WWW.ABSTRACT.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstract, dissertation, book
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 38 |

«Title of Document: STRUCTURING BIODEFENSE: LEGACIES AND CURRENT POLICY CHOICES Stacy M. Okutani, Doctor of Philosophy, 2007 Directed By: Professor ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

ABSTRACT

Title of Document: STRUCTURING BIODEFENSE: LEGACIES

AND CURRENT POLICY CHOICES

Stacy M. Okutani, Doctor of Philosophy, 2007

Directed By: Professor John D. Steinbruner

School of Public Policy

Policies are usually initiated in response to specific circumstances, but they do

not become effective unless they are embedded in operating institutions.

Understanding the historical process through which policies evolve is essential for assessing their character and their consequence. This study is a detailed history of the US bioweapons program from its inception to the present. It is an original analysis based on archival documents and scientific reports. The issue is, does the application of national security measures such as the classification of scientific programs improve biodefense?

Initial organization of the US bioweapons program as a secret, military program that performed threat assessment work (1941-1969) led to the development and stockpiling of biological weapons for deterrence, but few medical defenses. A strategic review in 1969 concluded that bioweapons were not useful for legitimate military missions and did not enhance US deterrence. It also concluded that proliferation threatened the US. To reduce proliferation, the US destroyed its bioweapons arsenal and enforced the norm against bioweapons acquisition by signing the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1972. Subsequent organization of the US biodefense program was as an unclassified military medical research program. This work at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) improved medical countermeasures without a concomitant classified, offensive program. However, in response to the terrorist attacks of 2001, the US is again imposing secrecy over important aspects of its biodefense work, including its threat assessment work. Based on the analysis here, current policy will increase the risk to US security by both enlarging the threat space and reducing defensive options.

STRUCTURING BIODEFENSE: LEGACIES AND CURRENT POLICY CHOICES

By Stacy M. Okutani Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Advisory Committee:

Professor John D. Steinbruner, Chair Doctor D.A. Henderson Professor Peter B. Jahrling Professor Dennis Pirages, Dean’s Representative Professor Robert H. Sprinkle © Copyright by Stacy M. Ok

–  –  –

So much intervenes in the course of developing an idea, especially when that course takes years. Something about the process requires time spent in speculation, misery, inspiration, and plain hard work – possibly in equal amounts. As Virginia Woolf wrote, “If anything comes through in spite of all this, it is a miracle, and no book is born entire and uncrippled as it was conceived.” For the miracle of this dissertation’s completion, I want to thank those who helped shape my thinking and those who tempered the hard times with their friendship.

The University of Maryland welcomed me with a University Fellowship when I started the Ph.D. program. In this way, I was able to devote my time to finishing the coursework and exploring dissertation topics. More than any other, Professor John Steinbruner broadened the scope of my understanding of security challenges and our options for meeting them. For their time and patience in their teaching, I am grateful to Dean Steve Fetter, Professor Tom Schelling, Professor I. Mac Destler, Professor Carmen Reinhart, Professor David Crocker, Professor Kori Schake, and Professor Peter Reuter.

After completing my coursework, I was fortunate to work at the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) where I could explore other aspects of the topic. My work at CISSM was on the Advanced Methods of Cooperative Security Project, which is supported with generous funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation. For the past few years at CISSM, I was able to develop the ideas in this dissertation and have

–  –  –

Milton Leitenberg.

I am enormously grateful to the members of my committee. Professor John Steinbruner is an inspiration: without his intellectual guidance and support, I could not have written any part of this, much less the whole. Dr. D.A. Henderson and Professor Peter B. Jahrling were immensely helpful throughout the course of my work, always available to talk and provide me with a good contact to help deepen my understanding. Professor Robert Sprinkle provided good counsel from beginning to end. Professor Sam Joseph taught me all I know about microbiology. Finally, I want to thank Professor Dennis Pirages for being willing to jump in as my Dean’s Representative when Professor Joseph retired.

The University of Maryland’s libraries were a joy to explore and the staff always knowledgeable and helpful. I am grateful to Janice Goldblum, an archivist at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). In both the University’s libraries and at the NAS archives I discovered neglected documents rich with promise. Finally, the Bioethics library at Georgetown University was a particular pleasure: in one small, beautiful room one could explore the full range of this topic.





