«APHORISTIC COMPENDIUM A tribute to Juan Magariños Oscar Fernandez Aphoristic Compendium A tribute to Juan Magariños Dialogarts Publicações ...»
A tribute to Juan Magariños
A tribute to Juan Magariños
Copyrigth @ 2010 Oscar Fernandez
Publicações Dialogarts (http://www.dialogarts.uerj.br)
DarcIlia Simões – email@example.com
Flavio García - ﬂavgarc@gmail.com.br
Cláudio Cezar Henriques – firstname.lastname@example.org
Cover Project and Design:
Equipe Labsem - email@example.com
Gisela Abad - firstname.lastname@example.org
Barbara Tannuri Maluf Simone Vieira Resende Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Centro de Educação e Humanidades Instituto de Letras Departamento de Língua Portuguesa, Literatura Portuguesa e Filologia Românica UERJ – SR3 – DEPEXT – Publicações DialogartsCATALOG RECORD F120 Aphoristic Compendium. Oscar Fernandez.
Translation: Barbara Tannuri, Maria Luisa S. Ramos e Simone Vieira – Rio de Janeiro: Dialogarts, 2010.
Publicações Dialogarts Bibliography ISBN: 978-85-8199-001-9
1. Semiotics. 2. Philosophy. 3. Science. 4. Biology. I.
Fernandez, Oscar. II.
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. III.
Departamento de Extensão. IV. Título CDD 120.121
UERJ/IL/LIPO – a/C Darcilia Simões ou Flavio García Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524 sala 11.023 – B Maracanã – Rio de Janeiro – CEP 20 569-900 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
0. Preliminary 7
1. The Aphorism 8
2. Language and body 9
3. Living Being and Interaction 11
4. Science, Technology and Consciousness 15
5. Semiotics Interactions, Nature and Resemantization 18
6. Synesthesia 21
7. Aphorism and Poetry: A Metalinguistic approach 24
8. Laughter and tears are not antagonic. 34
9. Biosemiotic and complexity 36
10. Ecopolitics and complexity 39
11. What is new in the new rationality? 42
12. From ecological to meta-complex 46
18. Bibliography 87 Sentences, maxims, sayings, adages, principles, rules, axioms, fragments, epigrams, oracles, aphorisms, in short, the many names for this minor and difﬁcult genre, but one with a longbackground dating back to Hippocrates. AndrésSánchez Pascual deﬁned its three characteristics:didactic concision, critical agility and illustrated tendency.
(José Biedma López)
0. PRELIMINARY The philosophical biology is a study ﬁeld that has a transdiciplinary tendency from which is possible to observe the emergence of new paradigms in biology, according to the worldviews of Fritjof Capra. Those paradigms have an inﬂuence on the cultural reality of humanity. From this perspective, the relationships between science & art, biopolitics & society, bioethics & education, science, ethics & society, among others, bring us closer to the complementarity view to a perspective that seeks to harmonize ideas and feelings once antagonistic (CartesianNewtonian Paradigm), in order to prove a complex and also dynamic conﬁguration which permanently autogenerates and auto-organizes itself.
That way, the materials presented today are a discursive intent to and for showing the existing complex plot in these relationships, which turns the philosophical reﬂection into a multimorphic and polyvalent enterprise.
This is the beginning of a new adventure. Welcome to the spirilic view of life. Welcome to life.
The movement direction is determined by a voting class among the cells, the colony moves towards the direction elected by the majority” (Jesper Hoffmeyer and Claus Emmeche). Biosemiotics: the metaphor of life or the semiotics of nature. (The Biosemiotics Group).
Perception is a fundamental trait for the comprehension of signical-interpretive processes of matter organization as a whole; we should, therefore, be clear about the fact that those interpretations do, and always will, go through the human neuron system.
Such interpretations will be drenched with emotions, beliefs and ideologies, though not openly expressed.
The search for regularities has absorbed most of the investigation time, while irregularities have usually been left out; this is something to be taken into account if, in fact, we wish to have a new science.
Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez
2. LANGUAGE AND BODY
Language is also a trap and theoretical biology has said little or nothing about it. The Umwelt (Subjective world, according to Uexküll) is both, integrative and diverging at the same time. The differences and the similarities between individual organisms and species are always present, and yet it still shows some harmonic patterns which allow the theoretical proximity.
The relationship Umwelt-organism feeds the world that creates them, turning this spirilic interaction (recursive/retroactive) into a sign-symbolic exchange which changes along with the subjective mind of his interpreter/ interpretant.
The basic meaning that, according to Uexküll, attributes each organism to the Umwelt, can be diversiﬁed to each one of the organisms, depending on the environmental conditions and whether it consists of an individual and /or collective relationship to be observed.
What is denominated by Uexküll as functional circle, I call functional spiral.
Actions or mental concepts, whatever came ﬁrst? The body of each organism consists of a set of many universes interacting with one another.
Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez The individual and/or collective subjectivity forms the way of the perception derived from the biosemiotic in the constitutive Umwelt of life.
We should learn with the Volvox democratic system (colonial multicelullar organism). When do we lose the Volvoxic sense of life?
Though it is true that biology has demonstrated that it is from the simple structures, such as bacteria (regarded as an evolutionary perspective) that we can study superior organisms through extrapolation; it is also true that such focus can’t be taken linearly, and that the inter-level relations which may allow such extrapolation, should be taken into consideration.
