FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 18 |

«BY AILEEN ELIZABETH NAYLOR A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY Department of History of Art ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --




A thesis submitted to

The University of Birmingham

for the degree of


Department of History of Art

School of Languages, Cultures, Art History and Music

The University of Birmingham

September 2009

University of Birmingham Research Archive

e-theses repository

This unpublished thesis/dissertation is copyright of the author and/or third parties.

The intellectual property rights of the author or third parties in respect of this work are as defined by The Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 or as modified by any successor legislation.

Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. Further distribution or reproduction in any format is prohibited without the permission of the copyright holder.


This thesis has two aims. The first is to demonstrate that commentaries on the work produced by Simeon Solomon (1840-1905) before 1873, an artist who was Jewish and homosexual, have been dominated by critics’ perceptions of him as a marginal figure.

Solomon’s Jewish heritage and homosexuality doubly marginalised him in the Christian, heterosexual culture of Victorian England so it is understandable that commentators have focused on his minority position and read signs of difference in his works. However, my second aim is to challenge this perspective. I will show how much Solomon’s art had in common with that of his contemporaries and broaden the discussion by analysing paintings which have been given less critical attention, possibly because they do not present so many opportunities to refer to the artist’s marginality. I will suggest alternative interpretations of specific paintings which draw upon other aspects of nineteenth-century English society in order to show how explanations which focus primarily on Solomon’s marginalised identities are not the only and, in some cases, not the most useful ways to read his work.

For my Mum (1928-2001)


First and foremost I wish to thank Dr. Tricia Cusack for her encouragement, patience and invaluable help in the formation of this manuscript. I am grateful to the staff at all the libraries, universities, museums and art galleries which I have visited especially Tina Keevil, Nick Cull and David Pulford at the Barber Institute of Fine Arts. Victoria Osborne, curator with Dr. Colin Cruise of the exhibition, Love Revealed: Simeon Solomon and the Pre-Raphaelites (2005), has been generous in sharing her knowledge. I am also grateful to Tessa Sidey, Curator of Prints and Drawings, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, for the opportunity to contribute to the cataloguing of Solomon’s works there which helped my research. I am grateful to Simeon Solomon experts, Simon Reynolds, Professor Gayle Seymour and Dr. Colin Cruise, and Pam Solomon, a descendant of the family, who have been most kind in answering my queries. I wish to thank my fellow Solomon researchers, Roberto C. Ferrari, webmaster of the Simeon Solomon Research Archive, Carolyn Conroy and Donato Esposito, for formal papers and informal discussions.

My membership of the Pre-Raphaelite Society inspired me to begin this project and continues to add to my knowledge and appreciation of the Pre-Raphaelites and their followers for which I wish to thank the committee and my fellow members. This thesis would not have been completed without the encouragement and support of my lecturers and friends at Birmingham University: Dr. Richard Clay, Dr. Fran Berry, Connie Wan, Sara Ayres, Ann-Marie Wilson, Marie Considine, Laura MacCulloch, John Lovesey, Joerg Niehoegen, Dr. Amelia Yeates, Maria Daniel and Dr. Elisa Korb.

Last, but by no means least, I thank my family - Peter, Alice and Philip - for their loving

–  –  –

Figure 1: Simeon Solomon (1840-1905), The Mother of Moses, 1860, Oil on canvas, 56.6 x 48.2 cm, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, U.S.A.

Figure 2: Simeon Solomon, A Deacon, 1863, Oil on canvas, 35 x 25.4 cm, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.

Figure 3: Simeon Solomon, Two Acolytes, Censing, Pentecost, 1863, Watercolour on paper, 40.2 x 35 cm, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Figure 4: Simeon Solomon, The Mystery of Faith, 1870, Watercolour on paper, 50.8 x 38 cm, National Museums Liverpool, Lady Lever Art Gallery.

Figure 5: Simeon Solomon, Poetry, 1864, Watercolour on paper, 39.3 x 32.1 cm, Grosvenor Museum, Chester City Council.

Figure 6: Simeon Solomon, Reading, 1865, Medium unknown, 45.5 x 35.5 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 7: Simeon Solomon, Lady in a Chinese Dress, 1865, Watercolour on paper, 41 x

35.5 cm, Grosvenor Museum, Chester City Council.

Figure 8: Simeon Solomon, The Japanese Fan, 1865, Watercolour, 34 x 25.5 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 9: Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898), The Prioress’s Tale, c.1865-98, Watercolour with bodycolour on paper laid down on linen, 103.4 x 62.8 cm, Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, U.S.A.

