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«Title of Thesis: DADA EXHIBITIONS: A SURVEY AND ANALYSIS Emily Rachel Grey, Master of Arts, 2006 Thesis directed by: Professor Steven A. Mansbach ...»

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ABSTRACT

Title of Thesis: DADA EXHIBITIONS: A SURVEY AND ANALYSIS

Emily Rachel Grey, Master of Arts, 2006

Thesis directed by: Professor Steven A. Mansbach

Department of Art History and Archaeology

Exhibitions are an ideal means by which to approach Dadaism from an international

perspective, and to consider how dadaists sought to relate to their audience. This

thesis argues that while each was unique in character, Dada exhibitions often functioned similarly; as a demonstration of internationalism, as the realization of a Gesamtkunstwerk, and as a subversion of artistic traditions. Currently, such a comparative approach to Dada exhibitions is limited by uneven scholarship; the Erste Internationale Dada-Messe is the only exhibition to have been studied comprehensively. This disparity is not due to a lack of material evidence, however.

For example, the Salon Dada catalogue reveals much about a little studied, large scale, international exhibition no less significant than the Dada-Messe. This thesis establishes the primary importance of exhibitions to the Dada movement, and will serve as the groundwork for future inquiries into Dada influence on subsequent art exhibitions.

DADA EXHIBITIONS:

A SURVEY AND ANALYSIS

by Emily Rachel Grey Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

Advisory Committee:

Professor Steven A. Mansbach, Chair Professor Renée Ater Professor Joshua A. Shannon © Copyright by Emily Rachel Grey The thesis that follows has had referenced material removed in respect for the owner’s copyright. A complete version of this document, which includes said referenced material, resides in the University of Maryland, College Park’s library collection.

Table of Contents iii List of Figures Introduction Chapter I: A Survey of Exhibitions Chapter II: The Role of Exhibitions Chapter III:The Salon Dada Catalogue Conclusion Appendix Bibliography ii List of Figures Fig. 1 Marcel Slodki. Poster for the opening of the Kunstlerkneipe Voltaire, later known as the Cabaret Voltaire, 1916. Lithograph. Kunsthaus, Zurich.

Fig. 2 Photograph of lost painting, Cabaret Voltaire, by Marcel Janco, 1916. Oil on canvas. Kunsthaus Zurich.

Fig. 3 Marcel Janco. Poster for the 1re Exposition Dada at the Galerie Corray, Zurich,

1917. Linoleum cut, 42.5 x 26.4 cm. Collection Merrill C. Berman.

Fig. 4 Johannes Baargeld and Max Ernst (eds.) Bulletin D catalog (cover), November

1919. Each page: 31.5 x 24 cm. Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

Fig. 5 Johannes Baargeld and Max Ernst (eds.) Bulletin D catalog (page 7), November 1919. Each page: 31.5 x 24 cm. Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

Fig. 6 Johannes Baargeld and Max Ernst (eds.). Dada Vorfrühling (Dada Early Spring) catalog (cover), April 1920. Special Collections Department of the University of Iowa Libraries.

Fig. 7 Johannes Baargeld and Max Ernst (eds.). Dada Vorfrühling (Dada Early Spring) catalog (back page), April 1920. Special Collections Department of the University of Iowa Libraries.

Fig. 8 Johannes Baargeld and Max Ernst (eds.). Dada Vorfrühling (Dada Early Spring) catalog, April 1920. (Inside pages) Special Collections Department of the University of Iowa Libraries.

Fig. 9 Photograph of Luise Straus-Ernst, Max Ernst, Jimmy Ernst, and Gala and Paul Eluard in Ernst’s studio. Musée d’art et d’histoire, Saint-Denis.

Fig. 10 Dada Siegt! (Dada Triumphs), poster for the exhibition Dada-Vorfrühling (Dada Early Spring), 1920. Letterpress, 43.2 x 63.5 cm. Elaine Lustig Cohen Dada Collection, The New York Public Library.

Fig. 11 Dada Program, Berlin, April 30, 1919. Reproduced in Hanne Bergius, “Dada Triumphs!” Dada Berlin, 1917-1923 Artistry of Polarities.

Fig. 12 Photograph of first room of the Erste Internationale Dada Messe (First International Dada-Fair), with view through door into the second room. Bildarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin.

