«The following presents the Regulation setting up the EU Borders Agency – ‘Frontex’ – as it will be amended by a number of amendments (the ...»
The Frontex Regulation –
Consolidated text after 2011 amendments
Professor of Law, University of Essex
The following presents the Regulation setting up the EU Borders Agency – ‘Frontex’ – as it
will be amended by a number of amendments (the ‘2011 amendments’) recently agreed in
principle between the European Parliament and the Council.
In order to make clear at a glance the impact of the 2011 amendments, they have been
highlighted in bold and italics throughout. Where the 2011 amendments would delete the existing text of the Regulation, the existing text which will be deleted is indicated in brackets and strike-out: ie [Community].
There might be technical changes to the 2011 amendments before their final adoption.
Currently, the European Parliament plenary is due to approve these changes in September 2011, and then they will likely be finally adopted by the Council in September or October.
The Regulation will then enter into force 20 days after its publication in the EU Official Journal.
The Frontex Regulation was already amended once before, in 2007 (by Regulation 863/2007, which mainly concerned the creation of ‘Rapid Border Intervention Teams’).
The changes made then have also been integrated into the text of the Regulation, and they are indicated by footnotes.
COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 2007/2004 of 26 October 2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (OJ L 349, 25.11.2004, p. 1) [as amended in 2007 and 2011; original footnotes omitted]
THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Articles 62(2)(a) and 66 thereof, Having regard to the proposal from the Commission, Having regard to the opinion of the European Parliament, Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee,
(1) Community policy in the field of the EU external borders aims at an integrated management ensuring a uniform and high level of control and surveillance, which is a necessary corollary to the free movement of persons within the European Union and a fundamental component of an area of freedom, security and justice. To this end, the establishment of common rules on standards and procedures for the control of external borders is foreseen.
(2) The efficient implementation of the common rules calls for increased coordination of the operational cooperation between the Member States.
(3) Taking into account the experiences of the External Borders Practitioners’ Common Unit, acting within the Council, a specialised expert body tasked with improving the coordination of operational cooperation between Member States in the field of external border management should therefore be established in the shape of a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (hereinafter referred to as the Agency).
(4) The responsibility for the control and surveillance of external borders lies with the Member States. The Agency should facilitate the application of existing and future Community measures relating to the management of external borders by ensuring the coordination of Member States’ actions in the implementation of those measures.
(5) Effective control and surveillance of external borders is a matter of the utmost importance to Member States regardless of their geographical position. Accordingly, there is a need for promoting solidarity between Member States in the field of external border management. The establishment of the Agency, assisting Member States with implementing the operational aspects of external border management, including return of third-country nationals illegally present in the Member States, constitutes an important step in this direction.
(6) Based on a common integrated risk analysis model, the Agency should carry out risk analyses in order to provide the Community and the Member States with adequate information to allow for appropriate measures to be taken or to tackle identified threats and risks with a view to improving the integrated management of external borders.
(7) The Agency should provide training at European level for national instructors of border guards and additional training and seminars related to control and surveillance at external borders and removal of third-country nationals illegally present in the Member States for officers of the competent national services. The Agency may organise training activities in cooperation with Member States on their territory.
(8) The Agency should follow up on the developments in scientific research relevant for its field and disseminate this information to the Commission and to the Member States.
(9) The Agency should manage lists of technical equipment provided by the Member States, thereby contributing to the ‘pooling’ of material resources.
(10) The Agency should also support Member States in circumstances requiring increased technical and operational assistance at external borders.
(11) In most Member States, the operational aspects of return of third-country nationals illegally present in the Member States fall within the competencies of the authorities responsible for controlling external borders. As there is a clear added value in performing these tasks at European level, the Agency should, subject to the Community return policy, accordingly provide the necessary assistance for organising joint return operations of Member States and identify best practices on the acquisition of travel documents and the removal of third-country nationals illegally present in the territories of the Member States.
(12) For the purpose of fulfilling its mission and to the extent required for the accomplishment of its tasks, the Agency may cooperate with Europol, the competent authorities of third countries and the international organisations competent in matters covered by this Regulation in the framework of working arrangements concluded in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Treaty. The Agency should facilitate the operational cooperation between Member States and third countries in the framework of the external relations policy of the European Union.
(13) Building upon the experiences of the External Borders Practitioners’ Common Unit and the operational and training centres specialised in the different aspects of control and surveillance of land, air and maritime borders respectively, which have been set up by Member States, the Agency may itself create specialised branches responsible for dealing with land, air and maritime borders.
