«Abstract Many previous researches in the giving behavior studies, applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an underlying theory in predicting ...»
FACTOR INFLUENCING CASH WAQF GIVING BEHAVIOR :
A REVISED THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR
Amirul Faiz Osman1
Mustafa Omar Mohammed2
Many previous researches in the giving behavior studies, applied the Theory of Planned
Behavior (TPB) as an underlying theory in predicting giving behavior. However, there is little
attempt to examine cash waqf giving behavior using TPB and consequently validate this theory. In this study an extended Theory of Planned Behavior was introduced by included three additional construct namely trust, religiosity and perceived services quality towards cash waqf giving behavior intention. Concern with findings, out of seven hypotheses, four was found to have positively influence intention toward cash waqf giving namely perceived behavior control, trust and religiosity. While intention is positively influence the cash waqf giving behavior. This study also confirms the suitability and validation of TPB in cash waqf giving behavior context. This shows that TPB is a general theory which can be applied in various fields to explain compliance behavior.
Keywords: Cash waqf giving behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior. Trust. Religiosity and Perceived Service Quality 2015 GBSEJournal Introduction Cash waqf is a type of waqf where the original capital consists of cash or money (Cizacka, 2000). The introduction of cash waqf in early fifteenth century opened a new insight for waqf development, specifically to encourage Muslims giving behavior. Many waqf institutions, for instance, in Syria, Egypt, India, Singapore and Malaysia embraced the idea of cash waqf which seems to have great potential and benefit (Mohsin, 2009).
Ph.D Student at IIUM Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance (IIiBF). Islamic Business School (IBS), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Lecturer at IIUM Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance (IIiBF) Islamic Business School (IBS), College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia For instance, cash waqf is perceived as a sources of fund in the Islamic economy. It can serve as a financial tool for the Muslim ummah. The return obtained from cash waqf can be channeled into a public project, for example, building schools, mosques, bridges, providing food, etc. (Cizacka, 2000). Moreover, cash waqf is easy and flexible4 (Kuran, 2001). It is not restricted to any law5 which would prevent anyone from giving cash waqf. Anybody can endow cash waqf as much as he wishes. Furthermore, cash waqf carries the least burden and procedure, such as, it does not require much documentation6 (Mahamood, 2011). In addition, cash waqf comes as a great solution to the liquidity problem faced by many mutawallis in developing awqaf properties and assets (Meera, 2013). Therefore, cash waqf opens a wide opportunity for Muslims especially in Malaysia to be involved in this practice.
In spite of the great potential and administrative transformation of the waqf instrument, cash waqf giving behavior remains unattractive, in Selangor in particular and Malaysia, in general.
Mahamood (2011) stated that the acceptance level of the waqif/donors towards cash waqf giving behavior is relatively low. Most of the waqif/donors are inclined toward endowment of real assets and property as subjects for waqf instead of cash waqf giving, despite the fact that it is much easier and flexible in nature (Ismail, 2009). On the same note, Mohsin (2009) revealed that although the amount of cash waqf collected is quite considerable, however, the feedback is still lacking. She related this to the fact that the level of public understanding on cash waqf schemes is still relatively low and the majority of them still think that waqf is only limited to immovable assets. In addition, Al-Habsyi, (2014) and Mohammed, (2012) mentioned that the number of Muslim donors (waqif) who contributed cash waqf in this present day is very small as compared to the early age of Islam. Similarly, Al-Bugha (2012) stated that the desire to contribute waqf in this current day has decreased among many Muslims.
Unfortunately, in this context the framework that covers the determinant factors toward cash waqf giving behavior, especially in the Malaysia context, are missing. Many studies by previous scholars highlighted the importance and significance of cash waqf instrument in the development of the social economics of the ummah and in the development of the Islamic Economic System (Mannan, 1998; Cizacka, 2000; Mohsin,2009; Lahsasna, 2010;
Alias,2011). However, these studies have neglected the importance of cash waqf giving behavior. According to Mohammed, (2012) and Hassan, (2010) cash waqf giving behavior is socially significant in the development of awqaf instruments and institutions which rely much on cash to support the establishment and sustainability of these awqaf institutions. Hence, in such circumstances, it is increasingly important to understand the characteristics and behavior of Muslim donors in cash waqf giving practices.
