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«Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) and ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the urban environments of Bydgoszcz and its vicinities Mszyce (Hemiptera: ...»

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Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2013, 14(1), p.157-168 DOI: 10.5513/JCEA01/14.1.1175

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) and ground beetles

(Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the urban environments

of Bydgoszcz and its vicinities

Mszyce (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) i biegaczowate

(Coleoptera: Carabidae) w środowiskach

zurbanizowanych Bydgoszczy i okolicy

Janina BENNEWICZ, Ewa ŻELAZNA, Tadeusz BARCZAK *, Małgorzata

BŁAŻEJEWICZ-ZAWADZIŃSKA, Monika LIK and Jagienka LEWIŃSKA

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, 85-225 Bydgoszcz, ul. Kordeckiego 20; tel. +48 52 3749448, *correspondence tadbar@utp.edu.pl

ABSTRACT

The subject of this study was aphids (Hem., Aphidinea) in particularly valuable environments called “environmental islands”. In fact, they are specific refuges of beneficial and protected entomofauna in the agricultural landscape. The results can contribute to verification of protection of some arable crops by taking those habitats into consideration in the so-called natural biological pest control. Towns, in turn, are specific ecosystems which are composed of many factors with a clearly different character and intensity than in natural environments. On account of the important role and a small degree of knowing Carabidae fauna in urbanized areas, a study was undertaken in 1998 in Bydgoszcz and its neighbourhood, aimed at indicating hanges that occur in the fauna of Carabidae in various types of urban green and town protection zone, as well as determining the role of these environments as reservoirs of entomophagous species, which can disperse to agrocenoses.

Keywords: aphids, Carabidae, midfield thickets, urban environments, plant protection, nature conservation

STRESZCZENIE

Przykładem szczególnie cennych środowisk są tzw. zarośla śródpolne (inaczej wyspy środowiskowe), które są refugiami entomofauny pożytecznej i chronionej w krajobrazie rolniczym. Przedmiotem badań w tym względzie były zgrupowania mszyc (Hem., Aphidinea). Ich rezultaty mogą przyczynić się do zweryfikowania programów ochrony niektórych upraw rolniczych poprzez uwzględnienie tzw. naturalnego Bennewicz et al.: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) And Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) I...

biologicznego zwalczania szkodników. Z kolei miasta to specyficzne ekosystemy, na które składa się szereg czynników o charakterze i natężeniu wyraźnie odmiennym niż w środowiskach naturalnych. Ze względu na rolę a zarazem słaby stopień poznania fauny biegaczowatych w aglomeracjach, kontynuowane są zapoczątkowane w roku 1998 w Bydgoszczy i okolicy badania, których celem jest wykazanie zmian, jakie zachodzą w faunie Carabidae w różnych typach zieleni miejskiej i otulinie miasta, a także określenie roli tych środowisk jako rezerwuarów gatunków entomofagicznych, mogących dyspergować do agrocenoz.

Słowa kluczowe: mszyce, Carabidae, zarośla śródpolne, środowisko miejskie, ochrona roślin, ochrona środowiska

DETAILED ABSTRACT

Celem podjętych badań było określenie składu gatunkowego i liczebności mszyc (Hemiptera., Aphidinea) oraz epigeicznej fauny chrząszczy z rodziny biegaczowatych (Coleoptera, Carabidae), w różnych typach środowisk miejskich i podmiejskich.

Przedmiotem badań były mszyce, odławiane do żółtych pułapek Moericke’a w półnaturalnych siedliskach w okolicy Bydgoszczy w dolinie rzeki Wisły. Pułapki były ustawione na wysokości roślin zielnych. Na każdej powierzchni badawczej umieszczono po trzy pułapki w odległości 10 m w rzędzie, pułapki opróżniano co 10 dni w okresie wegetacji. Badane siedliska znajdowały się w sąsiedztwie pól uprawnych, stanowiąc swoiste miedze śródpolne. Obiektem innej części badań były zgrupowania biegaczowatych zasiedlające różne rodzaje zieleni miejskiej w granicach urbanizacyjnych Bydgoszczy oraz w lasach podmiejskich. Stosowane pułapki Barbera były zakładane transektowo i bez przynęt, po około 20 w rzędzie.

Obserwacje nad tą grupą owadów prowadzono przez okres czterech lat (2000-2003).