Figure 10: Simeon Solomon, A Young Musician Employed in the Temple Service During the Feast of Tabernacles, 1861, Oil on canvas, 59.7 x 45.7 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 11: Simeon Solomon, The Child Jeremiah, 1862, Oil on canvas, 35 x 24 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 12: Simeon Solomon, Pharaoh’s daughter and the Infant Moses, Undated, from a sketchbook c.1854-55, Pen and ink over pencil on paper, 17 x 7.5 cm, The Jewish Museum, London.

Figure 13: Simeon Solomon, The Finding of Moses, 1862, Oil on canvas, 81.3 x 61 cm, Dublin City Gallery, The Hugh Lane.

i Figure 14: David Wilkie Wynfield (1837-1887), Photograph of Simeon Solomon in Turban and Eastern Dress, c.1860s, Albumen print on mount with textured paper surface layer, 20 x 15 cm, Royal Academy of Arts, London.

Figure 15: Charles Lock Eastlake (1793-1865), Hagar and Ishmael, 1843, Oil on canvas, 76 x 96.5 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 16: Henry Nelson O’Neil (1817-1880), Esther, 1850, Oil on canvas, 102.5 x 76 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 17: Frederick Richard Pickersgill (1820-1900), Samson Betrayed, 1850, Oil on canvas, 243.8 x 306 cm, Manchester City Galleries.

Figure 18: William Dyce (1806-1864), Joash shooting the Arrow of Deliverance, 1844, Oil on canvas, 76.3 x 109.5 cm, Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Figure 19: William Dyce, The Meeting of Jacob and Rachel, 1850, Oil on canvas, 36 x 46 cm, Private Collection.

Figure 20: John Everett Millais (1829-1896), The Return of the Dove to the Ark, 1851, Oil on canvas, 88.2 x 54.9 cm, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Figure 21: William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), The Scapegoat, 1854, Oil on canvas, 87 x

139.8 cm, National Museums Liverpool, Lady Lever Art Gallery.

Figure 22: Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893), Jesus Washing Peter’s Feet, 1851-56, Oil on canvas, 117 x 133.3 cm, Tate Britain, London.

Figure 23: John Everett Millais, Christ in the House of His Parents, 1849-50, Oil on canvas, 86.4 x 139.7 cm, Tate Britain, London.

Figure 24: William Holman Hunt, The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, 1854-55, Oil on canvas, 85.7 x 141 cm, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery.

Figure 25: Unknown engraver after Simeon Solomon, Lighting the Lamps, Eve of the Sabbath, Wood engraving, published in Once a Week 9 August 1862.

Figure 26: Butterworth and Heath after Simeon Solomon, The Passover, Wood engraving, published in The Leisure Hour 1866.

Figure 27: Simeon Solomon, Study for Head of Jochebed, 7 November 1859, Graphite on paper, 14.7 x 13.4 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

Figure 28: Simeon Solomon, Study for Head of Miriam, 8 November 1859, Graphite on paper, 14.9 x 13.1 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

–  –  –

Figure 30: Frederick Sandys, Study of a Woman’s Head, c.1859, Chalks on buff paper, 23 x 17.7 cm, British Museum, London.

Figure 31: Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), Head of a Woman, c.1865, Pencil with black chalk, 46.7 x 31.4 cm, David Hughes Collection.

Figure 32: Albert Moore (1841-1893), The Mother of Sisera Looked out at a Window, 1861, Oil on canvas, 30.4 x 23.5 cm, Tullie House, Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle.

Figure 33: Joanna Boyce Wells (1831-1861), Head of a Mulatto Woman, 1861, Oil on paper laid on linen, 17.1 x 13.7 cm, Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Fund, U.S.A.

Figure 34: Simeon Solomon, Study of a Woman’s Head, 11 November 1859, Graphite on paper, 13.3 x 14.4 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.

Figure 35: Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, Titian, (d.1576), The Virgin and Child with the Infant Saint John and a Female Saint or Donor (‘The Aldobrandini Madonna’), c.1532, Oil on canvas, 100.6 x 142.2 cm, The National Gallery, London.

Figure 36: Antonio Allegri, Correggio, (d.1534), The Madonna of the Basket, c.1524, Oil on wood, 33.7 x 25.1 cm, The National Gallery, London.

Figure 37: Dalziel Brothers after Simeon Solomon, The Infant Moses, Wood engraving, published in Dalziels’ Bible Gallery 1881.

Figure 38: Dalziel Brothers after William Holman Hunt, Eliezer and Rebekah at the Well, Wood engraving, published in Dalziels’ Bible Gallery 1881.

Figure 39: Dalziel Brothers after Ford Madox Brown, Joseph’s Coat, Wood engraving, published in Dalziels’ Bible Gallery 1881.

Figure 40: Dalziel Brothers after Ford Madox Brown, Elijah and the Widow’s Son, Wood engraving, published in Dalziels’ Bible Gallery 1881.