Furthermore, one main reason why the collection of cash waqf is not promising may be attributed to trust. According to Mohsin, (2009), some donors are reluctant to give waqf or cash waqf to the mutawallis due to the lack of trust, and prefer to manage it on their own. It has been cited in other literatures that trust and giving behavior are related sequentially (Sargeant et al.,2006). Trust refers to the extent of donor belief that a charity will behave as expected and fulfill its obligations (Sargeant & Lee, 2004). According to Tonkiss and Passey (1999) the potential donor will be driven by the extent to which they believe the organization has demonstrated it will use donations wisely. With regards to studies of cash waqf giving behavior, the nature of cash waqf scheme, which requires an appointment of trustee or Cash waqf provides liquidity and option for instance, it can be used for property investment or buying sukuk in market.
For waqf of property such as land, it is restricted to the National Land Code 1965 For example, document of transfer of ownership of waqf by waqif/founder mutawallis, adversely entails a higher degree of trust among waqif towards the mutawallis.
Hence, in this context, trust deserves to be revisited because this variables has not been empirically tested in relation to nonprofit (mutawallis) –donor (waqif) relationship especially in context to Muslim donors in Malaysia.
Theory Of Planned Behavior Azjen (1985) proposed Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which is an extension of theory of reason action (TRA). The main similarity between TPB and TRA is that both models focus on the individual‟s intention to perform a given behavior. However, TPB tackles the issue of behaviors that occurs without a person‟s volitional control. In addition, TPB adds the Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) element, which differentiates it substantially from TRA.
PBC is the component that accounts for situations where an individual has less than complete control over the behavior, which can differ according to various situations and actions (Azjen, 1991).
To provide accurate understanding of prediction of behavior, TPB deals with attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. TPB hypothesizes that behavior is a function of prominent beliefs, which are significant to that behavior. These salient beliefs are regarded as the widespread determinants of a person‟s intentions and actions. Figure 1 outlines these salient beliefs.
Figure 1 above clearly presents the main components of the TPB. They are attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions and behavior (Azjen, 1991). The TPB assumes that individual behavior is led and controlled by behavioral intentions.
Intention Intention is an indication of a person‟s readiness to perform a given behavior, and it considered an immediate antecedent of behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Intention is assumed to capture the motivational factors that influence the behavior. It is an indication of how hard people are willing to try and how much of an effort they are planning to exert, in order to perform the behavior. In general, the stronger the intention to engage in behavior, the more likely it would be performed. (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1985).
Attitude Attitude toward behavior is defined as an individual‟s positive or negative feelings (evaluation effect) about performing the target behavior (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). According to Ajzen (2008), attitude towards behavior generally affects the intention more than the dimensions of subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Moreover, attitude dimension depends on individual salient beliefs, which represent perceived outcomes or attributes of the behavior (Conner & Armitage, 1998). Based on a wide range of studies in different settings of behaviors and intentions to engage in those behaviors, attitude explains over 50% of the variance in intentions (Ajzen, 1991). The more positive the attitude; the greater is the intention.
Subjective Norm Subjective norm is the perceived social pressure to engage or not to engage in a behavior. It is assumed that subjective norm is determined by the total set of accessible normative belief concerning the expectation of important referents (Ajzen, 1991).
Perceived Behavior Control Perceived behavioral control refers to people‟s perceptions of their ability to perform a given behavior.