With great humor and kindness, my friends helped make this travel endurable:

Aziza Nazarova, Jennifer Hill, Jeffrey Lewis, Tim Gulden, Chuck Thornton, Kevin DeWitt Jones, and Chris Thompson. Many thanks to you and to others.

My family suffered patiently with me through this. My parents, Verna and Bob Maynard, waited and never expressed the concerns they must have felt, providing me the unconditional support and love they always have. I am deeply

–  –  –

really good laugh! My brother, Ken, set the intellectual bar high. And my father, Brian, has always kept alive the question, “why?” – sustaining the curiosity one must have to pursue any topic.

I am thankful to Noel Gunther and his family, particularly Ed, Irene, Marc, and Estelle. We’ve been through so much together and they have been an important part of my life throughout this time. What I cherish most in the world I would not have without them.

My two sons, Noah and Aaron, have grown over these years: with them, I am blessed well beyond deserving.

–  –  –

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures

Chapter 1: Management of the Bioterrorist Threat

The Approach

Broader Issues

A Brief History Lesson

Secrecy vs. Transparency

Chapter 2: Creating the Logic of Biodefense

Pre-War BW Attitudes

Paradigm Shift: The WBC Committee and the Feasibility of Bioweapons............ 28 Establishing the Threat

Technical Fesibility

Choosing a Response

The War Research Service (1942-1944)

Research and Development

Intelligence

The Chemical Warfare Service

The Army Surgeon General’s Office

DEF Committee: 1944-1948

War’s End

Conclusion

Chapter 3: Developing the Offense

The Late 1940s

The DEF Committee: Publication Issues

The DEF Committee: The Future of BW Work in Peacetime

BW Policy Evolution

Bioweapons Development and Testing: 1950-1969

Medical Defenses against BW

The 1969 Choice to Disarm

The Biological Weapons Convention

Conclusion

Chapter 4: Relying on Defense

USAMRIID: 1969-1990

Funding

An Overview of USAMRIID’s Work

Vaccine Research

vii Drug Development and Drug Screening

Detection

Basic Research

Biodefense Work Under Transparency Rules

Scientific publication at USAMRIID

International Cooperation: Validation of Technologies and Medicines........... 116 No Open-Air Testing in the Public Domain

Limiting Threat Assessment

National Security and the Question of Past Offensive Work

Conclusion

Chapter 5: The Regression of BW Strategy

Evolution of Biodefense Policy: 1989-2004

Critical Events and US Responses

Access Controls on Select Agents

Oversight of Research

Current Strategy

Department of Defense

Health and Human Services: Response, Recovery & Countermeasures.......... 140 Department of Homeland Security: Threat Awareness & Surveillance........... 143 Characteristics of the Current Strategy

Chapter 6: Choice and Consequence

The Past as Future?

BW are Feasible, Powerful, Inexpensive and Easily Hidden

Advances in Technology make new BW possible

Intelligence Collection not Sufficient

Investigation of the Offense is Necessary to prepare Defenses

Necessary to Investigate the Nature and Extent of US Vulnerability............... 157 BW Research and Publication Requires Classification & Access Controls..... 158 BW Use Not Governed by Moral Considerations or International Agreements

Deterrence Not Feasible

Which History?

A National Program

International Cooperation

The Road Ahead

Appendix A: USAMRIID Research Summary

Anthrax

Anthrax Toxin Studies

The Role of Plasmids

Virulence Testing

Vaccine Studies

Production

Challenge Tests

viii Detection

Tularemia

Vaccine Interactions

Skin Test

Other Vaccine Studies

Studies of Modes of Vaccination

Drug Interactions

Clinical Trials (LVS)

Pathogenesis

Acquisition of Host Resistance

Nonspecific Resistance

Passive Transfer

Detection

Q Fever

Phase II and Phase I whole cell vaccines

CMR Vaccine

Subunit Vaccines

Vaccine Combinations

Immunology

Virulence Studies

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Vaccine Studies

Immunology

Detection

Plague

Melioidosis and Glanders

Yellow Fever Virus

Vaccine Studies

Therapies

Basic Studies

Influenza Virus

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE)

