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«Item type Masters (taught) Authors Fullerton, Leanne Downloaded 8-May-2016 01:51:21 Item License ...»

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Marketing cultural resources: towards organisational best

practice

Item type Masters (taught)

Authors Fullerton, Leanne

Downloaded 8-May-2016 01:51:21

Item License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10759/323581

MARKETING CULTURAL RESOURCES:

TOWARDS ORGANISATIONAL BEST PRACTICE

Leanne Fullerton

Dissertation in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MSc in Marketing Practice 11th September 2008

Presented to:

Kathleen McGettigan Department of Business School of Business Letterkenny Institute of Technology Disclaimer 1 I hereby certify that this material, which I now submit in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Science in Marketing Practice is entirely my own work and has not been obtained from the work of any other, except any work that has been cited and acknowledged within the text of my work.

Signed: …………………………..…….

Disclaimer 2:

I agree that this thesis may be used by Letterkenny Institute of Technology for teaching purposes on future Masters Programmes.

Signed: …………………………..……

ABSTRACT

The importance of cultural resources for Ireland’s tourism industry is widely acknowledged. This study examines the reciprocal contribution of tourism for the sustainability of these cultural resources and the subsequent role of marketing. This research makes a worthwhile contribution to the development of thinking and practice around the marketing of cultural resources.

The research methodology represents a predominately descriptive research design with an element of exploratory research. The research process involved phase one, a survey of 224 heritage attractions in Ireland and phase two, semistructured interviews with the organisations that represent the attractions.

Marketing’s role in enabling sites to satisfy visitors’ expectations and manage their impacts without compromising authenticity is discussed. If implemented correctly, exposure and education can facilitate the appreciation of heritage resulting in tourism having a positive, rather than negative, impact on heritage sites.

The findings suggest that market research and marketing communication are vital in achieving a balance between targeting cultural tourists and tourists with no specific interest in heritage. However, they do not appear to be used to their full potential in Irish heritage attractions. An additional element of the marketing mix is identified, demarketing, a term first coined by Kotler in

1971. Demarketing may be consciously or unconsciously utilised in the efforts to control visitor volumes and impacts.

A combined commitment to visitor research by the individual heritage sites could provide information to the representative organisations to facilitate target marketing aimed at sites capable of accommodating high visitor volumes. However, a change of mindset is required among heritage practitioners regarding the uses of marketing in general, which is achievable through education, study of models of best practice, assistance and feedback.

–  –  –

Many people have contributed to this dissertation and I wish to formally acknowledge and thank these people. I owe a special debt of gratitude to the

following:

Mrs Kathleen McGettigan, my dissertation supervisor, for her guidance, motivation, and wonderful advice which was always so willingly provided during the course of this research.

Mr John Cronin, my employer, firstly for the inspiration for this research and secondly for the continued support, advice and flexible working arrangements which not only facilitated the undertaking of this dissertation, but the actual MSc in Marketing Practice course itself.

Ms Lucia King, Northern Ireland Tourist Board, Ms Maurica Lavery, National Trust, Ms Maeve McKeever, Fáilte Ireland, Ms Collette Scullion, Houses, Castles and Gardens of Ireland, Ms Helen Cole, Heritage Island and Ms Jacqueline McHale, Office of Public Works for their interview participation and willingness to provide any information requested throughout the research period and all heritage attractions that returned completed questionnaires.

All the MSc in Marketing Practice lecturers and fellow students who provided support and friendship throughout the past year, in particular, Ms Karen Campbell.

The library staff at Letterkenny Institute of Technology, especially Ms Isabel Stephenson, who was so helpful throughout the year.

–  –  –

List of abbreviations

List of figures

List of tables

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Research objectives

1.3 Researcher’s reason for interest in the subject area

1.4 Chapter outline

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Cultural Resource Management

2.3 Economic value of cultural resources

2.4 Limited supply of heritage

2.5 Cultural tourism

2.6 Marketing heritage





2.7 Packaging and Interpretation

2.8 Target Marketing

2.9 Pricing

2.10 Integrating management and marketing

2.11 Conclusion

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research objectives

3.3 Research philosophy

3.4 Research design

3.5 Data collection methods

3.6 Measurement Techniques

3.7 Sampling

3.8 Data analysis

- iii Conclusion

Chapter 4 Findings and analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Phase one: Survey

4.2.1 Demographic, ownership and admission details

4.2.2 Effect of tourism on the preservation of heritage attractions..................24 4.2.3 The extent to which visitors impact negatively on heritage attractions

4.2.4 Visitor management

4.2.5 Capacity restrictions’ influence on marketing

4.2.6 Visitor research

4.2.7 Segmentation

4.2.8 Admission price

4.2.9 Packaging and interpretation

4.2.10 Demarketing

4.3 Phase two: Semi-structured interviews

4.3.1 Effect of tourism on the preservation of heritage attractions..................39 4.3.2 The extent to which visitors impact negatively on heritage attractions

4.3.3 Visitor research

4.3.4 Segmentation and targeting

4.3.5 The promotional promise and the visitors’ on-site experience...............42 4.3.6 Pricing

4.3.7 On-site interpretation used at heritage attractions

4.3.8 Demarketing

4.3.9 Pre-booking

4.3.10 Authenticity

4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5 Conclusions and recommendations

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The extent to which tourism positively contributes to the sustainability of Irish heritage attractions

- iv The extent to which visitors impact negatively on the sustainability of Irish heritage attractions