Pułapki były wykorzystywane w okresie od maja do września w każdym sezonie badawczym, a chrząszcze wybierano z nich co 5-7 dni. Wśród odłowionych przez trzy lata (1997- 1999) około 20 gatunków mszyc, najliczniej notowane były: Phorodon humuli, Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis fabae, Aphis sambuci, Microlophium carnosum, Hyalopterus pruni, Dysaphis crataegi, Cavariella aegopodii i Sitobion avenae.

Podsumowując wyniki dotyczące mszyc należy stwierdzić, że często gatunki mszyc uważane za „szkodniki”, jak R.padi i A.fabae, bądź nie zasiedlały licznie badanych siedlisk, bądź traktowały je prawdopodobnie jedynie, jako miejsca do dalszej dyspersji. Z kolei, w oparciu o uzyskany z czterech lat materiał dotyczący chrząszczy epigeicznych, stwierdzono występowanie na badanym obszarze aż 93 gatunków Carabidae, co stanowi około 36 % biegaczowatych notowanych na terenie Pomorza i Kujaw. Z badanych powierzchni odłowiono 9683 osobniki tych chrząszczy.

Najzasobniejszymi w gatunki okazały się tereny zielone w Bydgoszczy (87 gatunków), znacznie mniej (44 gatunki) zanotowano ich z obszarów leśnych w otulinie miasta, co potwierdza wyniki badań innych autorów. Wśród odłowionych biegaczowatych do chronionych zalicza się wszystkie gatunki z rodzaju biegacz (Carabus) oraz z rodzaju tęcznik (Calosoma), a inne gatunki były entomofagiczne, w tym afidofagiczne.





Bennewicz et al.: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) And Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) I...

INTRODUCTION

Studies have been undertaken for many years concerning the use of entomophages associated with midfield thickets in the so-called “natural biological pest control” (Ehler, 1990)This is connected with the need for determination of the biological potential of these habitats, in order to utilize them optimally for IPM (Integrated Pest Management) (Powell, 1986). Bearing this in mind, it is possible to influence the topography of the agricultural landscape, or, in a wider sense, the arable lands, so that it would include appropriate types of trees, shrubs or other midfield thickets, also referred to as environmental islands (Banaszak ed., 1998) As fragments of the socalled ecological corridors, in the Kujawy and Pomerania region they compose one large corridor, and at the same time a route of fauna dispersion of European importance, which is the Toruń - Eberswalde Proglacial Stream Valley, with a particular consideration given to the Vistula river valley. At the present stage of the study, the results indicate a positive effect of the species diversity of phytophagous insect communities living in midfield thickets on the occurrence of beneficial fauna, particularly natural enemies of aphids (aphidophages), being of importance e.g. in the agrocenoses of beet, poppy or faba bean (Hurej, 1982; Barczak, 1993), or species under legal protection, such as some Carabidae, including aphidophages, as well (Barczak, et al., 2000, 2002; Barczak, 2003), and so-called umbrella species (Pawłowski and Witkowski, (1999)2000; Żelazna and Błażejewicz-Zawadzińska, 2003, 2004).

In town ecosystems, in turn, urbanization to a large extent eliminates typical habitats of various animal species and drives out the fauna living there previously. Retaining the existing urban green and creating de novo aeras of this type within the limits of towns and in their protection zones, which would enable a further development of networks of the above-mentioned so-called ecological corridors, is of essential importance in the processes of shaping the urban environment (Davis and Glick, 1978). Such biologically active areas, with a relatively high species diversity, can make a food base and provide places of living and nesting for groups of organisms inhabiting them in urban environments. Moreover, they can also be a source of dispersion of invertebrates to suburban agricultural environments (e.g. Barczak, 1993). The aim of this study was to estimate the species diversity and number of aphids (Hem., Aphidinea) and epigeic fauna of the family of ground beetles (Col., Carabidae), in various types of urban and suburban environments in the Vistula river valley.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The subject of this study were aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidinea) caught in yellow Moericke’s traps in semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of Bydgoszcz, in the valley of the Vistula river. The traps were situated at the height of herbaceous plants. Three traps were placed in each research area at a distance of 10 m in a row. The traps were emptied every 10 days during the growing season. The tested habitats were situated in the neighbourhood of fields, constituting specific midfield boundaries. In habitats s I and s II trees and shrubs occurred, whereas habitats s III and s IV were overgrown by herbaceous plants. In habitat s I Salix alba L. dominated, as well as Sambucus nigra L. and Rosa canina L. And of herbaceuous plants, Urtica dioica L.