Vaccine Studies

Vaccine Combinations

New Vaccine Testing

Adjuvants

Virulence Testing

Vaccine Production

Antiviral Testing

Control of an Epizootic

In utero Viral Transmission

Radiation Challenge

Immunological Responses

Detection

Rift Valley Fever Virus

Vaccine Research

ix Vaccine Combinations

Synthetic Peptides for Vaccine Development

Attenuated Vaccine Studies

Antiviral Therapies

Adjuvants

Aerosol Tests

Basic Research

Transmission Studies

Detection

Korean Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (Hantaan)

Machupo Virus

Cross Protection and Subunit Vaccines

Therapy

Basic Research

Junin Virus

Vaccine Research

Cross Protection

Therapy

Detection

Basic Research

Lassa Virus

Vaccine Research

Therapy

Basic Research

Botulinum Toxin

Toxoids

Challenge Studies

Toxin Production

Botulinum Immune Plasma (Equine and Human)

Immunology and Therapy

Detection

T-2Mycotoxins

Pathogenesis

Challenge Tests

Prophylaxis and Therapy

Detection

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB)

Toxoid Studies

Toxin Preparation

Pathogenesis

Detection

Basic Research

Ricin

Appendix B: USAMRIID FY1969-FY1990 Pathogenesis Studies

Appendix C: USAMRIID FY69-FY90 Vaccine & Therapy Studies

Appendix D: USAMRIID FY1969-FY1990 Detection Studies

x Glossary

Bibliography

–  –  –

TABLES

Table 1: WRS Research projects: 1942-1944………………………………………..43 Table 2: Biological Weapons and Biodefenses (1944-1969)………………………..85 Table 3: Funding at USAMRIID by Area…………………………………………..101 Table 4: Category A Agents………………………………………………………..148 Table 5: Comparison of Presumptions……………………………………………..153 Table 6: Balance of Readiness as of 1969………………………………………….162

FIGURES

Figure 1: The War Research Service (structure)……………………………………..42 Figure 2: The Concept of Munitions Command (1962)…….…………………….…77 Figure 3: USAMRIID Funding: FY1969-FY1990…………………………………101 Figure 4: USAMRIID Work Years and Publications………………………………115

–  –  –

Biological weapons are excellent terrorist weapons, but are not effective for legitimate military missions. That was the original judgment of the US in the first few decades of the twentieth century. During World War II, the accuracy of that assessment was challenged through an intense BW R&D program that grew through the 1950s and 1960s. The original justification for the US BW program was defense against presumed enemy BW programs: the result was a stockpile of biological weapons. Driving this outcome was the argument that understanding of offensive BW potential was critical to development of defenses. However, when the US terminated its BW program in 1969, it had not produced or stockpiled adequate medical countermeasures. Current policy in reaction to the 2001 terrorist events is applying the same logic – and expecting the opposite outcome. Instead, US policy should evolve out of the predominantly open and defensive medical research program that has existed since 1969 to manage the bioweapons threat. That was a robust, unclassified scientific R&D program based at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID): it developed important medical defense against the most virulent bioagents known.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 38 |


Similar works:

«1 Ivor L. Miller October 2013 Senior Lecturer. Department of History & International Studies. University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria Research Fellow. African Studies Center. Boston University Email: imiller@hampshire.edu; Milleri@si.edu. Curriculum Vitae Education 1995 Northwestern University Ph.D. Department of Performance Studies. Topic: Historical anthropology of trans-Atlantic Yorùbá cultural systems in colonial and contemporary Cuba. 1990 Yale University M.A. African and...»

«ANCESTRY TESTING AND DNA: USES, LIMITS – AND CAVEAT EMPTOR Troy Duster, PhD Direct consumer use of DNA tests for ancestry tracing has taken off in the last five years, and we are not just talking about probes for first-generation genetic lineage as in “Who’s your daddy?” popularized on daytime “reality” television. Since 2002, nearly a half-million people have purchased tests from at least two dozen companies marketing direct-to-consumer kits (Bolnick et al 2007). The motives for...»

«Among the spirits of cyberspace: an analysis of shamanic motifs in Neuromancer Anelie Crighton Abstract: Drawing on anthropological, religious, and historical studies of shamanism, this paper traces the correspondences between the depiction of human interaction with cyberspace in William Gibson‟s novel Neuromancer and the progress of a Siberian shaman, whose physical and mental trials eventually perfect his or her mastery of journeys to the spirit world. From Case‟s early initiatory...»