Social movements are hipercycles (hipercycle is a concept introduced by Eigen e Schuster (1979), which shows us that every organism is the result of the cooperation among a variety of self-regulating autocatalytic systems).
A cancerous tumor is more than a conglomeration of cells that grows uncontrollably, according to Raskesh Jain;
it is an organ that protects itself through a wall of tubes.
An organism is able to change the very world that creates it, co-creating itself with the rest of the surrounding organisms and with whatever co-exists with it symbiotically. Human being: an ecosystem of ecosystems.
The living being is the instance for the required interaction;
There is no life outside cooperation; the rest is just neo Darwinian bias.
There has got to be a distinction between culture and civilization.
Culture is a set of beliefs and values pertaining to a community in particular. Civilization is what can be transmitted from one
community to another:
techniques, knowledge, science, etc. For instance, the western civilization I refer to, which has also globalized itself, is the one deﬁned by its scientiﬁc, technical and economical development set.
And it is this very civilization that, nowadays, has contributed with more negative than positive effects, that needs renovation, in other words, a civilization policy.
We must create articulated minds rather than divided ones, incapable of establishing the dialog between instrumental and content.
The former ones, underdeveloped.
Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez The evident necessity of a shift in how to see and do politics in the world is most obvious; at the moment, the capitalist world is experiencing one of its worst crises, which also affects its values system. The competence, depredation, and the survival of the more capable ones are placed under suspicion whenever the latter can see the other side of the coin, especially in the so-called ﬁrst world countries (a concept that needs to be revised, just as developed countries do too).
Unlikely many might believe, the symbiotic relations (mutualism and/or cooperation), are much more frequent in nature than in human skills. I am not trying to say that there are no skills, but that this western civilization has primarily privileged skill rather than cooperation, as one of the fundamental values.
Cooperation is viewed as a sign of weakness, or as a hesitant tool used to destroy the enemy (army, sports group). Under this perspective, the possibilities to conduct a change that enables us to see the potentials of others, not as a threat, but as an opportunity, are not, at this point, very close at hand as we wish it could be.
That is the reason why the idea of a civilizing policy that unites rather than confront us, is more than necessary, it is imperative. The review of this form/structure passes through the review of former valid and immutable Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez values/beliefs; in such sense, a civilizing course is also an essentially ethical course.
Nothing new has been said so far, once the crisis of values has been discussed for some time now, and that is why the change needs to be profound; for instance, on
one hand, we have been lectured about virtues, such as:
respect among people, honesty, solidarity, etc.; however, in a tacit matter, they encourage us to compete, and that is when those supposed ideal virtues are signiﬁcantly reversed by skills; this is when we may ﬁnd individuals that are able to be more honest, respectable or supportive than others and, in the pursue of such need, are able to do whatever it takes to obtain it.
Therefore, that enables us to see how skills actually were, and still are, a mechanical essence of almost all human actions. They certainly play an important role in our evolution, but they are not, to my understanding, the most important ones. Skills are usually additives, of a nearly instinctive nature;
I surprised myself, trying to walk faster than another person on the street, only for the pleasure of doing so.
And that does not concern a matter of good or evil, but the possibility of observing and using it, from a much more aware than instinctive perspective. This all leads us to a paradox of our society, which is essentially Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez competitive, a paradox that consists of the obligation of being competitive or else, be outrun.
All of this is possible once we observe situations through a competitor’s perspective. I might be meddling into a spiritual affair, which, by the way, is one often neglected by competitors, for it is considered unimportant; on the other hand, there are others who believe the spiritual consists of invoking a Deity (saint in Christianity) to win the confrontation or the conﬂagration; but those do no more than turn this competitive instance into a magical-religious belief that it is, curiously, contrary to the very same religious rules;
for example: the wars in the name of God.
In this ﬁeld, there is man and woman, god/goddess that as limited and egocentric beings, create deities in his image and likeness, and not the other way round.
A path is just a path, and it is not shameful, neither for your own self, nor for others, to give it up, if your heart tells you so... Thoroughly observe each of them (read the paths). Put them to the test as many times as you think you should. Then, ask yourself, and nobody else: Is there a heart in this path? If it is such, it is a good path; if not, it is good for nothing. (Carlos Castañeda. The Teachings of Don Juan) Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez The civilizing spin is not just a political one, but also a spiritual spin, and it is where the former trivial and superﬂuous demands a relevant concernment; we cruise up to the outer space of forgetfulness, where we rescue poetry, magic, beliefs, cooperation, mutual respect, complementarily, silence, and peace, not as metaphor but as part of a reality that pulsates with us in every step, in every breath. What we do or think should also go through this review, once it is proved that we are essentially contradictory beings; and we understand ourselves as such, when we believe the division of labor helps reinforce this condition. In western society, we ﬁnd individuals that dedicate themselves to think for others and there are the ones who dedicate themselves to do for others; the division that seemed to be, at ﬁrst, a functional cut, established itself in the human soul emphasizing an existential division of humanity.
4. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND
CONSCIOUSNESSScience with consciousness, science or antiscience, subversive science, multi-science, trans-science, etc, are just some epithets that could go along with the title above, and that, out of respect for the readers, Aphoristic Compendium | Oscar Fernandez were kept for the sake of the humble development of those ideas that aim originality.
We intended to gather some of them, which, throughout the history of mankind, allow us to present other possible scientiﬁc and technological perspectives for a better world, not only for humans, but also for all planetary existence.