Figure 41: Dalziel Brothers after Edward John Poynter (1836-1919), Joseph before Pharaoh, Wood engraving, published in Dalziels’ Bible Gallery 1881.

Figure 42: Simeon Solomon, Love in Autumn, 1866, Oil on canvas, 84 x 66 cm, Private Collection.

–  –  –

Figure 44: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Bocca Baciata, 1859, Oil on wood, 32.1 x 27 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A.

Figure 45: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, The Blue Bower, 1865, Oil on canvas, 84 x 70.9 cm, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts, The University of Birmingham.

Figure 46: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Monna Vanna, 1866, Oil on canvas, 88.9 x 86.4 cm, Tate Britain, London.

Figure 47: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Purple and Rose: Lange Leizen of the Six Marks, 1864, Oil on canvas, 93.3 x 61.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, U.S.A.

Figure 48: Simeon Solomon, Habet!, 1865, Oil on canvas, 101.5 x 122 cm, Private Collection (on loan to Bradford Museums, Galleries and Heritage).

Figure 49: William Holman Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853, Oil on canvas, 76.2 x 55.9 cm, Tate Britain, London.

Figure 50: William Holman Hunt, The Children’s Holiday, 1865, Oil on canvas, 214 x 147 cm, Torre Abbey Collection, Torbay.

Figure 51: James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Symphony in White No. 1: The White Girl, 1862, Oil on canvas, 213 x 107.9 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Figure 52: John R. Parsons (photographer, active 1860s), Jane Morris, posed by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1865, Albumen print from wet collodian-on-glass negative, 15.7 x 22 cm, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Figure 53: Rebecca Solomon (1832-1886), The Wounded Dove, 1866, Watercolour on thick paper, 45.5 x 35.5 cm, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.

–  –  –

Introduction and literature review In this thesis, I will claim that the work produced by the Victorian artist, Simeon Solomon, before 1873 has been interpreted by critics predominantly in terms of his Jewishness and homosexuality and, to counterbalance this perspective, I will suggest alternative readings of a number of his paintings from this period. Having trained at Cary’s Academy and the Royal Academy Schools, Solomon became part of the PreRaphaelite circle1 of writers and artists and contributed to projects involving other PreRaphaelites in the late 1850s and early 1860s.2 By the mid-1860s he was exploring the emerging Aesthetic ideas in his art and exhibiting regularly at the avant-garde Dudley Gallery, London, while maintaining his presence at the Royal Academy.3 Indeed, this decade was the most successful period of Solomon’s artistic career. On 11th February 1873 Solomon was arrested for indecent exposure and attempting to commit sodomy4 Solomon became a member of the Pre-Raphaelite circle through his older brother and sister, Abraham (1823-62) and Rebecca (1832-86), both artists themselves although not Pre-Raphaelites, and through an introduction to Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) by the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor, Alexander Munro (1825-71). Rebecca was John Everett Millais’ (1829-96) studio assistant and Abraham, by the late 1850s at the peak of his career, knew most of the major artists in London: Mr. Holman Hunt to Solomon (Simeon or Abraham), undated letter, National Art Library, London; Simon Reynolds, The Vision of Simeon Solomon, Stroud, Glos., 1984, 7, 3; Gayle Marie Seymour, ‘The Life and Work of Simeon Solomon (1840-1905)’, unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, 1986, 28.

Dalziels’ Bible Gallery (Solomon’s designs were executed in the 1860s, but the volume was not published until 1881); William Burges’ ‘Great Bookcase’ (1859-62); stained-glass window designs for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co. (1864).

Algernon Graves F.S.A., The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904, Vol. 7, London, 1906, 208; Algernon Graves F.S.A., A Dictionary of Artists who have exhibited works in the Principal London Exhibitions From 1760 to 1893, London and Birmingham, 1901; Reynolds, Vision of Simeon Solomon, 176.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 18 |

Similar works:

«Aktuelle Südostasienforschung / Current Research on South-East Asia Lowland Participation in the Irredentist ‘Highlands Liberation Movement’ in Vietnam, 1955-1975 William B. Noseworthy1 Citation Noseworthy, W. B. (2013). Lowland participation in the irredentist ‘highlands liberation movement’ in Vietnam, 1955-1975. ASEAS – Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 6(1), 7-28. In the field of mainland South-East Asian history, particular attention has been granted to...»

«Ludic Toons Pat Power Though generally accepted as the most playfully entertaining form of popular media or art, animation as play has received little scholarly analysis. The author examines the nature of playfulness in animation and describes play as a critical tool in animation studies. Examining studio character animation from such perspectives as creative production, animated output, and audience reception, he builds on findings of animation studies, neuroscience, cognitive psychology,...»