5.4 The prevalence of capacity restrictions at Irish heritage attractions and the subsequent implications for the marketing mix

5.5 The usage of market research, segmentation and targeting at heritage attractions in Ireland

5.6 The extent to which elements of the marketing mix assist preservation in heritage attractions in Ireland and the associated authenticity implications..49

5.7 The use of demarketing as a visitor management tool

5.8 Recommendations

5.9 Strengths and limitations of the research

5.10 Research reflection

References

Appendix 1 | Heritage sites listed with representative organisations

Appendix 2 | Questionnaire covering letter

Appendix 3 | Questionnaire

Appendix 4 | Representative organisations

Appendix 5 | Semi-structured interview log

Appendix 6 | Semi-structured interview theme sheet

Appendix 7 | Transcripts of semi-structured interviews

Appendix 8 | Supplementary information from phase one primary research........122

–  –  –

CRM Cultural Resource Management CTC Canadian Tourism Commission ETC European Travel Commission HCGI Houses Castles & Gardens of Ireland ITIC Irish Tourism Industry Confederation NITB Northern Ireland Tourist Board NWHO Nordic World Heritage Office OPW Office of Public Works UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation WTO World Tourism Organisation

–  –  –

Figure 2.1: Sustainable Marketing Model………………….

……….………. 14 Figure 4.1: Ownership of heritage attractions……………………….…....… 23 Figure 4.2: Tourism’s effect on the preservation of heritage attractions……. 24 Figure 4.3: Negative impacts of visitors…………………………………..… 26 Figure 4.4: Negative impacts of visitors at sites with 10,000 visitors per month in peak season………………………………….……. 26 Figure 4.5: Role of marketing in visitor management……………….……… 28 Figure 4.6: Focus of visitor research……………………………….……….. 31 Figure 4.7: Preferred visitor types………………………………….……….. 31 Figure 4.8: Promotional tools used………………………………………..… 32 Figure 4.9: Purpose of web presence…………………………………..……. 33 Figure 4.10: Method of setting admission price………………………….…... 34 Figure 4.11: Purpose of admission price………………………………….….. 35 Figure 4.12: Management’s perception of the effect of modifications on authenticity……………………………..…….. 36 Figure 4.13: Interpretation used………………………………………….…… 37 Figure 4.14: Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge …………………………….……... 40 Figure 4.15: Skellig Michael…………………………………………….…… 40 Figure 4.16: Giant’s Causeway………………………………………..……… 44 Figure A1: Location of survey respondents……………………..…..……... 122 Figure A2: Negative impacts of visitors at sites with 2000 visitors per month in peak season……………………………...……….. 127 Figure A3: Negative impacts of visitors at sites with 2000 - 4999 visitors per month in peak season ……………………………..……….. 127 Figure A4: Negative impacts of visitors at sites with 5000 - 9999 visitors per month in peak season ………………………………..…….. 128 Figure A5: Negative impacts of visitors at sites with 10,000 visitors per month in peak season …………………………………..……… 128 Figure A6: Role of marketing in visitor management at privately owned heritage attractions ……………………………………..……… 129 Figure A7: Role of marketing in visitor management at state-owned heritage attractions……………………………………..………. 129

- vii Figure A8: Role of marketing in visitor management at charity/trust owned heritage attractions …………………………………..………… 130 Figure A9: Preferred visitor types at privately owned heritage attractions.... 131 Figure A10: Preferred visitor types at state-owned heritage attractions…..… 131 Figure A11: Preferred visitor types at charity/trust owned heritage attractions……………………………………………………..... 132 Figure A12: Method of setting admission price at privately owned heritage attractions …………………………………………………..….. 133 Figure A13: Method of setting admission price at state-owned heritage attractions …………………………………………………..….. 133 Figure A14: Method of setting admission price at charity/trust owned heritage attractions ………………………………………..…… 134 Figure A15: Purpose of admission price at privately owned heritage attractions…………………………………………………..…... 134 Figure A16: Purpose of admission price at state-owned heritage attractions.. 135 Figure A17: Purpose of admission price at charity/trust owned heritage attractions ……………………………………………………… 135

- viii LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1: Conflict between conservation and tourism………………… 26 Table 4.2: Visitor management tools imposed…………………………. 29 Table 4.3: Incentives offered to encourage access to less fragile areas… 29 Table 4.4: Capacity restrictions’ influence on marketing………………. 30 Table 4.5: Conducting marketing……………………………………….. 31 Table 4.6: Frequency of visitor research………………………………... 32 Table 4.7: Undesirable, potentially unprofitable visitors……………… 34 Table 4.8: Purpose and success of interpretation……………………….. 40 Table 4.9: National Trust visitor segments……………………………... 43 Table 4.10: Fáilte Ireland visitor segments………………………………. 44

–  –  –

1.1 Introduction Cultural Resource Management (CRM) is essentially the management, protection and preservation of cultural resources, such as archaeological sites or artefacts, for future generations (Archaeological Institute of America, 2008). By attracting fee paying visitors, many of these sites and artefacts make an economic contribution to the tourism industry.

According to Fáilte Ireland, 2006, when people think about Irish cultural resources they think of the main attractions such as Blarney Castle and Brú na Bóinne, but other attractions are being overshadowed or undersold compared to the well-known ones.

This brings to light the issue of the under-marketing of certain heritage attractions and the possible over-marketing of others. With respect to the latter of these scenarios, Drummond and Yeoman (2001), cited by Misiura (2006), advise that successful heritage tourism can threaten the assets on which it is based.



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