–  –  –

Fig. 14 Photograph of Dada-Messe participants standing in the first room of the exhibition. From left to right: Hannah Höch, Otto Schmalhausen, Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield with child, Otto Burchard, Margarete and Wieland Hezfelde, Rudolf Schlichter, two figures with backs turned, Johannes Baader. Berlinische Galerie, Hannah-Höch-Archive.

Fig. 15 Photograph of lost painting, 45% Erwebsfähig (45% Fit for Work), by Otto Dix, 1920. Oil on canvas, ca. 165 x 245 cm. Formerly City Museum, Dresden.

Reproduced in Hanne Bergius, “Dada Triumphs!” Dada Berlin, 1917-1923 Artistry of Polarities.

Fig. 16 George Grosz. God mit Uns (God with Us) portfolio (cover). Berlin, MalikVerlag,1920. 49.2 x 39.8 cm. Berlinische Galerie, Berlin.

Fig. 17 Photograph of PreußischerErzengel (Prussian Archangel) by John Heartfield and Rudolf Schlichter. 1988 Reconstruction of lost 1920 original. Reproduced in Raimund Meyer, Dada Global.

Fig. 18 Marcel Duchamp’s membership card to the Société Anonyme with logo depicting a laughing ass. Katherine S. Dreier Papers/Société Anonyme Archive. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.





Fig. 19 Marcel Duchamp. Postcard showing Jacques Villon, In Memoriam, 1919, with lace frame. Photograph by Man Ray, 1920. Katherine S. Dreier Papers/Société Anonyme Archive. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

Fig. 20 Man Ray. Photograph of Lampshade, 1921. Possibly the original.

Black and white negative. Katherine S. Dreier papers / Société Anonyme archive, 1818-1952. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

Fig. 21 Marcel Duchamp. A Regarder d’un oeil, de prés, pendant presque une heure.

Photographic postcard made by Man Ray for the Société Anonyme. 14 x 8.8 cm.

Katherine S. Dreier papers / Société Anonyme archive, 1818-1952. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Fig. 22 Invitation to a lecture accompanying the eighth exhibition at the Société Anonyme. Katherine S. Dreier Papers/ Société Anonyme Archive. Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library.

–  –  –

Fig. 24 Catalog cover, Exposition Dada Max Ernst. Bibliothèque Doucet, Paris.

Fig. 25 Invitation to the Exposition Dada Max Ernst, May 1921. 7.7 x 12.5 cm.

Centre Pompidou, Mnam, Bibliothèque Kandinsky, Paris.

Fig. 26 Tristan Tzara. Poster for Salon Dada, Exposition Internationale,1921, lithograph, Collection Merrill C. Berman.

Fig. 27 Photograph of the Salon Dada exhibition, Galerie Montaigne, 1921. RogerViollet photo archives.

Fig. 28 Photograph of the Salon Dada exhibition, Galerie Montaigne, 1921. RogerViollet photo archives.

Fig. 29 Photograph of the interior of the Salon Dada exhibition, Galerie Montaigne,

1921. Roger-Viollet photo archives.

Fig. 30 Max Ernst. La bicyclette graminée garnie de grelots (The graminaceous bicycle garnished with bells), 1921. Gouache and ink on chromolithographic chart,

74.3 x 99.7 cm. The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Fig. 31 Max Ernst. Paysage en ferraille erreur de ceux qui préfèrent la navigation sur l’herbe à un bust de femme. (Landscape in scrap iron mistake of those who prefer sailing on the grass rather than a woman’s chest). Gouache and ink on printed reproduction, 77 x 67 cm. Private Collection.

Fig. 32 Man Ray. L’Homme (Man), 1918. Gelatin silver print, 48.3 x 36.8 cm.

Private Collection.

Figs. 33 Man Ray. La Femme (Woman), 1918. Gelatin silver print, 43.7 x 33.5 cm.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman Collection.

Fig. 34 Man Ray. Cadeau (Gift). c. 1958 (replica of 1921 original). Flatiron with tacks. 15.3 x 9 x 11.4 cm Museum of Modern Art Fig. 35 George Grosz. Missachtung eines Meisterwerkes von Botticelli (Disregard of a Masterwork by Botticelli) 1988 Reconstruction of lost 1920 original.