«2012-2013 FDIC PASS-THROUGH INSURANCE  99 JUST PASSING THROUGH: A HISTORY AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF FDIC INSURANCE OF DEPOSITS HELD BY BROKERS AND OTHER CUSTODIANS PAUL T. CLARK* I. Introduction II. Basics of FDIC Coverage A. Definition of Deposit B. Insurable Rights and Capacities C. Accounts Established by Another Person III. Rejections of Challenges to Pass-Through Insurance. 134 IV. Overview of Custodial Relationships A. Escrow Arrangements B. Investment-Purpose Custodial Relationships....»

«SCOTT HARDING Associate Professor School of Social Work University of Connecticut Email: scott.harding@uconn.edu West Hartford, CT 06117 Phone: (860) 570-9182 EDUCATION Doctorate of Social Welfare (Ph.D.) University of Washington, 2000 Dissertation: “Urban Redevelopment, Housing Loss and Class Segregation: A Case Study of Gentrification in Seattle” Master of Social Work (MSW) California State University, Sacramento, 1992 Concentration: Community Organizing, Planning and Administration...»

«A Short History of Child Protection in America JOHN E.B. MYERS* I. Introduction The history of child protection in America is divisible into three eras.1 The first era extends from colonial times to 1875 and may be referred to as the era before organized child protection. The second era spans 1875 to 1962 and witnessed the creation and growth of organized child protection through nongovernmental child protection societies. The year 1962 marks the beginning of the third or modern era: the era of...»

«1 A HISTORY of ANTERO ANTERO Tarquínio DE QUENTAL — poet, philosopher, thinker and political agitator — is one of the most remarkable characters in Portuguese cultural history. Born in Ponta Delgada on April 18 1842, from an illustrious family descendent of the first settlers in the island of São Miguel, young Antero received a brushed, yet traditional catholic education. Despite having left his home island very young to continue his studies in Lisbon (1852, 1855) and then in Coimbra...»

«7 Karakorum Himalaya: Sourcebook for a Protected Area Nigel J. R. Allan The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of IUCN. IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Pakistan 1 Bath Island Road, Karachi 75530 © 1995 by IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Pakistan All rights reserved ISBN 969-8141-13-8 Contents Preface v Introduction 1 1 HISTORY Natural Heritage 11 Geology 11 Glaciology 14 Associative Cultural Landscape 17 Local Ideas and Beliefs about Mountains 17 Culturally...»

«Antivivisection and Charity Peter Radan ∗ Abstract After the National Anti-Vivisection Society had held the status of ‘charitable institution’ for more than five decades, in 1948 the House of Lords held it was not a charitable institution because its objectives were political, and also because any benefit to the public that flowed from abolishing vivisection was outweighed by the cost to society, in terms of medical research that was of benefit to mankind. In light of the historical...»

«HERITAGE CITATION REPORT Name SPC Limited Address Andrew Fairley Avenue SHEPPARTON Significance Level B Place Type Factory/ Plant Citation Date 2004 Main Factory Building (c.1960 addition) Recommended VHR No HI PS Yes Heritage Protection History and Historical Context The Shepparton Fruit Preserving Company (now known as SPC Ardmona) was formed in 1917. Production in the first year reached 432,000 tins. The original weatherboard building was described in the Shepparton Advertiser, in February...»

«Stratford Blue A History Of Stratford On Avon S Local Buses It is safe to download their time sales and serve big to try they. At company, give emotions, be company, was to quote experiences quality. Pdf across pdf competition rather them is highly only by a bank and falling out of your success. In you receive, it can no sustain online opportunities for professionals of results. Be so online with the recession growth example from sold for every time and years insurance by the employee. You do...»

«North Carolina State Research Guide Family History Sources in the Tar Heel State North Carolina History The first permanent English settlers in North Carolina were Virginians who heard glowing reports of fertile bottomlands, abundant timber resources, and an excellent climate. They moved into the Albemarle Sound area about 1650, purchasing land from the local Indian tribes. Two factors heavily influenced the development of North Carolina. Its stormy coastline, known as the “graveyard of the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.abstract.xlibx.info - Free e-library - Abstract, dissertation, book

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.