(14) The Agency should be independent as regards technical matters and have legal, administrative and financial autonomy. To that end, it is necessary and appropriate that it should be a Community body having legal personality and exercising the implementing powers, which are conferred upon it by this Regulation.
(15) The Commission and the Member States should be represented within a Management Board in order to control effectively the functions of the Agency. The Board should, where possible, consist of the operational heads of the national services responsible for border guard management or their representatives. This Board should be entrusted with the necessary powers to establish the budget, verify its execution, adopt the appropriate financial rules, establish transparent working procedures for decision making by the Agency and appoint the Executive Director and his/her deputy.
(16) In order to guarantee the full autonomy and independence of the Agency, it should be granted an autonomous budget whose revenue comes essentially from a contribution from the Community. The Community budgetary procedure should be applicable as far as the Community contribution and any other subsidies chargeable to the general budget of the European Union are concerned. The auditing of accounts should be undertaken by the Court of Auditors.
(17) Regulation (EC) No 1073/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 1999 concerning investigations conducted by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF) should apply without restriction to the Agency, which should accede to the Interinstitutional Agreement of 25 May 1999 between the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the Commission of the European Communities concerning internal investigations by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF).
(18) Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents should apply to the Agency.
(19) Regulation (EC) No 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data (4) applies to the processing of personal data by the Agency.
(20) The development of the policy and legislation on external border control and surveillance remains a responsibility of the EU institutions, in particular the Council. Close coordination between the Agency and these institutions should be guaranteed.
(21) Since the objectives of this Regulation, namely the need for creating an integrated management of operational cooperation at the external borders of the Member States of the European Union, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can therefore be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.
(22) This Regulation respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised by Article 6(2) of the Treaty on European Union and reflected in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
(23) As regards Iceland and Norway, this Regulation constitutes a development of the Schengen acquis within the meaning of the Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the association of those two States with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis, which fall within the area referred to in Article 1, point A of Council Decision 1999/437/EC on certain arrangements for the application of that Agreement.
Consequently, delegations of the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway should participate as members of the Management Board of the Agency, albeit with limited voting rights. In order to determine the further modalities allowing for the full participation of the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway in the activities of the Agency, a further arrangement should be concluded between the Community and these States.
(24) In accordance with Articles 1 and 2 of the Protocol on the position of Denmark annexed to the Treaty on European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Community, Denmark is not taking part in the adoption of this Regulation and is not bound by it, or subject to its application. Given that this Regulation builds upon the Schengen acquis under the provisions of Title IV of Part Three of the Treaty establishing the European Community, Denmark should, in accordance with Article 5 of the said Protocol, decide within a period of six months after the Council has adopted this Regulation whether it will implement it in its national law or not.
(25) This Regulation constitutes a development of provisions of the Schengen acquis in which the United Kingdom does not take part, in accordance with Council Decision 2000/365/EC of 29 May 2000 concerning the request of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis. The United Kingdom is therefore not taking part in its adoption and is not bound by it or subject to its application.
(26) This Regulation constitutes a development of provisions of the Schengen acquis in which Ireland does not take part, in accordance with Council Decision 2002/192/EC of 28 February 2002 concerning Ireland’s request to take part in some of the provisions of the Schengen acquis. Ireland is therefore not taking part in its adoption and is not bound by it or subject to its application.
(27) The Agency should facilitate the organisation of operational actions in which the Member States may avail themselves of the expertise and facilities which Ireland and the United Kingdom may be willing to offer, in accordance with modalities to be decided on a case-by-case basis by the Management Board. To that end, representatives of Ireland and the United Kingdom should be invited to attend all the meetings of the Management Board in order to allow them to participate fully in the deliberations for the preparation of such operational actions.
(28) A controversy exists between the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom on the demarcation of the borders of Gibraltar.
(29) The suspension of the applicability of this Regulation to the borders of Gibraltar does not imply any change in the respective positions of the States concerned,
HAS ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:
1. A European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (the Agency) is hereby established with a view to improving the integrated management of the external borders of the Member States of the European Union.
2. While considering that the responsibility for the control and surveillance of external borders lies with the Member States, the Agency as a body of the Union as defined in Article 15 and in accordance with Article 19 of this Regulation, shall facilitate and render more effective the application of existing and future [Community] European Union measures relating to the management of external borders, in particular the Schengen Borders Code.
It shall do so by ensuring the coordination of Member States’ actions in the implementation of those measures, thereby contributing to an efficient, high and uniform level of control on persons and surveillance of the external borders of the Member States.