Fig. 36 Photograph of Johannes Baader’s lost assemblage, Das grosse Plasto-Diodada-drama: DEUTSCHLANDS GRÖSSE UND UNTERGANG durch Lehrer Hagendorf oder Die phantastische Lebensgeschichte des Oberdada. (The Great Plasto-Dio-dada-drama: Germany’s Greatness and Fall at the Hands of Schoolmaster

–  –  –

Fig. 37 Soirée Dada Program. 27 x 21 cm. Centre Pompidou, Bibliothèque Kandinsky.

Fig. 38 Photograph of Wieland Herzfelde manipulating Otto Dix’s Bewegliches Figurenbild (Montage of Movable Figures). Berlinische Galerie, Landesmuseum für Moderne Kunst, Fotographie und Architektur.

Fig. 39 Tristan Tzara. Prospectus for the mock guided tour Excursions et visites Dada : 1ère Visite: Eglise Saint Julien Le Pauvre, April 14, 1921, Paris. Letterpress,

27.5 x 22 cm. National Gallery of Art, Library. Washington D.C.

Fig. 40 Tristan Tzara. Bulletin, Dada #3, 1918, Zurich. Reproduced in Johanna Drucker, The Visible Word.

Fig. 41 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (cover page) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 42 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 1) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 43 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 2) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 44 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 3) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 45 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 4) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 46 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 5) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 47 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 6) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

–  –  –

Fig. 49 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 8) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 50 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 9) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 51 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 10) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 52 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 11) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 53 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 12) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 54 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 13) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 55 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 14) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 56 Salon Dada Exposition Internationale exhibition catalog, 1921. Galerie Montaigne. (page 15) Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas, Austin.

Fig. 57 Photograph of Philippe Soupault’s now lost, Cité du Retiro (City of Leisure),

1921.Roger-Viollet photo archive.

Fig. 58 Photograph of René Hilsum, Benjamin Péret, Serge Charchoune, Philippe Soupault, Jacques Rigaut, and André Breton at the opening of Exposition Dada Max Ernst, 1921. Bibliothèque Doucet, Paris.

Fig. 59Hans Arp. Portrait de Tristan Tzara, c.1917. Painted wood relief. 40 x 32.5 x

9.5 cm. Kunsthaus Zurich.

–  –  –

Fig. 61 Marcel Duchamp. La Mariée (The Bride), 1912. Oil on canvas, 89.5 x 55.6 cm. Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Fig. 62 Théodore Fraenkel. La mort du Pape au pays du patinage (The death of the Pope in the country of ice skating). Newspaper collage, 11.4 x 14.7cm. Private Collection.

Fig. 63 Théodore Fraenkel. Excursion Dada St. Julien Le Pauvre, 1921. Pen and ink, 24x14cm. Private Collection.

Fig. 64 Louis Aragon. La femme enceinte dort...(The Pregnant woman sleeps).

Bibliothèque Doucet, Paris.

Fig. 65 Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. L’arbre à violon (Violin tree). Pen and ink.

46 x 59.5 cm. Private Collection.

Fig. 66 Louis Aragon. Jacques Vaché, 1921. Private Collection.

Fig. 67 Philippe Soupault. Illustration for poem, “Westwego.” Centre Pompidou, Paris.

Fig. 68 Philippe Soupault. Portrait d’un imbécile (Portrait of an Imbecile), 1921.

Roger-Viollet photo archives.

Fig. 69 Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes. Soleils étranges (Strange Suns),

1921.Goauche and india ink on paper. 60 x 46 cm. Private Collection.

–  –  –

For all the variety in Dada’s global manifestations, historical accounts have not been particularly innovative in their exploration of this movement. Typically monographic in approach, or treated as a prelude to Surrealism, the current history of Dada fails to emphasize the communal aspect of the movement, which this thesis will highlight through a discussion of predominantly group exhibitions that dadaists organized in Western Europe and the United States. While Dada exhibitions have been mined for information, they are rarely the focus of inquiry, and although some have been considered in isolation, there have been no collective studies of Dada exhibitions. This thesis aims to trace the history of Dada exhibitions with special consideration given to their internationalism.



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