and Elymus repens Gould. Habitat s II was dominated by shrubs Prunus spinosa L., Crataegus sp. and Rhamnus cathartica L. and open places were overgrown by rich Bennewicz et al.: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) And Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) I...

herbaceous vegetations with Fragaria vesca L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Chenopodium album L. and large amounts of E. repens. In habitats s III and s IV, in turn, herbaceuous plants prevailed, with a predominance of U. dioica, E. repens, Tanacetum vulgare L. and Solidago gigantea Aiton.The subject of another part of the study were ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) inhabiting various types of urban green areas within the urban limits of Bydgoszcz (Popular Park, Załuski Park, the Planty on the Old Canal, the vicinity of the airport, Smukała), and in suburban forests (Myślęcinek, Las Gdański, Las Jastrzębie). The Barber traps were set transversely, without bait, about 20 in a row. Observations of this group of insects were carried out during four years (2000-2003). The traps were used in the period from May to September in each research season, and beetles were collected from them every 5-7 days. Insects collected in the given environments were compared using the Shannon-Weaver formula, where differences between its values were assessed by means of the Hutcheson test (Hutcheson, 1970), using the analysis of variance.

According to Klimaszewski et al. (1980), the following subgroups of aphid species were distinguished: D4 - a very numerous species (a dominant), constituting more than 20 % of material collected in the given habitat; D3 - a numerous species (a subdominant), represented by 10.1 - 20 % of the total number of specimens; D2 - a quite numerous species (a recedent), ranging from 3 to 10 % of collected material;

D1 - a rare species, (a subrecedent) - represented by less than 3 % of total number of specimens. In the case of Carabidae, the scale of domination was determined according to the proposal of Górny (1975). A similarity of ground beetle fauna of the tested areas was also determined using the Bray-Curtis dendrogram, following the program BioDiversity Pro.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Among the twenty or so species of aphids caught in three years (1997- 1999), these the most frequently recorded were: Phorodon humuli (Schrank), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Aphis fabae Scop., Aphis sambuci L., Microlophium carnosum (Buck.), Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy), Dysaphis crataegi (Kalt.), Cavariella aegopodii (Scop.), and Sitobion avenae (Fabr.). The other species occurred individually in various habitats and years (Table 1, Figure 1). Aphid count in the case of the most abundant species ranged from less than 69 % in habitat s III, to 90 % in habitat s I (Table 1, Figure 1). The results concerning aphids indicates that two species can pose a potential threat for agricultural crops: Rhopalosiphum padi (cereal pest) and Aphis fabae (mostly the pest of beet), occurring numerously in the tested habitats and years. R. padi prevailed in habitats s I, s II and s III, whereas A. fabae in s I and s III (Table 2). Additionally, the habitats were dominated by aphid species feeding on various species of wild plants, including black thorn - Phorodon humuli, the species which prevailed in all the tested habitats. The species A. sambuci, in turn, feeding on common elder, was the most numerous among the caught aphids only in habitat s I, Dysaphis grataegi (occurring on hawthorn) in habitat s III, and C. aegopodii - the aphid feeding on willow, was the most numerous in habitat s IV. The most codominating species of aphids were observed in habitat s I and s II (Table 2).

Bennewicz et al.: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) And Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) I...

Table 1. Number of aphid species in individual habitats (1997-99) Tabela 1.

Liczebność gatunków mszyc w poszczególnych siedliskach (1997-99)

–  –  –

100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

–  –  –

Figure 1. Percentage share of aphid species occurring in tested habitats: s I, s II, s III, s IV – see abbreviations in the text (1997-99) Rycina 1.

Procentowy udział gatunków mszyc występujących w badanych siedliskach: s I, s II, s III, s IV (1997-99) Bennewicz et al.: Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidinea) And Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) I...

Table 2. Domination indexes of aphid species occurring in tested habitats (data from 1997-99)* Tabela 2.

Wskaźniki dominacji gatunków mszyc występujących w badanych siedliskach (dane z lat 1997-99)*

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