«Lesson 1: Natural, Human, and Capital Resources Focus Question: How are natural resources, human resources and capital resources used to produce ...»
Lesson 1: Natural, Human, and Capital Resources
Focus Question: How are natural resources, human resources and capital resources
used to produce goods and services?
Activity # 1 Identifying Resources Used in Communityville…A Long Tome Ago
Note: This activity aims to develop an understanding of natural, human, and capital resources through
a mapping exercise. The Communityville lesson has been adapted from The Community Publishing
Company by Diane Wilcox Reinke, published by the Joint Council on Economic Education. The activity is an extension of the Communityville lesson found in the Grade 3 Unit 1, Lesson 5.
Materials needed: For each pair of students, a copy of Communityville…a Long Time Ago (Handout #1.1) vocabulary word cards for: natural resources, human resources, capital resources, goods, and services. (Definitions are included in the lesson on page 5.); magnifying glasses; document camera or make a transparency of the 3 handouts.
Step 1: It is helpful to discuss one quadrant at a time of the map Communityville…a Long Time Ago (Handout #1.1). Have students fold each map vertically and then horizontally. Label the upper lefthand quadrant A1 and the right-hand quadrant B1. Label the lower quadrants A2 and B2 respectively.
Using a magnifying glass, have students examine the map. Note the major symbols (trees, rivers, buildings, streets, the lake, railroad, etc…). As the items are discussed, develop the following table on
chart paper or on the board:
Continuity and Change Before People Came to After People Came to Live in Communityville Live in Communityville trees buildings river roads land railroad
What symbols would have been found on a map of the Communityville area before people lived there? (e.g., trees and river).
What symbols would be found on a map of San Diego before people lived here?
Explain to the students that they have been listing resources. The items listed on the chart before people came to live in Communityville or to San Diego are called natural resources.
What symbols do you find on the map after people have come to live in Communityville? (e.g., buildings, roads, and railroad)?
What symbols would be found on a map of San Diego now that people live here?
Step 2: Display vocabulary cards for the following terms:
Natural resources are something from nature that people can use, such as trees, land, water, animals, and minerals, etc...
Standard 3.5 Economic Resources and Choices 1 Human resources are the people needed to grow or make and sell a product or service. The people who came to live in Communityville used their human resources (their labor) along with the natural resources, to build the roads, railroad, and buildings, etc...
Capital resources include money to start a new business, tools, buildings, machinery, and any other goods people make to produce goods and provide services. The items the people in Communityville produced are called capital resources.
Step 3: Ask students questions such as:
How did the people of Communityville use the natural resources to make the things they wanted?
(They used trees to build buildings and bridges, etc... They used water for drinking, cleaning and transportation, etc... They used the land for growing crops and feeding animals, etc...) How did the local Kumeyyay Indians use natural resources for the things they wanted?
What capital resources did the people use when building Communityville? (Plows, axes, wagons, saws, and machines, etc…) Step 4: Explain that there are places on the map where the people of the community can buy things such as food, education, shelter, medical care, and clothing. These are generally classified as goods or
services. Display the following vocabulary cards:
Goods are products or things that can be bought or sold.
Services are the work that people do for others in exchange for money.
For example, a piece of clothing is a good, and the work involved in making it is a service. The food you buy in a restaurant is a good, but you have also bought the services of the following people: the cook; the person who served the food; the cashier who took your payment; and, the kitchen helper who cleaned up after you left.
Step 5: Return to the Communityville map. Locate, circle, and label some places on the map where people in Communityville can buy goods and/or services. Write „G‟ for the word good and write „S‟ for the word service. Ask “How can we indicate something that fits both categories?” (write both letters)
Activity # 2 Communityville…Growing Materials needed: For each pair of students, a copy of Communityville…Growing (Handout #1.2)
Step 1: Project a copy of Communityville…Growing (Handout #1.2) and distribute copies to the students. Have students analyze how the community has grown as they compare and contrast the changes between this map and the map of “Communityville – A Long Time Ago.” Step 2: On a sheet of chart paper or on the board, copy the table shown below and list changes as the class discovers them. Ask what natural resources and capital resources have changed.
Ask students: Why do you think these changes occurred?
Growth in a community is due to:
Growth in the number of people as well as their changing economic wants.
As communities grow, they offer more goods and services to people. This helps the community to continue to grow.
People will move to communities that have more goods and services available.
Step 3: On the “Communityville Growing” have students circle and label the places on the map that have been “added” or “expanded” where people can buy goods and/or services. Write “G” for goods, “S” for service, or “GS” (both letters), depending upon what is available for sale.
Step 1: Project a copy of Communityville…Today (Handout #1.3) and distribute copies to the students. Fold the map into fourths and number each quadrant.
Note that three new roads have been built (Timberland Trail, Ridgewood Road, Oak Street). Analyze what physical features still remain and which have changed. (The farm, some trees and the lowland have disappeared.) What has taken their place?
Ask students to locate some new places on the “Communityville …Today” map that provide goods and/or services. Circle and label the places on the map that have been added or expanded where people in Communityville can buy goods and/or services. Write “G” for good, “S” for “service, or both letters, depending upon what is available for sale.
What industries have expanded? (The general store has been enlarged to a grocery store. The town dump has enlarged to the Sanitary Land Fill.
