated by a...»

«TSACHI KEREN-PAZ Risks and Wrongs’ Account of Corrective Justice in Tort Law: Too much or Too Little? ABSTRACT In this paper I make two sets of comments about Coleman’s analysis of tort law in Risks and Wrongs. First, I highlight the limited role of corrective justice (CJ) in explaining tort liability and the role of other considerations. Here my account is partially compatible with Coleman’s. At time it develops existing themes; at other times it completes his account by referring to...»

«IN THE SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS OF WEST VIRGINIA September 2014 Term FILED _ November 25, 2014 released at 3:00 p.m. No. 11-0728 RORY L. PERRY II, CLERK SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS _ OF WEST VIRGINIA LAWYER DISCIPLINARY BOARD, Petitioner v. JOHN C. SCOTCHEL, JR., Respondent Lawyer Disciplinary Proceeding No. 11-0728 LAW LICENSE ANNULLED AND OTHER SANCTIONS Submitted: September 9, 2014 Filed: November 25, 2014 Jessica H. Donahue Rhodes, Esq. J. Michael Benninger, Esq. Office of Disciplinary...»

«Building Resilience Against Terrorism CANADA’S COUNTER-TERRORISM STRATEGY Second Edition © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2013 Cat. No.: PS4-104/2013E-PDF ISBN: 978-1-100-22422-0 Table of Contents Ministerial Foreword.........................................1 Executive Summary..........................................2 Introduction.....................................»

«The watershed for Commonwealth appropriation and spending after Pape and Williams? Melissa Hogg and Charles Lawson* The decisions of Pape v Commissioner of Taxation (2009) 238 CLR 1 and Williams v Commonwealth (2012) 248 CLR 156 marked an important change in relation to the appropriation and spending powers under the Constitution. This article considers the significant uncertainty still surrounding the Constitution’s financial power and discusses the implications of these decisions in the...»

«INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE OBLIGATIONS CONCERNING NEGOTIATIONS RELATING TO CESSATION OF THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE AND TO NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT (MARSHALL ISLANDS v PAKISTAN) COUNTER-MEMORIAL OF PAKISTAN (JURISDICTION AND ADMISSIBILITY) 1 DECEMBER 2015 Counter-Memorial Table of Contents Part 1 Introduction and Summary Part 2 Statement of Facts Relevant to Jurisdiction and Admissibility Part 3 The RMI’s Case Against Pakistan is Brought in Bad Faith Part 4 The RMI’s Claims Against Pakistan are...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.