«Cornelia Giesing Anpassung und Widerstand in der Geschichte der Bejaaund Becanja-Balanta (Senegal und Guinea-Bissau) INSTITUT FOR VÖLKERKUNDE U D AFRIKANISTIK M Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung: Im Umkreis von Kaabu 7 Historischer Überblick: In herrschaftlichen Kontexten 18 Zur Geschichte der Balanta-Landwirtschaft 28 Bejaa/Becanja in Balantakunda (19.Jh.): Ausschnitte aus einer Geschichte der Konfrontationen 34 Landwirtschaft und Widerstand 40 Eine langfristige Strategie? 52 Bejaa-Frauen und...»

«Barbers & Big Ideas: Paradox in Math and Poetry by Alice Major Published in the Journal of Mathematics and the Arts Volume 8, Issue 1-2, 2014 Special Issue: Poetry and Mathematics The final version of this paper is Available at Taylor & Francis: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17513472.2014.943999 Abstract Paradox intrigues both mathematicians and artists of all kinds. Throughout the recorded history of human thought, paradox has been a signal that we have to look hard for explanations, whether in...»

«Modernism/Postmodernism L o n g m a n C r it ic a l R e a d e r s General Editor S t a n S m ith, Professor of English, University of Dundee Published Titles George Eliot K.M. N e w t o n, Feminist Literary Criticism M ary E a g le to n, G a r y W a l l e r, Shakespeare's Comedies J o h n D r a k a k i s, Shakespearean Tragedy R i c h a r d W i l s o n a n d R i c h a r d D u t t o n, New Historicism and Renaissance Drama P e t e r W id d o w s o n, D.H. Lawrence P e t e r B r o o k e...»

«Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Volume 3, No 2 (2014) ISSN 2305-915X Situation Analysis and Perspectives of Transboundary Wastewater Management Along Israel/palestine borders Eyad Y. Yaqob1, Rashed Al-Sa`ed2, George Sorial3, & Makram Sudian4 1,3,4 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Birzeit University, Birzeit, PALESTINE.ABSTRACT Environmental problems between countries can have deep historical roots and consequences for several reasons. Most environmental...»

«©Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte O T T O D O V KULKA DIE NÜRNBERGER RASSENGESETZE U N D DIE DEUTSCHE BEVÖLKERUNG IM LICHTE GEHEIMER NS-LAGEU N D STIMMUNGSBERICHTE* Die Forschung zur Geschichte der Juden im Dritten Reich hat sich bisher zumeist auf die politischen und ideologischen Aspekte des Themas konzentriert oder auf deskriptive Darstellungen der Entrechtung, Verfolgung und Vernichtung der Juden beschränkt1. Der inneren Struktur und Organisation der jüdischen Gesellschaft, ihrem...»

«ARCHITECTURE ARCT2210 ARCHITECTURE: MODERN HISTORY Semester Semester 1 2007 This unit examines twentieth-century Western architecture from the reformist movements of the late nineteenth century to the contemporary period. The theories and work of designers are discussed in relation to the major themes of Modernism: industrial revolution, Abstract formalism, expressionism, utopianism, the relation of architecture and ideology, functionalism, regionalism, and recent reactions to Modernist...»

«Cambridge University Press 0521846013 History and Geography in Late Antiquity A. H. Merrills Excerpt More information INTRODUCTION: HISTORY’S OTHER EYE Chronology and Geography are the two eyes of History. Samuel Purchas, Pilgrimage, 2nd edn, p. 613 Seven years after Alaric’s sack of Rome in 410, and some five hundred miles away on the North African coast, the Spanish priest Orosius completed his Historiarum adversus paganos libri septem. At the very start of his piece, immediately after a...»

«O U R D U T C H A N C EST O RS I N A M E R I C A V A N W A G N E RS A N D V A N H O U T E NS By Stephen L Nebeker Nov 2010 O U R D U T C H A N C EST O RS IN A M ERIC A V A N W A G N E RS AND V A N H O U T E NS C O M PI L E D B Y ST E P H E N L. N E B E K E R INT RODUC T I ON In late 2008, while preparing to go with my wife on a mission to Mozambique Africa, for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, I turned to family history to fill some of my spare time, as  I’d  often ...»

«Aztec Nation: History, inscription, and indigenista feminism in Chicana literature and political discourse Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Garcia, Alesia, 1962Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited...»

«THE TSUNAMI HISTORY OF GUAM: 1849-1993 James F. Lander and Lowell S. Whiteside University of Colorado, CIRES, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 Paul Hattori U.S. Geological Survey, Guam Geophysical Observatory Box 8001, Dededo, Guam 96912-8001 ABSTRACT The great (Mw 8.1) tsunamigenic earthquake of August 8, 1993, about 50 km to the east of Guam, has created renewed interest in the tsunami hazard for the island of Guam. We examine this hazard from two perspectiveshistorical and mechanistic. Guam has had...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.