Previous Research The review of the selected works revealed that TPB has been successfully applied in many areas of study including in the giving behavior setting (Linden, 2011; Saad, 2010;Bidin, 2008;
Smith & Mcsweeney, 2007). However, very few studies conducted focused on cash waqf giving behavior especially in context of Muslim donors in Malaysia.
In the context of giving behavior studies, a recent study by Knowles et al., (2012) used TPB to predict young people‟s intention to donate money to charities among teenagers in Australia.
Similarly, Linden (2011) extended the TPB construct to test the influence of six socialpsychological variables namely; attitude, perceived behavior control, prescriptive norm, descriptive norm, moral norm and past behavior on an individual‟s intention to donate to charity in the United Kingdom. While Smith and Mcsweeney, (2007) used a revised TPB model to determine the influence of attitudes, norm (injunctive, descriptive and moral norms), perceived behavior control, and past behavior on intention to donate money to charitable organizations in Australia In zakah compliance behavior studies, Huda et al., (2012) analysed the potential of zakah payer in Indonesia by examining the theory of planned behavior on attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control of the muzakki’s intention to pay zakah. In the Malaysian context, Sapinggi et al., (2011) examined the intention of muzakki to pay zakah of employment among academic staff in public and private university in Malaysia. Saad (2010), studies the factors that influence compliance behavior on business zakah. By using the theory of planned behavior, the study identifies that the theory such as attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral controls, could explain intention and compliance behavior in business zakah environment. Similarly Bidin (2008) used the theory of planned behavior as the underlying theory in determining zakah compliance behavioral intention on employement income.
A number of previous studies have incorporated TPB in their work (Knowles et al.,2012;
Huda et al., 2012; Sapinggi, 2011, Linden, 2011; Smith & McSweeney, 2007; Saad, 2010;
Bidin, 2008) and some of them used other theories to examine giving behavior such as Theory of Reason Action (TRA) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Saad & Hanifa, 2014;
Amin et al., 2014). The following table 1 summarizes these previous studies using TPB model and other models. The following section present more details of these studies.
Table 1: Underpinning Theories of Previous Studies in Giving Behavior Setting
In its original formulation, the TPB was a parsimonious account of the attitude-behavior relationship and decades of research have demonstrated the power of the model to predict behavioral performance (Armitage & Conner, 2001). Nevertheless, Ajzen, (1991) suggested that if further predictors can be identified, the TPB is open to expansion. This has led to the consideration of a number of additional predictors. Previous research in giving behavior setting has included several number of additional predictor in TPB (Knowles et al., 2012;Linden, 2011; Smith & Mcsweeney, 2007). Thus, in the present study, the role of trust, religiosity and perceived service quality were examined.
Discussion And Conclusion
The present study revealed that attitude had no effect toward cash waqf giving intention, which contradicts the findings of previous studies on giving behavior (Osman et al., 2014;
Knowles et al., 2012;Linden, 2011;Smith & Mcsweeney, 2007;Bidin, 2008). However, the finding of this study is in line with Saad, (2010) who indicated that attitude did not have a significant effect on zakah business compliance behavior intention.
Among the reason that may attribute to this cause are the differences of the environment of the study, population, and the classification of study which could influenced of individual‟s attitude. In contrast to other research studies (Knowles et al., 2012; Linden, 2011;Smith & Mcsweeney,2007; Bidin, 2008) the environment of cash waqf giving behavior is unique whereby it is voluntary in nature and requires the trustee to manage the cash waqf fund. The donors themselves do not have a right to determine where the money goes and manage their cash waqf fund despite the need to have another party to manage it, called the mutawallis.
Thus, the influence of personal factor, such as attitude, would be a little different than other previous studies. This study showed that the attitude of Muslim donors is different with the attitude of students donor (Osman et al., 2014) in respect to cash waqf giving behavior.
Hence, According to Ajzen and Fishbein, (1980) this difference is due to the changes in attitude objects and a population of studies. This shows that the construct of attitude cannot be generalized to all objects and population because it is depends on a specific attitude objects and population.