Ask students: “Why have these changes occurred?” Step 2: On the back of the map, ask students to complete the sentence, “Communityville has changed because….” Guide students in their thinking by having them consider the changes in the availability of community resources and in the availability of goods and services.
Also, on the back of the map, have students answer the following question:
Would you like to live in “Communityville a Long Time Ago,” in “Communityville Growing,” or “Communityville Today”? Why?
Activity # 4 Defining “Goods” and “Services” In this activity, students will make a transition from looking at Communityville to looking at San Diego.
Write “Goods” and “Services” on a piece of chart paper or on the board. As you complete the following activity, record some examples of “goods” and “services” in San Diego.
Standard 3.5 Economic Resources and Choices 4 Review the definition of goods as products or things that can be bought or sold. In addition, goods are things you can hold or touch, such as food, shoes, cars, and toys. Some people make and sell goods or products. Discuss with students the types of stores in the community that provide goods.
Where do people buy their food? (e.g., grocery store, farmers‟ market) Explain about the many different types of grocery stores in a free market economy, including big ones, small ones, specialized and discount ones, etc…. Individuals have many choices.
Where would you go if you wanted to buy shoes? List the names of specific shoe stores and whether they are located in a large shopping mall or strip mall or along a business street.
Note: It may be useful to show the local yellow pages. Refer to the Yellow Page activity at the end of this lesson.
Continue to brainstorm more types of “goods” and record each on the chart or board. Point out that in a free market economy, the word “free” does not mean the items are without cost. A free market economy means people have many options of where to buy or sell goods and where to select and provide services.
Review the definition of services as the work that people do for others in exchange for money. Some
people offer services which, when performed, help others. Familiar services are some of the following:
medical care; hair styling; baby-sitting; teaching (providing education); teaching how to skate;
removing garbage; and, delivering the mail or newspaper to a home or business.
In a classroom discussion, first identify a variety of “needs” and then elicit what businesses would provide matching services. Record each “service” along with its corresponding business title on the
Goods and Services chart. For example:
Need: you are sick or hurt and need assistance. Where do you go?” (Doctor‟s office, medical center, or the hospital) Emphasize that Americans are very fortunate to have so many choices available.
Need: your hair is too long and needs cutting. Where do you go?” (Barbershop, hair salon, to your parent or relative who can cut your hair) Need: to learn how to read better. Where does a 7 year old go? (To elementary school) Where does a 15-year-old go? (To high school) Need: to learn to use a computer. Where does a 7-year-old go? Where does an adult go?
Continue to brainstorm the places in Diego that provide appropriate “services.” Note: Review that a “free market economy” includes many options for providing services. And, it may be appropriate to use the yellow pages again.
Activity #5 Sorting “Goods” and “Services” Materials Needed: 12” X 18” pieces of construction paper; crayons or markers or glue; scissors;
magazines; and, the Sunday newspapers‟ ad sections for cutting out pictures.
To each pair of students, distribute a sheet of 9” X 12” piece of construction paper that is divided in half vertically. Students write Goods on the left side and Services on the right side. Have students draw and color or cut out and paste pictures of “goods” on the left side of the paper.
Using their chart, have each student make an individual choice of a good or service that he/she would purchase and orally, or in writing, explain his/her choice.
Activity # 7 Materials needed: Harcourt Reflections: Our Communities; For each student, a copy of Homework and Practice Book page 98 Study the text structure of Unit 6, Lesson 1, pages 414-419. Read the text and discuss the key vocabulary words goods, wage, depend, service, producer and consumer.
Review the definitions of natural, human and capital resources. To assess the students understanding of the terms, assign page 98 from the Homework and Practice Book.
Assessment Assessment for this lesson occurs throughout the lesson. The focus question provides a framework for
evaluation of the lesson. Student work to be assessed includes:
Work together in a group to answer questions about the changes in natural, human and capital resources and in the production of goods and services in Communityville…Long Ago, Communityville…Growing, and Communityville…Today (Activity #1 - #3).
Draw and color or cut and paste pictures of “goods” on the left side of a sheet of construction paper.
On the right side, identify a “service” by showing someone performing that service. Explain why each picture is placed under the “goods” or the “services” categories. Select a good or service you would purchase and orally, or in writing, explain your choice (Activity # 5).
Complete a Yellow Pages Scavenger Hunt (Activity #6).
Complete Homework and Practice Book page 98 (Activity #7).
(Optional) Consumer Matrix Using the scavenger hunt information, have students list 5 “goods” or “services” they might use and then locate a local business that can provide the “goods” or “services.” Have students record these goods and services on a matrix like the one listed below.
Standard 3.5 Economic Resources and Choices 7 Handout #1.2 Standard 3.5 Economic Resources and Choices 8 Handout #1.3 Standard 3.5 Economic Resources and Choices 9 Handout #1.4 Yellow Pages Scavenger Hunt Use the yellow pages to find the name and telephone number of one business for each of the following categories. The business must be located in your city.
Beauty Salon ______________________________________________________________________
Pet Store _________________________________________________________________________
Shoe Store _______________________________________________________________________
Auto Repair ______________________________________________________________________
Clothing Store ____________________________________________________________________